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teenth century, sought after in its own day all over Europe. Better known to our generation is the glorious stained glass, which later ages have struggled, and struggled wholly in vain, even to approach. Tiles, enamels, bookbindings, illuminations, all offer examples to which modern art can turn for inspiration.

There is little need to emphasize the love of beauty in the middle ages. It was considered a mark of the gentleman to know something about architecture. The king, the statesman, the bishop was artist as well, and all the Plantagenet Kings seem to have made some study of architecture and the other arts, and they heaped honours on such men as William of Wykeham, 1324-1404, who could add to the beauty of the surroundings of life. We remember how Richard I, when visiting his new castle, the Chauteau Gaillard, stood back, lost in admiration, and then exclaimed, "Is she not fair, my one year old ?”

Mediaeval costume was beautiful as compared with our own and the mediaeval festa and pageant, if less beautiful than the PanAthenaïc procession, was a scene of colour and beauty that our drab-coloured people can not parallel. There is often a tendency to forget how great the achievements of our

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mediaeval forefathers were in the realm of pure art. Take sculpture, for instance, which we are wont to think of as belonging rather to the age of Greece or the Renaissance. The sculpture of the Middle Ages is quite different, it is true, but has a wonderful charm about it nevertheless. It is less serious perhaps as a whole than Greek sculpture and there is often a degree of playfulness about it which would surprise one in Greek work. It is not so masterly, of course, in its technique, but it is full both of grace and character. Much of it is extraordinarily subtle and delicate, with a delightful sweep of line and simplicity of effect. Its best examples are full of expression and character, carefully studied and most artistically treated. The French work is, on the whole, better than English, but it is all full of fascination and it will be found a singularly attractive study by those who care to pursue it. It is true that there is not much free sculpture, but both the architectural work and the smaller work in wood and ivory show masterpieces to be ranked among the great work of the world.

Even painting was carried to a very high degree of excellence, particularly in England, which was ahead of the rest of Europe, al

though we rush over in crowds to see distinctly inferior work among the early masters of Italy.

Again the artistic side of the literature of the Middle Ages must not be overlooked. Poetry and belles lettres were not the possession of a select few, but the possession of the people as a whole. We have such things as the "Chansons de Geste," the Arthurian Cycle, “The Romance of the Rose.” There were the Trouvéres and the Troubadours in France and the Meistersingers and Minnesingers in Germany; and no one can forget Chaucer or the exquisite thirteenth century lyrics in our own language, such as "Sumer is icumen in" or the unsurpassable “Alisoun," or again in other fields such masterpieces as "Pearl' or "The Knight of the Green Girdle.”

It was undoubtedly an age of art and the portion of our disc that represents art can be filled. So we turn to the moral side and what do we find here? We find that we speak of these ages as the ages of faith and we also describe them as the ages of chivalry. There was about them an earnestness of moral purpose and religious endeavour, marred, as we shall see, by its crudity, but nevertheless such that many a modern reformer would be glad

to see the same devotion, the same self-sacrifice, the same enthusiasm and zeal.

It may have been wrong headed, but think of the religious pilgrimages, think of the undying generosity and fervid self-abandonment of the people who built the great cathedrals. In England alone with a population of under two millions and without our wealth and modern appliances or means of transit, there were built between three and four hundred great churches of cathedral size during the single century from 1090 A. D. onward.

However we may criticize the Middle Ages we must admit the spirit of high moral purpose at the back of the superstition and the more uncouth elements of the age, and we cannot deny that the second portion of the disc must be shaded in its turn.

But when we turn to the intellecual side of life what do we see? Do we see as in Greece that burning desire for knowledge and truth for truth's sake, no mattter where it led, no matter what heartburnings it might cause at first or what prejudices it might overset, that man might reach the calm light of the true and eternal that nothing can quench.

Was it an age of learning and universal education such as we saw in Athens? We must

confess that it was not so, that it was a rare thing for a layman to be able even to read or write. John, King, of Bohemia, could not read even so late as the middle of the fourteenth century, nor Philip the Hardy, King of France, although he was the son of St. Louis. Perhaps the most striking fact is that even authors themselves not infrequently were unable to read or write, as for instance, Wolfram von Eschenbach, the composer of the Parzival.

Intellectual activity, of course, there was of a kind; but it was narrow and starved and in spite of the universities and the monastic schools, which were practically confined to those taking orders, it really did not touch either the upper classes, except the clerics, or the masses of the people. The scholasticism of the Middle Ages, although exhibiting a power of mental gymnastic, which within its limits was very remarkable, was a poor thing compared with the philosophy of Greece from which it was descended. It lacked the freedom and entire disinterestedness of Greek thought. The schoolmen were engaged mainly in solving problems arising from their study of the works of Aristotle and relating these to Christian theology. Aristotle was their authority and they did not seek to go behind the authority,

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