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to be sent within the rebel lines; upon which they were taken by an Iowa officer, and the circumstance reported to headquarters. The slaves soon after, understanding the full import of Gen. "Halleck's Order No. 3, attempted to escape: they were pursued by a detachment of Missouri militia in the pay of the United States; and one was actually shot by the pursuing party.
Senator Wilson of Massachusetts had introduced a bill in Congress forbidding all officers from returning fugitive slaves; and this was followed by legislation of a similar character.
Gen. Grant forth with gladly issued orders that fugitive slaves should be enrolled, and regulated the relation of these refugees to the army within his department.
During the summer, Gen. Grant, by active and constant cavalry reconnoissances, kept himself thoroughly posted as to the position and movements of the rebel forces; and had for some time been secretly forwarding troops north in aid of movements for the protection of Cincinnati and Kentucky before it was known to the enemy. Early in September, the rebel commanders in the South-west determined to unite in an attack on Grant's position. Gen. Braxton Bragg, as a piece of consummate strategy, while really at Chattanooga in Tennessee preparing to move towards the Ohio River, issued an order dated at Sparta, a small town in the south of Alabama. The warlike associations with the name of Sparta perhaps secured for it the honor of being used by Gen. Bragg for the purpose of deceiving the Union commander.
But Gen. Grant, though not a resident of the ancient
city or the modern village, was too much of a Spartan by nature to be in the least deceived by the order or its author. He immediately telegraphed to Rosecrans at Tuscumbia, putting him on his guard.
Van Dorn and Price, early in September, began moving toward the Tennessee; Price striking east of Grant, as if for Kentucky; while Van Dorn threatened Corinth.
On the 18th of September, Gen. Grant ordered Generals Rosecrans and Ord to advance upon Iuka, where a severe engagement took place on the afternoon of the 19th. Gen. Grant had intended that Ord and Rosecrans should unite early in the morning of that day: but Rosecrans had been deceived and misled by a rebel spy who had secured his confidence, and remained with him until an hour or two before the fight; and he was also detained by the terrible condition of the roads and the thickly-wooded country. The troops fought well ; held their ground: and in the night the enemy fled with a loss of 1,438, our army entering Iuka the next morning. But Grant, owing to the fact that Rosecrans and Ord did not unite as expected, failed to destroy Price's whole force as he had intended.
Price was prevented from advancing into Kentucky, or holding his force in full strength until Van Dorn could join him in a united attack on Corinth.
The North at this time was threatened with invasions in" Maryland and Ohio. Pope and McClellan were superseding each other on the Potomac ; and Grant's troops were constantly being ordered east to their support. This weakened and embarrassed. him ; and to hold his own with diminished forces caused him the
greatest anxiety and perplexity, as his despatches at this time abundantly testify.
Price retreated to Ripley, Miss., united with Van Dorn, and, on the 2d of October, appeared before Corinth with thirty-eight thousand men, where Rosecrans was now stationed with nineteen thousand men. Grant was at his headquarters at Jackson. On the 3d of October, they attacked Corinth with full force. Grant had ordered Rosecrans to attack; but the enemy were so confident of victory, they did not wait for this, but attacked, and drove Rosecrans back to the defences, of which Grant's quick eye had seen the need on first examining the position of Corinth, and which he had constructed as soon as Halleck left for Washington. The rebel attack was renewed on the 4th with great confidence and valor; but it was everywhere repulsed. Rosecrans had skilfully placed his guns, and induced the enemy to attack, where, when they opened, their men would go down in swaths. On they came; then the guns with their grape and canister, a flash, a loud report, and the rebels went down in hundreds. It was hard iron shells and balls ploughing through soft, warm flesh and blood. But on they came.
“The rebel soldiers,” said an eye-witness, “ marched steadily to death, with their faces averted like men striving to protect themselves against a driving storm of hail.”
The Confederate Congress had recently substituted the new rebel flag, the stars on a cross, instead of the “stars and bars ” first used. The new flags were borne that day. The Parrott guns make terrible slaughter. A Texan, Col. Rogers, is about to charge at the head of his regiment. He seizes the new flag in one hand, and,
with a revolver in the other, rushes forward at the head of his men. He has not been hit: he mounts the
parapet, waves the new flag, and falls headlong a corpse into the Union intrenchment, with five men by his side, riddled with bullets.
Grant, though“ absent in body, was present in mind.” He had ordered McPherson to march from Jackson with re-enforcements for Rosecrans : he arrived during the fight, in the rear of Price and Van Dorn; and, by eleven o'clock in the forenoon, the defeat of the enemy was complete.
Grant had anticipated this, even, and had sent Hurlbut and Ord, four thousand strong, to the Hatchie River, forty miles away, to strike them in flank as they retreated; which was done on the 5th with fine effect, capturing a battery of artillery and several hundred
Grant had determined to capture Van Dorn and his whole army, and would be satisfied with nothing less. He had informed Rosecrans of the march of Ord and Hurlbut to Hatchie River, and directed him to pursue immediately, even as far as Bolivar. The character of commanders is often seen in the energy with * which the fruits of a well-earned victory are seized and followed up. The army that is allowed to “ fight and run away can fight another day," but, if mercilessly pursued, is often demoralized, scattered, and broken up. Rosecrans' men had fought two days (though mostly behind their intrenchments), and were fatigued, hungry, and weary; but Grant had ordered them to pursue. One day of pursuit would give them peace and rest for a long time. Rosecrans reported, “ I rode all over our lines, announcing the result of the fight in person ;” or
dered the troops to rest, and start the next morning in
Grant was displeased and chagrined at the failure to obey his orders implicitly. It did not quite suit his taste either for a commander to ride about his army, announcing his victory in person, at any time, and especially when under orders to advance and follow up the retreating enemy. He did not wish any one to eat or sleep, or glorify a victory, until all had been wrung from it that it could possibly be made to yield. Pursue, disperse the enemy, take the last prisoner, the last musket, before you rest or sleep. This spirit animated Grant in all his battles on the Tennessee, the Cumberland, the Potomac. It made him Lieutenant-General, and carried him in triumph to the final scene on the Appomattox. “ The longer I live," said Fowell Buxton, “ the more I am certain that the great difference between men, between the feeble and the powerful, the great and the insignificant, is energy, invincible determination, a purpose once fixed, and then death or victory! That quality will do any thing that can be