Annual Report of the United States Geological Survey to the Secretary of the Interior, Band 4,Teile 1882-1883

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U.S. Government Printing Office, 1884
 

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Seite 111 - The bottom was covered with lava, and the south-west and northern parts of it were one vast flood of burning matter, in a state of terrific ebullition, rolling to and fro its " fiery surge
Seite 112 - The agitated mass of liquid lava, like a flood of melted metal, raged with tumultuous whirl. The lively flame that danced over its undulating surface, tinged with sulphureous blue, or glowing...
Seite 111 - ... pyramids of brilliant flame ; and several of these at the same time vomited from their ignited mouths streams of lava, which rolled in blazing torrents down their black indented sides, into the boiling mass below.
Seite 112 - The gray, and in some places apparently calcined, sides of the great crater before us ; the fissures which intersected the surface of the plain on which we were standing ; the .long banks of sulphur on the opposite side of the abyss ; the vigorous action of the numerous small craters on its borders ; the dense columns of vapour and smoke that rose at the north and south...
Seite 111 - But instead of this, we found ourselves on the edge of a steep precipice, with a vast plain before us, fifteen or sixteen miles in circumference, and sunk from 200 to 400 feet below its original level. The surface of this plain was uneven, and strewed over with large stones and volcanic rocks, and in the centre of it...
Seite 112 - ... feet lower. It was evident that the large crater had been recently filled with liquid lava up to this black ledge, and had, by some subterranean canal, emptied itself into the sea, or upon the low land on the shore...
Seite 114 - All usual ideas of volcanic craters are dissipated upon seeing this. There is no elevated cone, no igneous matter or rocks ejected beyond the rim. The banks appear as if built of massive blocks, which are in places clothed with ferns nourished by the issuing vapours. What is wonderful in the day becomes ten times more so at night. The immense pool of cherry-red liquid lava in a state of violent ebullition illuminates the whole expanse and flows in all directions like water, while the illuminated...
Seite 114 - ... York might be placed within it, and when at its bottom would be hardly noticed, for it is three and a half miles long, two and a half wide, and over a thousand feet deep. A black ledge surrounds it at the depth of six hundred and sixty feet, and thence to the bottom is three hundred and eighty-four feet.
Seite 111 - ... feet, and rose from a wide horizontal ledge of solid black lava of irregular breadth, but extending completely round. Beneath this ledge the sides sloped gradually towards the burning lake, which was, as nearly as we could judge, three or four hundred feet lower.
Seite 67 - It is evident that the production statistics of such incongruous substances as iron ore, metallic gold and silver ; the spot value of coal mined and the market value of metallic copper after having been transported hundreds of miles; the spot value of a crude substance like unground, unrefined barytes, and the value of a finished product like brick (in which the cost of manufacture is the leading item), .such details cannot well be taken as items in a general summary. The statistics have been compiled...

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