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derd thousand pounds to assist, if necessary, the people of Upper Canada; moreover, in doing so, the House actually rose and "gave three cheers for the loyal people of Upper Canada, and three cheers for Her most gracious Majesty Queen Victoria."
From the Lieutenant-Governor of New Brunswick I received the following communication:—
"Government House, Frederickton, "SlR, Jan. 28, 1839.
"In compliance with the desire of the General Assembly of this Province, I have great pleasure in transmitting to your Excellency the sum of one thousand pounds voted by the House of Assembly, and warmly concurred in by the Legislative Council, for the purpose of being applied, under your Excellency's directions, to the relief of the immediate necessities of such of their loyal fellowsubjects in the Canadas and their families, as have been sufferers from the recent inroads by brigands from the United States.
"I cannot refrain from acquainting your Excellency that this, the first vote 'in supply' of the present Session by the representatives of the people of this loyal Province, was passed by them not only without a single dissentient voice, but literally by acclamation, the whole House rising (as would have done the whole people) and cheering upon the occasion.
"I have the honour to be, &c.,
(Signed) "J. Harvey."
At this moment of triumph, effected, not by me, but by the intrinsic merit of British institutions I had sworn to uphold, it is a matter of history that I was relieved from the post I was occupying for having refused, during the conflict in which I had been involved, to select and raise to the bench Mr. Bidwell, the late Speaker of the republican minority, who, in consequence of having advocated "responsible government," had lost his election and seat in the House, and who, on the breaking out of the rebellion, had self-convicted retired to the United States, where of his own accord he publicly abjured his allegiance to the British Crown.
In the amicable adjustment of every question of dispute between individuals of high honour, or between nations of high character, there are certain words to which most especial importance has invariably been attached, and first and foremost in this vocabulary stands the word "APOLOGY."
In every case in which an individual has received unjustifiable insult, or in which a nation has reasonably complained of aggression, reparation has usually been demanded either by the payment of money, or by the offending party consenting to use towards the other the word "apology." A man of honour does not want more, cannot take less; and this has always been so clearly understood, that in the amicable settlement of cases of this nature it has been customary for the advocate of the offended party to say to the advocate of the offending party, " Use but the word 'apology' and you may accompany it with almost, whatever other words you may think proper, but that detergent word must be 'pronounced.'"
Now, as regards the case of the 'Caroline,' the facts are shortly as follows :—
So long as the citizens of the United States were firing their State artillery upon the unoffending subjects of the Queen of Great Britain the Federal Government at Washington saw no great reason for complaining of the policy of forbearance I had been pursuing; but the instant that the British force, after a fortnight's endurance, presumed, in self-defence, to strike a solitary blow in return, the President of the United States (vide his message to Congress, and other papers printed and laid before Parliament) declared the act "an outrage," and demanded for it from the Queen of Great Britain "atonement and reparation."
Now, as this demand involves considerations of the highest importance, I deem it necessary to state the following facts previous to offering a few observations on the subject.
1st. Within a few days of the capture of the 'Caroline,' the Governor of New York directed a Commissary-General of no very great capacity to recover, if he could, the State artillery from Navy Island.
The following extraordinary and very honest letter, addressed by this gentleman to Sir Allan MacNab, and which has been printed and published in Upper Canada, is the official evidence of an American officer, showing very clearly the practical working of republican institutions:—
To Colonel MacNab, commanding the British Forces on the
Niagara Frontier. "Sir,
"Enclosed I send you a copy of a letter from Van Ransalaer, that you may the better appreciate the embarrassing situation in which I am placed.
"From the first moment after my arrival on this frontier, down to the present time, I have sedulously endeavoured to accomplish the purposes of my mission by every pacific and moderate measure which my own or the ingenuity and wisdom of my advisers could suggest, and all without the slightest success.
"For your kind and generous forbearance and courtesy during the pendency of our negotiations I tender you my grateful acknowledgments.
"I can ask for nothing more at your hands; and if the poor deluded beings who have encamped on Navy Island are slain, their blood be upon their own head—not mine. "I have, &c, (Signed) "Henry Arctjlarius,
2nd. Besides the occupation of Her Majesty's territory of Navy Island by " General Van Ransalaer," and the firing upon the inhabitants of Sandwich by the American " Major-General T. S. Sutherland, commanding second division of the Patriot Army," an American force, armed with new United States muskets, had landed on another part of Canada (Point Pelee), and after killing and wounding thirty of Her Majesty's soldiers, under the command of Colonel the Honourable S. Maitland, had returned to the territory of the United States.
3rd. About the same time another part of Upper Canada (Bois Blanc Island) was invaded by five hundred armed American citizens, who, besides firing upon or imprisoning all Her Majesty's subjects whom they could find, carried off to the United