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may well rejoice at the recent victories; for they teach us that battles are to be won now, and by us, in the same and only manner that they were ever won by any people, or in any age, since the days of Joshua, — by boldly pursuing and striking the foe. What, under the blessings of Providence, I conceive to be the true organization of victory and military combination to end this war, was declared in a few words by Gen. Grant's message to Gen. Buckner, - •I propose to move immediately upon your works.'”
Grant, who had spoken in the highest terms in his special report of “the brilliant charge of Gen. Smith,” recommended him also for promotion to a majorgeneraley; and he was accordingly appointed, and confirmed by the Senate.
Gen. Smith died in about two months after the capture of Donelson, from disease contracted in the Mexican War and the exposures of this campaign. It illustrates the characters of both Gen. Grant and Gen. Smith to mention that Gen. Smith was commandant at West Point when Grant was a cadet. He was also so much Grant's senior in years, that, when the latter found Gen. Smith under his command, he felt a little delicacy in issuing orders to his old instructor. Sunith at once perceived this; and, with the instinct of the gentleman and the soldier, said to Gen. Grant, “Let nothing in our past relations embarrass you in issuing to me any orders you think best: I am a soldier, and know my duty.”
“ Thus," says Wordsworth, " these two things, contradictoryas they seem, must go together, — manly dependence and manly independence.”
While these events were transpiring in camp, how different was the scene at the same hour in the peaceful cities and villages of the North ! It was a Sabbath morning when Fort Donelson surrendered; the churchbells were ringing: and thousands of fathers, mothers, sisters, and brothers, were remembering and praying for their loved ones, far away on the tented field; little thinking, that, in a few hours, their cheeks would blanch and their hearts sicken at the tidings that the dear ones would come home no more. Already, on the banks of the Cumberland, they were sleeping the sleep of the brave.
“ There are glad hearts and sad hearts
By millions to-day,
For Donelson's capture,
For Donelson's slain.”
BATTLE OF SHILOH.
HE capture of
T'dicea a great effect throughout the whole country.
It was the largest number of soldiers ever captured in any battle on the continent, and first drew the attention of the nation to Gen. Grant as the “coming man.
The North welcomed the victory as establishing a new era in the war, the era of active, offensive, persistent attack. Grant's words, “I propose to move immediately on your works,” were everywhere quoted, and became a watchword throughout the country.
The Cumberland and Tennessee Rivers were opened ; Nashville, the capital of Tennessee, fell; Columbus was abandoned ; Bowling Green evacuated; and the States of Kentucky and Tennessee were rescued from the rebel armies.
While preparing for the attack on Fort Donelson, Grant had asked Sherman, with whom he was not then on any terms of special intimacy, for troops and supplies. Sherman forwarded them with great vigor, and, although the senior officer, wrote to Grant as follows: “ I will do every thing in my power to hurry forward your re-enforcements and supplies; and, if I could be of service myself, would gladly come without making any question of rank with you or Gen. Smith.”
These two distinguished men, thus brought together, ever after acted in entire harmony; no envy, no jealousy, except for the honor of each other. Their natures were different, but well formed to act together. Their official relations ripened into a personal friendship, never yet interrupted, and fortunate alike for their own fame and their country's glory.
Gen. Grant was assigned to the district of West Tennessee, and on the 23d of February issued the following order :
The major-general commanding this department desires to impress upon all officers the importance of preserving good order and discipline among these troops and the armies of the West during their advance into Tennessee and the Southern States.
Let us show to our fellow-citizens of these States that we come merely to crush out this rebellion, and to restore to them peace and the benefits of the Constitution and the Union, of which they have been deprived by selfish and unprincipled leaders. They have been told that we come to oppress and plunder. By our acts we will undeceive them. We will prove to them that we come to restore, not violate, the Constitution and the laws. In restoring to them the glorious flag of the Union, we will assure them that they shall enjoy under its folds the same protection of life and property as in former days.
Soldiers, let no excesses on your part tarnish the glory of our arms. The orders heretofore issued from this department in regard to pillaging, marauding, and the destruction of private property, and the stealing and concealment of slaves, must be strictly enforced. It does not belong to the military to decide upon the relation of master and slave. Such questions must be settled by the civil courts. No fugitive slave will, therefore, be admitted within our lines or camps, except when especially ordered by the general commanding. Women and children, merchants, farmers, and all persons not in arms, are to be regarded as non-combatants; and are not to be molested, either in their persons or property. If, however,
they assist and aid the enemy, they become belligerents, and will be treated as such. As they violate the laws of war, they will be made to suffer the penalties of such violation.
Military stores and public property of the enemy must be surrendered; and any attempt to conceal such property, by fraudulent transfer or otherwise, will be punished. But no private property will be touched, unless by order of the general commanding.
Whenever it becomes necessary, forced contributions for supplies and subsistence for our troops will be made. Such levies will be made as light as possible, and be so distributed as to produce no distress among the people. All property so taken must be receipted fully, and accepted for as heretofore directed.
These orders will be read at the head of every regiment, and all officers are commanded strictly to enforce them.
By command of Major-Gen. HALLECK. W. H. McLEAN, Adjutant-General.
By order of Maj.-Gen. U. S. GRANT. J. A. RAWLINS, A. A. G.
At this time, a coldness occurred between Gen. Halleck and Gen. Grant, which the former afterwards explained to have been caused partly by the failure of colonels of regiments to report to him on their arrival, and partly from an interruption of telegraphic communication. During the few weeks in which it continued, Gen. Grant submitted to the displeasure of his superior in the best temper and spirit, and telegraphed from day to day as follows:
“I am not aware of ever having disobeyed any order from your headquarters, — certainly never intended such a thing. ... In conclusion, I will say that you may rely on my carrying out your instructions in every particular, to the best of my ability. . . . I did all I could to get you returns of the strength of my command. Every move I made was reported daily to your chief of staff, who must have failed to keep you properly posted. I have done my very