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"Margery Jourdain."—Act I. Sc. 2.

It appears from Rymer, that in the tenth year of Henry VI. Margery Jourdemayn, John Virley, clerk, and friar John Ashwell, were, on the 9th of May, 1433, brought from Windsor by the constable of the castle, to which they had been committed for sorcery, before the council at Westminster, and afterwards, by an order of council, delivered into the custody of the lord chancellor. The same day it was ordered by the lords of council, that whenever the said Virley and Ashwell should find security for their good behaviour, they should be set at liberty; and, in like manner, that Jourdemayn should be discharged, on her husband's finding security. This woman was afterwards burned in Smithfield.-DOUCE.

“A sand bag.”—Act II. Sc. 3.

As, according to the old laws of duel, knights were to fight with the lance and sword, so those of an inferior rank fought with an ebon staff or battoon, to the farther end of which was fixed a bag crammed hard with sand.-WARBURTON.

"A cup of charneco."-Act II. Sc 3.

"Some drinking the neat wine of Orleance, some the Gascony, some the Bordeaux. There wanted neither sherry, sack, nor charneco, maligo, nor amber-coloured candy, nor liquorish ipocras, brown beloved bastard, fat Alicant, or any quick-spirited liquor."


"This knave's tongue begins to double."—Act II. Sc. 3.

Holinshed's account of this combat between the armourer and his man is curious: "In the same yeare also, a certaine armourer was appeached of treason by a servant of his owne. For proofe whereof a daie was giuen them to fight in Smithfield, insomuch that in conflict the said armourer was overcome and slaine; but yet by misgouerning of himself. For on the morrow when he should have come to the field fresh and fasting, his neighbours came to him, and gaue him wine and strong drinke in such excessive sort, that he was therewith distempered, and reeled as he went; and so was slaine without guilte. As for the false servant, he liued not long." The original exchequer record of expenses attending the combat has been preserved, from whence it appears, that the armourer was not killed by his opponent, but conquered, and immediately afterVOL. III.-41 3D * (641)

wards hanged. The following is the last article in the account, and was struck off by the barons of the exchequer, because it contained charges unauthorised by the sheriffs:

"Also paid to officers for watching of ye ded man in Smith-felde ye same day and ye nyght after yt ye battail was doon, and for hors hyre for ye officers at ye execution doying, and for ye hangman's labour, xjs. vid. "Also paid for ye cloth yat lay upon ye ded man in (Sum, xij. vii. Smyth-felde, viijd.

"Also paid for 1 pole and nayllis, and for settyng up of ye said mannys hed on London Brigge, vd."

8. d.

The sum total of expence incurred on this occasion was 101. 18s. 9d.


“Would curses kill, as doth the mandrake's groan.”—Act III. Sc. 2. Bulleine, in his Bulwarke of Defence against Sicknesse, speaking of mandragora, says: "They doe affyrme that this herbe cometh of the seede of some convicted dead men, and also without the death of some lyvinge thinge it cannot be drawne out of the earthe to man's use. Therefore they did tye some dogge or other lyvinge beaste unto the roote thereof with a corde, and digged the earthe in compasse round about, and in the meane tyme stopped their own eares for feare of the terreble shriek and cry of this mandrack. In whych cry it dothe not only dye itselfe, but the feare thereof kylleth the dogge or beast whych pullyth it out of the earth."-REED.

"If thou be'st death, I'll give thee England's treasure."—Act III. Sc. 3.

In Hall's Chronicle, Beaufort's last moments are thus described: "During these doyngs, Henry Beauford, byshop of Winchester, and called the riche cardynall, departed out of this worlde. This man was haut in stomach and hygh in countenance, ryche above measure of all men and to fewe liberal; disdaynful to his kynne, and dreadful to his lovers. His covetous insaciable and hope of long lyfe made him bothe to forgete God, his prynce, and himselfe, in his latter days; for Doctor John Baker his privie counsailer and his chapellayn wrote, that lying on his death-bed he said these words: Why should I dye, having so muche ryches? If the whole relme would save my lyfe, I am abell either by policie to get it, or by ryches to buy it. Fye, will not death be hired, nor will monye do nothing? When my nephew of Bedforde died, I thought myselfe half up the whele, but when I saw mine other nephew of Gloucester disceased, then I thought myselfe able to be equal with kinges, and so thought to increase my treasure, in hope to have worn a trypple croune. But I see now the worlde fayleth me, and so I am deceyved; praying you all to pray for me.'"-MALONE.

"The sea-shore near Dover."-Act IV. Sc. 1.

"But fortune would not that this flagitious person (the duke of Suffolk) should so escape; for when he shipped into Suffolk, entendynge to be transported into France, he was encountered with a shippe of warre appertaining to the duke of Excester, the constable of the Towre of London, called the Nicholas of the Towre. The captain of the same bark, with small fight, entered into the duke's shyppe, and perceyving his person present, brought him to Dover rode, and there, on the one syde of a cockebote, caused his head to be stryken off, and left his body, with the head, upon the sandes of Dover; which corse was there found by a chapelayne of his, and conveyed to Wyngfielde college in Suffolke, and there buried."-HALL'S CHRONICLE.

“This monument of the victory will I bear.”—Act. IV. Sc. 5.

"Jack Cade, upon his victory against the Staffords, apparelled himself in Sir Humphrey's brigandine, set full of gilt nails, and so in some glory returned again towards London."-HOLINSHED.

"The pissing-conduit run nothing but claret.”—Act IV. Sc. 6.

This pissing-conduit was the standarde in Cheape, which, as Stowe relates," John Wels, grocer, maior, 1430, caused to be made with a small cesterne for fresh water, having one cock continually running.”—RITSON. "Set London-bridge on fire."-Act IV. Sc. 6.

At that time, London-bridge was made of wood. "After that," says Hall, "he entered London, and cut the ropes of the draw-bridge." In this rebellion, the houses on London-bridge were burnt, and many of the inhabitants perished.—MALONE.

"That the laws of England may come out of your mouth.”—Act IV. Sc. 7.

Holinshed says of Wat Tyler, “It was reported, indeed, that he should saie with great pride, putting his hand to his lips, that within four days all the laws of England should come foorth of his mouth."

"Matthew Gough."—Act IV. Sc. 7.

"A man of great wit and much experience in feats of chivalrie, the which in continuall warres had spent his time in serving of the king and of his father.-HOLINSHED.

"Kent. Iden's garden."—Act IV. Sc. 10.

"A gentleman of Kent, named Alexander Eden, awaited so his time, that he took the said Cade in a garden in Sussex, so that there he was slain at Hothfield."-HOLINSHED.

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"Stern Faulconbridge commands the narrow seas."—Act I. Sc. 1. The person here meant was Thomas Nevil, bastard son to the Lord Fauiconbridge; "a man," says Hall, "of no less corage than audacitie, who for his euel condicions was such an apte person, that a more meter could not be chosen to set all the worlde in a broyle, and to put the estate of the realme on an yl hazard." He was appointed by Warwick viceadmiral, and had in charge to keep the passage between Dover and Calais. On Warwick's death he fell into poverty, and robbed, both by sea and land, from friends and foes. He once brought his ships up the Thames, and made a spirited attack on the city. After a roving life, he ventured to land at Southampton, where he was taken and beheaded. RITSON.

"Is he dead already? Or is it fear,

That makes him close his eyes."—Act I. Sc. 3.

"Whilst this battail was fighting, a priest called Sir Robert Aspall, chappellaine and schole-master to the yonge erle of Rutlande, ii sone to

the above-named duke of York, scarce of the age of xii yeres, a fair gentleman, and a maydenlike person, percyving that flyght was more safe gard than tarrying both for hym and his master, secretly conveyed the erle out of the felde, by the Lord Clifforde's bande, toward the towne, but or he could entre into a house, he was by the sayd Lord Clifford espied, followed, and taken, and by reason of his apparell, demanded what he was. The young gentleman, dismayed, had not a word to speke, but kneled on his knees, imploring mercy, and desiring grace, both with holding up his hands, and making dolorous countenance, for his speache was gone for feare."-HALL'S CHRONICLE.

"Putting a paper crown on his head."-Act I. Sc. 4.

"Some write that the duke was taken alive, and, in derision, caused to stand upon a mole-hill; on whose head they put a garlande instead of a crowne, which they had fashioned and made of segges or bulrushes; and having so crowned him with that garlande, they kneeled downe afore him, as the Jews did to Christe in scorne, saying to him, 'Hayle king without rule, hayle king without heritage, hayle duke and prince without people or possessions.' And, at length, having thus scorned him with these and dyverse other the like despiteful woordes, they strooke off his head, which (as ye have heard) they presented to the queen." HOLINSHED.


"Off with his head, and set it on York gates;

So York may overlook the town of York."-Act I. Sc. 4.

This gallant prince fell by his own imprudence, in consequence of leading an army of only five thousand men to engage with twenty thousand. He and Cicely his wife, with his son Edmond, earl of Rutland, were originally buried in the chancel of Foderingay church, and (as Peacham informs us in his Complete Gentleman, 1627,) "when the chancel, in that furie of knocking churches and sacred monuments in the head, was also felled to the ground," they were removed into the churchyard; and afterwards "lapped in lead; they were buried in the church, by the commandment of Queen Elizabeth, and a mean monument of plaister, wrought with the trowel, erected over them, very homely, and far unfitting so noble princes. I remember," adds the same author, "master Creuse, a gentleman and my worthy friend, who dwelt in the college at the same time, told me, that their coffins being opened, their bodies appeared very plainly to be discerned, and withal, that the Duchess Cicely had about her necke, hanging in a silken ribbande, a pardon from Rome, which, penned in a very fine Roman hand, was as faire and freshe to be reade, as it had been written yesterday.”—Malone.

"Do I see three suns?—Act II. Sc. 1.

"At which tyme the son (as some write) appeared to the erle of Marche like three sonnes, and sodainely joyned altogither in one; upon whiche sight hee tooke such courage, that he, fiercely setting on his enemys, put them to flight; and for this cause mene ymagined that he gave the son in his full brightnesse for his badge or cognisance."-HOLINSHED.

"Sir John Grey."—Act III. Sc. 2.

Sir John Grey is here stated to have died fighting for the house of York, than which nothing can be more opposed to truth. He fell in the second battle of St. Albans, which was fought on Shrove-Tuesday, Feb. 17, 1460, fighting on the side of King Henry. In Richard III. the manner of his death is truly stated.-MALONE.

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