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when Herod returned they soon overpowered the hostile party, and recovered Massada and all the other fortresses. They also upbraided Hyrcanus for ingratitude, but that breach was healed by Hyrcanus giving his granddaughter Mariamne to be betrothed to Herod. *

Antigonus, the youngest son of Aristobulus, was still living, and uniting himself with the remainder of the Malichæans, and being assisted by Marion, king of Tyre, Fabius, governor of Damascus, and Ptolemy, prince of Chalcis, raised a considerable army with the professed object of recovering his father's throne and authority. But Herod having met him on the confines of Judea, defeated him, and recovering wbat Marion had taken in Galilee, he returned to Jerusalem in triumph. #

The decisive battle of Philippiß having placed the whole Roman empire at the command of the triumvirs,|| Antony assumed the government of the Asiatic and African provinces, and affected more than regal state. Amongst other

• Prid. ji. 597. + The first of these engaged in this cause, out of the hatred he bore to Herod; the second, for the money which was given to hire him into it; and the last, by reason of the affinity that was between their families ; for he had married a sister of Antigonus. Prid. ii. 587. # Prid. ii. 588.

s Prid. ij. 586. || Mark Antony, Augustus, and Lepidus. 1 Wherever he came, after his arrival in those parts, he had his chamber door every morning thrunged at his levce by kings and princes from the eastern countries, or by ambassadors from others of them, to solicit his favours and several of them brought with them their wives and daughters, that, prostituting them to his lust, they might thereby the better obtain their ends. Prid. ji. 588. We have another instance how little regard was at this time paid to the law of Jehovah (Lev. xix. 29.); and how sunk in debauchery the whole world was, including the Jews, from the circumstance that Antigonus

ambassadors and suppliants, several Jews of rank and consequence applied to him against Phasael and Herod; but the latter were so firmly settled in his good opinion, and Herod had bribed him so effectually, that they met with no success. On the other hand, other ambassadors came from Hyrcanus praying for the restoration of the lands and territories which Cassius had taken from them, and also for the redemption of those Jews whom he had sold into captivity, and these petitions were immediately granted.*

Having arrived at Daphne, near Antioch, one hundred of the principal Jews came to him with renewed complaints against the sons of Antipater, when he gave them a bearing and demanded of Hyrcanus, who was present, whom he thought the most proper person to conduct the civil government under him; and upon his declaring in favour of the two brothers, he appointed them to be tetrachs,† and committed all the affairs of Judea to their management, and imprisoned fifteen of the ambassadors, whom he would have put to death if Herod had not interceded for them. Such, however, was the discontent of the Jews, that notwithstanding their former discomfiture and narrow escape, upon Antony's coming to Tyre, no less than one thousand of them came to him with reiterated complaints against the two brothers; and which the imperious Roman construing into a tumultuous contempt of his former decision, ordered his troops to fall upon them, when they slew and wounded a great many. I

Whilst Antony was living in the grossest criminality with

hesitated not to enter into a contract with the king of Parthia, to give up to him five hundred Jewish women, which must be taken to be for the purposes of lust. Prid. ii. 594. Well might our Lord say, (Luke, xviii. 8.) When the Son of Man cometh, shall be find faith on the earth ? And well might he say so still, even in this professing country.

• Prid. ii. 588. + Prid. ii. 589. | Prid. ii. 589.

the infamous Cleopatra at Alexandria, the Parthians, with Labienus and the remains of the Pompeian faction, had invaded Syria with a powerful army; and having taken Sidon and Ptolemais, sent a detachment towards Judea, with the avowed purpose of setting Antigonus up as king of that country; upon a contract to deliver to Pacorus, the Parthian monarch, one thousand talents and five hundred Jewesses. Antigonus having collected an army of Jews near mount Carmel, and being joined by the Parthian general, marched into Judea, and defeating an army that was sent against him, followed them into Jerusalem; but being vigorously opposed by the two brothers, took shelter in the mountain of the temple, whilst the Herodians seized upon the palace. As the feast of Pentecost was approaching, and multitudes Hocked to the city from all quarters, the waste of human blood became shocking even to the perpetrators, and Antigonus proposing to leave their disputes to the decision of the Parthian general,* to which, the two brothers having acceded, he was received into Jerusalem with five hundred horse, and lodged in Phasael's house; into whose confidence he so effectually insinuated himself, as to prevail upon him, contrary to the advice of Herod, to go with Hyrcanus upon an embassy to Barzaphanes, the prefect of Syria under Pacorus.

Phasael and Hyrcanus were at first received by the Parthian general with distinguished honour, but he soon threw them into chains, a fate which had been also intended for Herod, but which he escaped by a sudden fight from Jerusalem, with his family, and such troops as he could hastily collect.

* Pacorus, cupbearer to Pacorus, the son of Orodes, king of

Parthia. Prid. ij. 592.
† Prid. ii. 594.

In his retreat towards Massada, * he was repeatedly assaulted, both by the Parthians and Jews of the hostile faction, in several of which he obtained the advantage.t

On coming to Ressa, he was joined by his brother Joseph, with a large body of forces, but on his arrival at the fortress of Massada, he was obliged to dismiss nine thousand. Having placed eight hundred in the castle with his mother, sister, and other women of quality he brought with him from Jerusalem, and victualled the place, he left Joseph in command of it, and then marched with the troops whom he had retained to Petra, in Arabia, to seek the assistance of Malchus, who had succeeded Aretas in the throne of that country. But Malcbus, unmindful of the favours he had received from Herod, ordered him to quit his territories, upon which, dismissing most of his followers, he fled to Rhinocorura in Egypt.

When the Parthians discovered the flight of Herod, they plundered Jerusalem and the neighbouring country, and then made Antigonus king of Judea, and gave Phasael and Hyrcanus up to him in chains. Anticipating that he should undergo a capital punisbment, Pbasael beat out his brains against the wall of the prison; and Antigonus having cut off the ears of Hyrcanus, in order to render him ever after incapable of exercising the office of high priest,|| delivered him

A castle built on the top of a very high mountain, near the west side of the lake Asphaltites, and the strongest fortress in all that country. Prid. ii. 595. Jos. iv. 261.

+ It was in memory of one of these successful conflicts, which was fought with the Jews of the party of Antigonus, at the distance of about seven miles from Jerusalem, that he afterwards built a famous palace called Herodium. Prid. ii. 593. Jos. ii. 302. iii. 289.

See p. 169.
§ Prid. ji. 596. See. p. 122. Now El-Arish.

# Lev. xxi, 16–24.

back again to the Parthians in order that his presence might not keep alive the hostile faction, and by them Hyrcanus was carried to Seleucia.*

But Antigonus had done but half his work whilst Herod was at liberty, for that able prince having gone from Rhinocorura to Rome, was there, by the joint interest of Octavius Cæsar and Mark Anthony, inaugurated by the senate king of Judea, t apparently without any original intention of his own. I


Herod löst no time in rejoining his fleet which he had left at Brundusium, whence he sailed with all possible expedition to Ptolemais; and then raised the siege of Massada,g which had been closely invested by Antigonus,ll and after taking


* Prid. ii. 596. † His utmost object seems to have been to have counteracted Antigonus, by obtaining the kingdom for Aristobulus, his brotherin law ; but Anti:ony having suggested that it would be very advantageous to him in prosecuting the Parthian war, the senate made him king, contrary to their usual custom, which was scarcely ever to travel out of the regal line ia whatever countries they subdued. Prid. ii. 598.

On the rising of the senate, Herod was conducted by the consuls and other magistrates up to the capitol, Octavianus going on one side of him and Anthony on the other; and the decree being there deposited among the public records of the state, he was thereon solemnly inaugurated into the kingdom, according to the Roman usage. Prid. ii. 599. Where his mother, sister, and Mariamne, his betrothed mistress,

were shut up. Prid. ii. 599. || They were so closely invested by Antigonus, that at one time they were absolutely without water, and were about to have broke

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