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ness; to be concerned much more to per. snade than to please. lle will generally please most, when pleasing is not his sole

11. por chief aim. This is the only rational

Means of improving in Eloquence, and proper method of raising one's self above that timid and bashful regard to I have now treated fully of the diitean audience, which is so ready to discon• rent kinds of public speaking, the com • cert a speaker, both as to what he is to position, and of the delivery of a dissay, and as to his manner of saying it.

Before I finish this subjeci, it I cannot conclusie, without an earnest may be of use to suggest some things admonition to guard against all affecta

concerning the properest means of im. tion, which is the ceriain ruin of good provement in the art of public speaking, delivery. Let

your manner, whatever it and the most necessary studies for that is, be your own; neither imitated from

purpose. another, nor assumed upon some imagi- To be an eloquent speaker, in the nary model, which is unnatural to you. proper sense of the word, is far from Whatever is native, even though accom

being either a common or an easy attainpanied with several defects, yet is likely meni. Indeed, to compose a florid hato please; because it shows is a man;

sangue on some popular topic, and to dee because it has the appearance of coming liver it so as to amuse an audience, is a from the heart. Whereas a delivery, 'at. matter not very difficult. But though tended with several acquired graces and some praise be due to this, yet the idea, beauties, if it be not easy and free, if it which I have endeavoured to give of betray the marks of art and affectation, eloquence, is much higher. It is a great never fails to disgust. To attain an ex.

exertion of the human powers. It is the tremely correct and perfectly graceful art of being persuasive and communding; delivery, is what few can expect; so many the art, not of pleasing the fancy merely, natural talents being requisite to concur but of speaking boih to the understandni forming it. But to attain, what as to ing and to the heart : of interesting the the effect is very little inferior, a forcible hearers in such a degree, as to seize and and persuasive manner, is within the carry them along with us; and to leave power of most persons; if they will only them with a deep and strong impression unlearn false and corrupt habits ; if they of what they have heard. How many lawill allow themselves to follow nature, lents, natural and acquired, must conand will speak in public, as they do in

cur for carrying this to perfection! A privaie, when they speak in earnest, and strong, lively, and warm imagination ; from the heart. If one bas naturally any quick sensibility of heart, joined with gross defects in his voice or gestures, he solid judgment, good sense, and presence begins at the wrong end, if he attempts of mind; all improved by great and long at reforming the only when he is 10

attentivo to style and composition ; and speak in public : he should begin with supported also by the exterior, yet imzrctifying them in his private manner of portant qualifications, of a graceful manspeaking and then carry to the public

ner, a presence not unigainly, and a full the right babit he has formed. For when

and tuneable voice. How lilile reason to a speaker is engaged in a public dis- wonder, that a perfect and accomplished couise, he should not be then employing

orator should be one of the characters his attention about his manner, or think

that is most rarely to be found ! ing of his tones and bis gestures. If he

Let us not despair, however. Between be so employed, study and affectation mediocrity and perfection there is a very will appear. He vughi to be then quite wide interval. There are many intermein earnest ; wholly occupied with his sub- diate spaces, which may be filled up with ject and his sentiments ; leaving nature, honour; and the more rare and difficult and previously formed habiis, to prompt that complete perfection is, the greater and test bis manner of delivery, is the honour of approaching to it,

though we do not fully attain it. The number of orators who stand in the highest class is, perhaps, smaller than the number of poets who are foremost in poetic fame; but the study of oratory


that, in poetry, one i ly good performer, able;

Mediocrib Non homines, non Di, non

In eloquence this do
one may possess a mi
dignity. Eloquence a
many different forms; pla..

ūly mon, as well as high and paihetic ;

with attention nius that cannot reach the latter, may

it a secret partiasbine with much reputation and useful liry in favour or tnat side which he espon. Tess in the former.

ses. . . Whereas, if we entertain a suspi. Whether pature or art contribuie most cion of craft and disingenuity, of a cor to form an orator, is a trifling enquiry. rupt or a base mind, in the speaker, his In all attainments whatever, nature must

eloquence loses all its real effect. It may be the prime agent.

She must bestow entertain and amuse ; but it is viewed as the original talents. She must sow the artifice, as trick, as the play only of seeds, but culture is requisite to bring speech ; and, viewed in this light, whom those seeds to perfection. Nature must

can it persuade? We even read a book

with always have done somewhat ; but a great

more pleasure, when we think deal will always be left to be done by. favourably of its author; but when we art. This is certain, that study and diso have the living speaker before our eyes,

some subcipline are more necessary for the im- addressing us personally op provement of natural genius in oratory,

ject of inportance, the opinion we en

tertain of his character must have a much ihan they are in poetry. What I mean is, that though poetry be capable of re

more powerful effect. ceiving assistance from critical art, yet

But, lest it should be said, that this a poet, without any aid from art, by the relates only to the character of virtue,

which force of genius alone, çan rise higher

one may maintain, wiihout being than a public speaker can do, who was at bottom a truly worthy man, I must never given attention to the rules of style, which it adds to character, real viriue

observe farther, that besides the weight Composition, and delivery.

Homer formed himself; Demosthenes and Cicero operates also in other ways, to the ad, were formed by the help of much labour, vantage of cloquence. and of many assistances derived from

First, Nothing is so favourable as vir, the labour of others,

tue to the prosccution of honourable stue

dies. After these preliminary observations,

It prompts a generous emulation let us proceed to the inain design of this to excel; it inuies to industry ; it leaves lecture; to treat of the means to be used

the mind vacant and free, master of it. for improvement in eloquence.

self, disencumbered of those bad pasIn the first place, what stands highest sions, and disengaged from those mean in the order of means, is personal cha: pursuits, which have ever been fourių racter and disposition. In order to be a

ihe greatest enemies to true proficiency. truly eloquent or persuasive speaker, no

Quinctilian has louched this considerathing is more necessary than to be a virtu- tion very properly : “ Quod si agrorum ous man. This was a favourile position

66 nimia cura, et sollicitior rei, familiaamong the ancient rhetoricians : “ Non

“ ris diligentia, et venandi voluptas et

" dati spectaculis dies, multuin studiis posse oratorem esse nisi virum bonum." To find any such connexion between vir.

" auferunt, quid putamus facturas cupitue and one of tbe highest liberal arts,

6 ditatem, avaritiam, invidiam?' Nibil mast give pleasure ; and it can, I think,

“ enim est tam occupiutuin, tam multi

“ forme, tot ac tam variis affectibus conbe clearly shewn, that this is not a mere

cisum, atquc laceratum, quam mala ac * For God and man and letter'd post denies, “ improba niens. Quis inter bæc, literis, That poets ever are of middling size.

aut ulli bonæ arti, locus ? Non hercle FRANCIS.

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*xcel in any of the
y, than tu culti-
ral virtues, and to
Į their moral feel.
: become dead, or
e assured, that on
1), they will speak
com less success. The

positions particularly

*. to cultivate, are the

nove of justice and order,

un at insolence and oppres-

aile love of honesty and truth, and
fra hun

uci tation of fraud, ineanness, and cor-
biti,& femme die sly, beres ruption; magnanimity of spirit; the
fore, who possesses these full and strong, love of liberty, of their country, and the
can speak properly, and in its own lan- public; zeal for all great and noble de-
guage, to the heari. On all great sub- signs, and reverence for all worthy aid
jects and occasions, there is a dignity, heroic characters. A cold and sceptical
there is an energy in noble sentiments, turn of mind is extremely adverse to elo.
which is overcoming and irresistible.

quence ; and no less so, is that cavilling
They give an ardour and a fame to one's disposition which takes pleasure in de-
discourse, which seldum fails to kindle preciating what is great, and ridiculing
a like fame in those who hear; and what is generally admired. Such a dis-
which, more than any other cause, ben position bespeaks one not very likely to
stows on eloquence that power, for excel in any thing; but least of all in
which it is famed, of seizing and trans- oratory. А true orator should be a
porting an audience. Here art and imic person of generous sentiments, of warm
tation will not avail. An assumed cha- feelings, and of a mind turned towards
sacier conveys nothing of this powerful the admiration of all those great and
warmth. It is only a native and unaffecihigh objects which mankind are naturala
ed glow of feeling, which can transmit ly formed 10 admire. Joined with the
the emotion to others. Hence the most manly virtues, he should, at the same
renowned orators, such as Cicero and time, possess strong and tender sensibili-
Demosthenes, were no less distinguished ty to all the injuries, distresses, and sor-
for some of the high virtues, as public rows, of his fellow-creatures; a heart
spirit and zeal for their country, than for that can easily relent; that can readily
eloquence. Beyond doubt, to these vir-

enter into the circumstances of others, and
tues their eloquence owed much of its ef. can make their case his own.

A proper
fect; and those orations of theirs, in mixture of courage, and of modesty, must
which there breathes most of the virtuous also be studied by every public speaker.
and magnanimous spirit, are those which Modesty is essential ; it is always, and
have most attracted the admiration of ages. justly, supposed to be a concomitant of

merit ; and every appearance of it is
*" If the management of an estate, if anxious
" attention to domestic aconomy, a passion for

winning and prepossessing. But mo-
hunting, or whole days given up to public

desty ought not to run into excessive tie
places and amusements, consume so inuch time midity. Every public speaker should
" that is due to study, how much greater waste be able to rest somewhat on bimself ;
“ must be occasioned by licentjous des res, ara.

and to assume that air, not of self-com-
rice, or envy? Nothing is so much hurried and
agitated, so contradictory to iiself, or so vio- placency, but of firmness, which bespeaks
“ lently torn and shattered by condicting pas-

à consciousness of his being thoroughly
sions, as a bad heart. Amidst the distractions

persuaded of the truth or justice of what
“ which it produces; what room is left for the

he delivers ; a circumstance of no small
" cultivationi of letters, or the pursuit of any ho.
“ nourable art? No more, assuredly, than there

consequence for making impression on
" is for the growth of corn in a field that is over- those wbu hear.

fun with thorus and brambles."


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Authors, Pag. | Sect.

Autho:s. Pag.

THE Vision of Mrza Spectator. 5j Order to be observed in Amuse-

Voyage of Lite; an Allegory Ramb. 3


Blair. 50

3 Journey of a Day; Story of Obidah 5 54 -to be preserved in your Society- 51

by Present Life conducive to the Happiness 55

-necessary in Business, Time, &c 51

of a future one

56 ldleness avoided by observing 51

5 Adrantages of a good Education

8 57 essential to Self-enjoyment, &c 52

6 Disadvantages of a bad Education Ramb. 8 58 Suppression of criminal Thoughts 52

Omniscience, &c. of the Deity

Spect. 10

59 Experience anticipated by Reflection- - 53

8 Motives to Piety and Virtue

12 60 Beginnings of Passion to be opposed 53

9 On the Immortality of the Soul
14 61 Goveroment of the Temper


10 Duty of Children to their Parents

15 62 A peaceable Temper recommended- 54

11 Strength of Parental Affection

to 16 6:3 Exertions of a benevolent Temper + 5+
12 Remarks on the Swiftness of Time Idler. 18 64 Blessings of a contented Temper


13 Folly of mis-spending Time Ramb. 19 65 Usefulness of a Desire of Praise


14 Importance of l'ime

Spect. 21 66 Effects of excessive Desire of Praise 56

15 Punishment of mis-spent Time Guard. 22 67 Usefulness of virtuous Discipline 56

16 Importance of Time to Youth Chesterf. 24 68 Consolation of religious Knowledge 56

17 On a lazy and triding Disposition

25 69 Sense of Right and Wrong, &c. Gregory. 57

18 Bad Effects of Indolence Connoiss. 26 70 Cause of Infidelity


19 Iudocent Pleasures of Childhood Guard, 27 71 Religion not founded on Weakness

20 Cheerfulness recommended Spect. 28 of Mind


21 Advantages of a cheerful Temper

30 72 Effects of Religion, Scepticism, &c.-


22 On Truth and Sincerity

32 73 Comforts of Religion


23 Rules for the knowledge of One's Self- 38 74 Cause of Zeal to propagate Infi-
24 No Life pleasing to God but that which is



useful to Mankind

Adven. 34 75 Propagating Infidelity inexcusable 60

25 Providence proved by Animal Instinct Spect. 37 76 Religion considered as a Science

26 Necessity of forming religious Principles 77 -as a Rule of Life and Manuers.


at an early Age

Blair. 38 78 - cures the Diseases of the Mind 62

27 - of early acquiring virtuous Dis-

79 On public Preaching


positions and Habits

39 80 Religion considered as exciting De-

28 Happiness and Dignity of Manhood



depend on youthful Conduct

39 81 Advantages of Devotion


29 Piety to God the Foundation of good

82 True and false Politeness Hurd. 65


40 83 On Religious Principles Gregory. 66

30 Religion nerer to be treated with

84 Beauties of the Psalms

Horne. 67


40 85 Temple of Virtuous Love Tatler. 67

31 Modesty and Docility joined to Piety 40 86 of Lust


32 Sincerity and Truth recommended 61 87 of Virtue

33 Benevolence and Humanity

41 88 of Vanity


34 Courtesy and engaging Manners

42 89

of Avarice

35 Temperance in Pleasure recommend-

90 Gentleness not to be confounded



with insincere Foliteness Blair. 71

36 Whatever violates Nature cannot

91 Opportunities for Benevolence rare,

afford true Pleasure


for Gentleness continual

37 Irregular Pleasures, bad Effects of 42 92 Gentleness conducive to our Interest-

38 Industry and Application in Youth 43 93 Superiority of gentle Manners

39 Employment of Time

43 94 Bad Effects of Pride

40 Success depends on Hearen's Blessing 44 95 Violence and Contention caused
41 Necessity of an early and close Applica-

by Trifles

tion to Wisdom

Seed. 44

96 Gentleness promoted by Religion

42 linhappiness of not early improving

97 Gentleness the Ornament of every

the Mind

Age and Station

43 Great Talents not requisite for the

98 Pungency of guilty Passious

common Duties of Life

45 99 Balance of Happiness equal

44 AMuence not to exempt from Study 46 100 Misery arises from the Passions

45 Pleasures resulting from a prudent

101 Nature restored by Rerelation

Use of our Faculties

46 102 Dependance of Man's Happiness

46 Adrantages of a Place of Education

103 (aution on seducing Appearances

47 Discipline of a Place of Education

104 Religious Enthusiasm, &c. Chap:

48 105

48 Irregularities bring Censure

kigour and Negligence


49 Diffidence of One's Abilities approved-

106 Virtue Man's true Interest H.

107 On Gratitude

50 Temperance in Places of Education Tottie. 48

49 108 Religion the Foundation of Content
- 51 Lost Opportunities cannot be recalled

Blair. 50 109 Bad Company

52 Beginnings of Evil to be resisted



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Authors. Pag

181 Reasonings in favour of Christianity

Bp. Porteus, 246

182 Duty of examining Difficulties in the

Word of God

Buller. 248

183 Gospel Information most desirable

Sherlock. 249

184 Christ and Mahomet compared 250

185 Madness and Absurdity of Infidelity

Bentley. 251

189 The New Testament could not be


Michaelis, 251

187 Extent, Object, and End of the Prophe-

tic Scheme

Hurd. 253

188 Philosophic Principles to be learnt from

Nature, Religious from Grace Hallijar. 25.6

189 Comparison between Heathenism and


Saurin. 255

190 Gospel Oratory superior to Heathen


Barter. 263

191 Obscurities in Scriptures no Proof of

their not being genuine Eduards. 263

192 Bible superior to all other Books 265

193 Religious Knowledge derived from Re-


Dryden. 265

194 Weakness of Infidels-Unbeliever's


Anon. 266

195 Moral Demonstration of the Truth of

the Christian Religion Bp. Taylor. 267

196 Considerations respecting the Person

of Jesus Christ



--respecting his Doctrine 273


- respectiug the Fffect and

Tustruments of his Religion



-on the weak Pretences of

other Religions


200 To the Sceptics and sufidels of the Age

Bp. Il’atson 281

201 Mistakes in judging of Scripture Style,


Stackhouse. 290

202 A Prayer or Psalm Ld. Bacon. 091

203 Doctrine of Christ, a Doctrine of Truth

and Simplicity

Dr. Clark. 295

204 Superiority of Sacred History and Chris.

tian Philosophy

Massillon, 295

205 Light of Reason imperfect Ld. Littelton. 997

206 Simplicity of the Sacred Writers West. 297

207 Superiority of Christian Philosophy

over Stoical

Miss Carter. 299

208 Scriptures to be admired the more they

are studied

Phillips. 301

209 Instances of Friendship in the Scrip-


Vielmoth. 302

210 Fine Morality of the Gospel Peattie, 303

211. Beneficence to the Poor enjoined by

the Gospel

Paley. 30%

212 Simplicity of the Gospel gives it an

Air of Subliinity Mainwaring. 304

213 Bible, as a curious ancient History,

worthy Attention

Crorall, 304

214 Excellenceofthe Sacred Writings Brown. 305

215 Queen Anne's Prayer


216 Prince Eugene's Prayer


217 The gay young Altamont doing Young. 306

218 Majesty and Supremacy of the Scrip-

tures confessed by a Sceptie. Rousseau, 507

219 Earl of Rochester's dying Recantation 308

220 To the Biographer of Hume Horne. 309

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170 Expostulatiou with Unbelievers

M. Pascal, 207

171. Of ine Temper of Sind necessary

for the Discovery of Divine Truth

Thiston, 211

172 The Divine Legation of Moses

Lord Forbes. 218

173 On the Old and New Testanent IVilkins. 221

174 Design and Intention of the Hebrew


Lowoman. 923

175 Fulfilınent of the Prophecies, an Argu-

ment for the Truth of the Bible Bp.

Newton. 9:30

176 The Excellence of Seriptnre Stillingficet. 236
177 Prevalence of Christianity, an Argus,

ment of its Divinity Fenelon. 244
178 Arguments for the Truth of the Gospel

II. Deiton, 211
179 Facts related in the Evangelists to be
relied on

Abp. Singe. 2.14

180 Superiority of the Gospel, an Argument

of its Truth

Seeda 245


4 Reflections


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