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done in this world; and no talents, no circumstances, no opportunities, will make a two-legged creature a man without it."

But Rosecrans and his men had fought nobly, and received the gratitude of the country. The Union loss was about 2,359; of whom 315 were killed, the remainder wounded and missing. “Our loss,” says Pollard, was probably double that of the Federal forces." President Lincoln telegraphed as follows:

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WASHINGTON, D.C., Oct. 8, 1862. MAJOR-GEN. GRANT, - I congratulate you, and all concerned, in your recent battles and victories. How does it all sum up? I especially regret the death of Gen. Hackelman; and am anxious to know the condition of Gen. Oglesby, who is an intimate personal friend.


Gen. Rosecrans was made a major-general of volunteers, and ordered to Cincinnati to supersede Gen. Buell as commander of the Army of the Cumberland. The battles of Iuka and Corinth had both been planned and fought by Grant, in his brain, before the armies met: the victories were the result of his orders. If they had been more strictly obeyed, the results would have been far larger. But he was quiet, and put forth no claims: he

: did not stand tiptoe, and shout, “ I did it!” He did not receive the credit he deserved. The victory was ours : who had won it was of less consequence to Grant. He was not a demonstrative man. He had about him no “ fuss and feathers," — not enough to attract early notice. His words were few, his manners simple: he assumed nothing. As soon as he had won a great victory, he set to work planning how to win another, and did not get leave of absence to run up to show himself in the hotels at Cincinnati and Washington. Such a man was so great a novelty, that he had to be observed and studied to be appreciated. But his time was coming: not even his own modesty, great as it is, could conceal his merits. “ The truth is, that Grant's extreme simplicity of behavior, and directness of expression, imposed on various officers both above and below him. They thought him a good, plain man, who had blundered into one or two successes, and who, therefore, could not be immediately removed; but they deemed it unnecessary to regard his judgment, or to count upon his ability. His superiors made their plans invariably without consulting him; and his subordinates sometimes sought to carry out their own campaigns in opposition or indifference to his orders, not doubting, that, with their superior intelligence, they could conceive and execute triumphs which would excuse or even vindicate their course.

On the 16th of October, Gen. Grant's department was designated as the Department of the Tennessee,” and was extended to include the State of Mississippi, in which was Vicksburg.

It was divided by Gen. Grant into four districts, under Generals Sherman, Hurlbut, Hamilton, and Davies.

The Administration was desirous that the State of Tennessee should resume her loyal position. It was thought that Gen. Grant's victories rendered it an auspicious time to address the people. The following document, written by Abraham Lincoln, united, perhaps for the first time, the names of Gen. Grant and Andrew Johnson ; and, in view of recent events and the discus

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* Badeau.


sions on reconstruction, will be read with interest. The remarks about "peace again upon the old terms of the Constitutionsound strangely now after the great and irrevocable events we have witnessed.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, WASHINGTON, Oct. 21, 1862. Major-Gen. GRANT, Gov. Johnson, and all having military, naval, and civil

authority under the United States within the State of Tennessee, The bearer of this, Thomas R. Smith, a citizen of Tennessee, goes to that State, seeking to have such of the people thereof as desire to avoid the unsatisfactory prospect before them, and to have peace again upon the old terms under the Constitution of the United States, to manifest such desire by elections of members to the Congress of the United states, particularly; and perhaps a legislature, State officers, and a United States senator, friendly to their object. I shall be glad for you, and each of you, to aid him and all others acting for this object as much as possible. In all available ways, give the people a chance to express their wishes at these elections. Follow law, and forms of law, as far as convenient; but, at all events, get the expression of the largest number of the people possiUle. All see how much such action will connect with and effect the proclamation of Sept. 22. Of course, the men elected should be gentlemen of character, willing to swear support to the Constitution as of old, and known to be above reasonable suspicion of duplicity. Yours very respectfully,


The Emancipation Proclamation of President Lincoln was issued in January, 1863; and was thus cordially welcomed by Gen. Grant:


MILLIKEN'S BEND, LA. Corps, division, and post commanders will afford all facilities for the completion of the negro regiments now organizing in this department. Commissaries will issue supplies, and quartermasters will furnish stores, on the same requisitions and returns as are required from other troops.

* It is expected that all commanders will especially exert themselves in carrying out the policy of the Administration, not only in organizing colored regiments and rendering them efficient, but also in removing prejudice against them.

By order of or-Gen. U. S. GRANT. JOHN A. RAWLINS, A. A. G.



T had long been predicted that the Valley of the




America. When Napoleon was negotiating the cession of Louisiana, he said, “ The nation which controls the Valley of the Mississippi will eventually rule the world.” Its importance in a civil war was early

“ The Valley of the Mississippi,” says De Tocqueville, “is the most magnificent dwelling-place prepared by God for man's abode.” The river enriches

area of nearly one million and a half of square miles, – six times the size of the empire of France. Fifty-seven rivers, some of them a thousand miles in length, contribute to swell its waters. It is the monarch of rivers. The Indians called it “ the Father of Waters.” “The possession of the Mississippi River is the possession of America,” said Gen. Sherman. “Assist in preserving the Mississippi River,” said Jefferson Davis to the citizens of Mississippi, at Jackson, “ that great artery of the Confederacy, and thus conduce, more than in any other way, to the perpetuation of the Confederacy and the success of the cause."

66 There is not one drop of rain that falls over the whole vast expanse of the North-west that does not find its home

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