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THE

HIS TO RY

OF

THE REBELLION AND CIVIL WARS

IN

ENGLAND,

BY

EDWARD EARL OF CLARENDON.

ALSO,

HIS LIFE, WRITTEN BY HIMSELF.

I New Edition,

ILLUSTRATED WITH FIFTY-SIX PORTRAITS.

IN TWO VOLUMES.

VOL. II.

OXFORD:

Printed at the University Press.
SOLD BY WILLIAM SMITH, 113, FLEET STREET, LONDON.

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1648.)

The affairs of Ireland during the lord Lisles being in that country.

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THE

HISTORY OF THE REBELLION, &c.

BOOK XI.

Deut. xxix. 24. Even all nations shall say, Wherefore hath the Lord done thus unto this land ? what

meaneth the heat of this great anger ? LAM. Ü. 7. The Lord hath cast off his altar, he hath abhorred his sanctuary, he hath given up into the

hand of the enemy the walls of her palaces; they have made a noise in the house of the Lord, as in the day of a solemn feast. TF a universal discontent and murmuring of' get the command of an army for the subduing I the three nations, and almost as general a the rebels in Ireland. Cromwell had, for the detestation both of parliament and army, and quieting the clamours from thence, got the lord a most passionate desire that all their follies Lisle, eldest son to the earl of Leicester, sent and madness might be forgotten in restoring under the title of lord lieutenant of that kingdom the king to all they had taken from him, and thither, with a commission for five or six months. in settling that blessed government they had He had landed in Munster, either out of the deprived themselves of, could have contributed jealousy they had of the lord Inchiquin, or to his majesty's recovery, never people were because the best part of their army of English better disposed to erect and repair again the were under his command in that province. But building they had so maliciously thrown and that expedition gave the English no relief, nor pulled down. In England there was a general weakened the power or strength of the Irish, discontent amongst all sorts of men; many but rather increased their reputation by the officers and soldiers who had served the parlia- faction and bitterness that was between the ment from the beginning of the war, and given lieutenant and the president, who writ letters too great testimonies of their courage and fidelity of complaint one against the other to the par(to their party), and had been disbanded upon liament, where they had both their parties which the new model, looked upon the present army adhered to them. So that, the time of his with contempt, as those who reaped the harvest commission being expired, and the contrary and reward of their labours, and spake of them | party not suffering it to be renewed, the lord and against them in all places accordingly : the Lisle returned again into England, leaving the nobility and gentry who had advanced the credit lord Inchiquin, whom he meant to have deand reputation of the parliament by concurring stroyed, in the entire possession of the comwith it against the king, found themselves totally mand, and in greater reputation than he was neglected, and the most inferior people pre- before. And, in truth, he had preserved both ferred to all places of trust and profit: the with wonderful dexterity, expecting every day presbyterian ministers talked very loud; their the arrival of the marquis of Ormond, and party appeared to be very numerous, and the every day informing the parliament of the ill expectation of an attempt from Scotland, and condition he was in, and pressing for a supply the importunity and clamour from Ireland, for of men and money, when he knew they would supplies of men and money against the Irish, send neither. who grew powerful, raised the courage of all Upon the return of the lord Lisle the presbydiscontented persons to meet and confer together, terians renewed their design, and caused sir and all to inveigh against the army, and the William Waller to be named for deputy or officers who had corrupted it. The parliament lieutenant of Ireland, the rather (over and above bore no reproach so concernedly, as that of “ the his merit, and the experience they had had of “ want of supplies to Ireland, and that, having his service) because he could quickly draw to“ so great an army without an enemy, they gether those officers and soldiers which had “ would not spare any part of it to preserve served under him, and were now disbanded, and “ that kingdom.” This argument made a new would willingly again engage under their old warmth in the house of commons, they who had general. At the first, Cromwell did not oppose been silent, and given over insisting upon the in- this motion, but consented to it, being very solence and presumption of the army, which had willing to be rid both of Waller, and all the prevailed, and crushed them, took now new spirit, officers who were willing to go with him, who and pressed the relief of Ireland with great he knew were not his friends, and watched an earnestness, and in order thereunto made great opportunity to be even with him. But when he inquisition into the expenses of the money, and saw Waller insist upon great supplies to carry how such vast sums received had been disbursed; with him, as he had reason to do, and when he which was a large field, and led them to many considered of what consequence it might be to men's doors upon whom they were willing to be him and all his designs, if a well formed and revenged.

disciplined army should be under the power of There was a design this way to get the presby- Waller, and such officers, he changed his mind; terians again into power, and that they might I and first set his instruments to cross such a sup

do

ply of men and money, as he had proposed; from prison, and to restore the parliament to its " the one, as more than necessary for the ser- | freedom. The earl of Peterborough, and John “ vice; and the other, as more than they could | Mordaunt his brother, the family of the earl of “ spare from their other occasions :” and when Northampton, and all the officers who had this check was put to Waller's engagement, he served the king in the war, with which the caused Lambert to be proposed for that expe- city of London and all parts of the kingdom dition, a man who was then fast to the same abounded, applied themselves to the earl of interest he embraced, and who had gotten a great Holland, and received commissions from him for name in the army. He formalized so long upon several commands. this, that Ireland remained still unsupplied, and This engagement was so well known, and so their affairs there seemed to be in a very ill generally spoken of, that they concluded that the condition.

parliament durst not take notice of it, or wished The Scots made so much noise of their pur- well to it. And there is no question, never unposes, even before their commissioners left Lon- dertaking of such a nature was carried on with so don, and gave such constant advertisements of little reservation; there was scarce a county in the impatience of their countrymen to be in arms England, in which there was not some associafor the king, though they made no haste in pro- tion entered into to appear in arms for the viding for such an expedition, that both the king. They who had the principal command presbyterians, who were their chief correspon- in Wales under the parliament, sent to Paris to dents, and the royal party, bethought them- declare, “ that, if they might have supply of arms selves how they might be ready; the one, that “ and ammunition, and a reasonable sum of money they might redeem themselves from their former “ for the payment of their garrisons, they would guilt, and the other, that they might not only “ declare for the king, having the chief places of have a good part in freeing the king from his “ those parts in their custody." The lord imprisonment, but be able to preserve him in Jermyn encouraged all those overtures with liberty from any presbyterian impositions, which most positive undertaking, that they should they still apprehended the Scots might endeavour be supplied with all they expected, within so to impose, though they had no suspicion of many days after they should declare; which the engagement (lately mentioned] at the Isle they depended upon, and he, according to his of Wight.

custom, never thought of after ; by which the The earl of Holland, who had done twice very service miscarried, and many gallant men were notoriously amiss, and had been, since his return lost. from Oxford, notably despised by all persons of Cromwell, to whom all these machinations were credit in the parliament and the army, had a known, chose rather to run the hazard of all that mind to redeem his former faults by a new and such a loose combination could produce, than, thorough engagement. He had much credit by by seizing upon persons, to engage the parliadescent and by alliance with the presbyterian ment in examinations, and in parties; the inconparty, and was privy to the undertakings of venience whereof he apprehended more ; finding Scotland, and had constant intelligence of the already that the presbyterian party had so great advance that was made there. His brother, the an influence upon the general, that he declared earl of Warwick, had undergone some mortifi- to him, “ he would not march against the cation with the rest, and had not that authority,“ Scots," whom he had a good mind to have in the naval affairs as he had used to have, visited before their counsels and resolutions though he was the high admiral of England by were formed; and Cromwell had reason to ordinance of parliament, and had done them believe, that Fairfax would be firm to the same extraordinary services. He did not restrain or mind, even after they should have invaded the endeavour to suppress the earl of Holland's kingdom. discontents, but inflamed them, and promised All things being in this forwardness in Engto join with him, as many others of that gang land, it is fit to inquire how the Scots complied of men did; resolving that the Scots should with their obligations, and what expedition they not do all that work, but that they would have used in raising their army. After the coma share in the merit. The duke of Buckingham, missioners' return from London, upon the king's and his brother, the lord Francis Villiers, were being made prisoner in the Isle of Wight, it newly returned from travel, and though both was long before the marquis of Argyle could under years, were strong and active young be prevailed with to consent that a parliament men, and being, in respect of their infancy, should be called. He had made a fast friendunengaged in the late war, and so unhurt by it, ship with Cromwell and Vane; and knew that and coming now to the possession of large in this new stipulation with the king, the Hamilestates, which they thought they were obliged tonian faction was the great undertaker, and to venture for the crown upon the first opportu- meant to have all the honour of whatsoever nity, they fell easily into the friendship of the earl should follow. And yet the duke lived very of Holland, and were ready to embark themselves privately at his own house, had never seen the in his adventure. The earl had made tender of king, nor went abroad to any meeting after his his resolutions to his old mistress the queen at return to Scotland; and to those who came to Paris, who was always disposed to trust him, him, and to whom that resolution would be and the lord Jermyn and he renewed their former grateful, he used to speak darkly, and as a man friendship, the warmth whereof had never been that thought more of revenge upon those who extinguished.

had imprisoned him, than of assisting the crown And a commission was sent from the prince to recover the authority it had lost. Argyle, to the earl to be general of an army, that was whose power was over that violent party of the to be raised for the redemption of the king clergy which would not depart from the most

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