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the loss of three thousand men, and shut him up in Alexandrium. They were, however, prevented from coming to extremities by the intervention of the mother of Alexander, through whose mediation a treaty of peace was concluded upon; Alexander surrendering all his castles, which were immediately razed to the ground, and being himself dismissed with pardon and impunity.*

After this arrangement, Gabinius proceeded to Jerusalem, and confirmed Hyrcanus in the high priesthood, but changed the form of the civil government, by depriving him of the regal or princely power, abolishing the great and inferior Sanhedrims, dividing the whole of Judea into five provinces, and establishing a supreme and independent government in each of the following places, viz. Jerusalem, Jericho, Gadara, Amathus, and Sepphoris.

Aristobulus and his son Antigonus having made their escape from Rome, and being joined by Pitholaus, formerly a partisan of Hyrcanus, soon collected an army and possessed himself of Alexandriuin and fortified it; and proceeding towards Macherus with the same object, was overtaken by Sisenna, a son of Gabinius, with his two lieutenants, Antonius and Servilius, who defeated him with the loss of five thousand men; and having taken Macherus where he had retreated, made bim and his son Antigonus prisoners, and sent him back to Rome, but Antigonus was released according to the promise made by the Roman general.

Gabinius having engaged to restore Ptolemy Auletes to the throne of Egypt, and to dispossess Archelaus,ll the then

• Prid. ii. 529. + Prid. ij. 530. | Prid. ii. 532.

Or the piper. Prid. ii. 496. | His father was one of the generals of Mithridates; but having afterwards joined the Romans, he was by Pompey made high priest of the moon, the great goddess of the Comanfans, in Pontus, with

reigning monarch, sent forward M. Antonius to seize the passes ; in which he was much assisted by Hyrcanus and Antipater, who provided the Romans with supplies, and gave them letters to the Jews residing at Onion, by whose assistance Antony was enabled to make himself master of Pelusium.*

Whilst Gabinius was in Egypt with the main body of the Roman forces, Alexander, the eldest son of Aristobulus, collected together a large army and destroyed a great number of the Romans, and drove the rest to take refuge in mount Gerizim, where he besieged them. But, upon the return of the Roman general, a battle took placet between their respective armies, in which Alexander was defeated with the loss of ten thousand men, when Gabinius going to Jerusalem, settled all things there according to the mind of Antipater.

Crassus, having succeeded Gabinius in the province of Syria, marched to Jerusalem for the purpose of seizing upon all the treasures in the temple; when Eleazer, one of the priests, aware of his iniquitous object, offered to discover to him a concealed bar of golds if he would take an oath to spare all the rest. Upon receiving the shining treasure, however, it only served to inflame his cupidity; for in violation of his

sovereign authority over the inhabitants of the place ; of whom no fewer than six thousand persons were devoted to the service of that goddess. He afterwards became king of Egypt, by marrying Berenice, the daughter of Ptolemy Auletes. Prid. ii. 502, 528.

• Prid. ii. 534.
+ Near mount Tabor. Jos. iii. 274.

Prid. ii. 536. f of the weight of three hundred Hebrew minæ ; and which for better security had been put into a beam, which he had caused to be made hollow for the reception of it; and placing this beam over the entrance which was from the holy place into the holy of holies, caused the veil which parted these two places to be hung thereat. Prid. ii. 538.

oath, he plundered the temple of all its wealth, to the amount of £2,000,000 of our money, or ten thousand talents.*

On the death of Crassus, at the battle of Carrbæ,t the command of the routed remains of the Roman army devolved upon Cassius, who retreated with it into Syria; and, having recovered Tyre, laid siege to Tarichæa, a city on the lake of Gennesareth, where Pitholaus, with the remaining partisans of Aristobulus, had shut themselves up. Having taken the place, Cassius made all the garrison captives, except Pitholaus, whom he put to death by the advice of Antipater; and afterwards forced Alexander to accept of terms of peace.

The jealousies between Pompey and Julius Cæsar having at length involved the whole Roman empire in a civil war; one of the first acts of the latter, on coming to Rome, was to liberate Aristobulus from his confinement, and placing two legions under his command, to send him home to Jerusalem, with instructions to raise Syria, Phænicia, and Arabia in favour of the Cæsarean interest. Some of Pompey's partisans, however, contrived to poison him on his march; and his son Alexander having raised some forces in expectation of his father's arrival, he was arrested by Q. Metellus Scipio, and being carried to Antioch, and condemned by a formal trial, was beheaded by the orders of Pompey.

The next public transaction in which the Jews bore a conspicuous part was when Cæsar, having imprudently followed Pompey after the battle of Pharsalia, into Egypt, with too small a number of forces, became shut up in Alexandria, and

. Prid. ii. 539. + He was repeatedly misled by pretended deserters from the enemy, who at last conducted him into bogs and morasses, where both he and his army were cut to pieces ; for being justly destined to destruction on account of his impious sacrilege at Jerusalem, God cast infatuations into all his counsels. Prid. ii. 543. Prid. ii, 544.

s Prid. ii. 549.

found himself in danger of being overpowered by the Egyptians in the interest of Ptolemy, Cæsar having formed an illicit connexion with, and, therefore, favouring the interests of, his sister Cleopatra.* Having dispatched Mithridates, one of the sons of Orodes, king of Parthia, to collect and bring him succours from Syria, and the neighbouring provinces, he was furnished by Antipater and Hyrcanus with a large auxiliary force of Jews, the former marching at their head and displaying great prowess throughout the Alexandrian war,t besides rendering the additional service of inducing the Jews who inhabited the city of Onion to declare in favour of Cæsar. I In return for these services, before Cæsar quitted Egypt, he confirmed the Jews in the enjoyment of all their ancient privileges in Alexandria; and ordered a pillar to be erected, whereon, as well the privileges themselves, as his decree confirming them, were inscribed.

Nor was this all the advantage which Antipater derived from his Egyptian expedition, for Cæsar having at length left Alexandria in order to resist the inroads of Pharnaces, king of Pontus, in passing through Syria; he was applied to by Antigonus, the surviving son of Aristobulus, who besought him to adopt the interests of his family, urging as a claim that both his father and brother had lost their lives in his cause; making, at the same time, heavy complaints against

Prid. ii. 557. + In a temple, called the Serapeum, at Alexandria, Ptolemy Soter and his successors collected and deposited a famous library. And another in a museum or college in a particular part of the same city, called Bruchium. During this war, the library at Bruchium, with four hundred thousand volumes, was accidentally burned ; as was the Serapeum, with its subsequent valuable addition, by the Saraeens, (A. D. 612.) upon the ground that the Coran alone was necessary for mankind. Prid. ii. 33. 35. See p. 357. | Prid, ii, 562.

Prid. ii, 564,

both Antipater and Hyrcanus. The interest of the former, however, was so great, and such his influence over the Roman commander, and so necessary was he become to the Romans, that he not only refused to listen to the representations of Antigonus, but confirmed Hyrcanus in the office of high priest and the principality of Judea, to him and his family in perpetuity, appointing Antipater, at the same time, to be procurator of Judea under him; and directed that his decree should be engraven in tables of brass and Latin, and be hung up in the capitol of Rome, and in the temples of Tyre, Sidon, and Askalon, in Phænicia.*

By virtue of this decree, Antipater settled the civil government of Judea under Hyrcanus, in the same manner as it had been previous to the ordinances of Gabinius, all of which he abolished, and appointed Phasælus, his own eldest son, governor of Jerusalem, and Herod, his second son, governor of Galilee.t

One of the first acts of the latter prince, who was then in the vigour of youth, was to suppress a gang of banditti who invested and ravaged Galilee and the neighbouring parts; and having taken Hezekiah, their ringleader, with several of their associates, he put them all to death, and thus attracted the notice and favour of Sextus Cæsar, the president of the province. I

Those, however, who envied the growing greatness of Antipater and his family, represented this transaction to Hyrcanus as a violation of the laws by putting the above men. tioned depredators to death without a legal trial, and induced him to summon the young governor before the Sanhedrim. Herod appearing there clothed in purple, and surrounded by his guards, neither Hyrcanus nor any other member of the Sanhedrim durst accuse him, except Sameas, who not only

• Prid. ii. 565.

Prid. ii. 569.

+ Prid. ii. 568.

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