Abbildungen der Seite
PDF
EPUB

literary existence. Mr. Singer's History of Play- any persons who met together to subscribe a petiing Cards, and many carefully superintended and stion to be preferred to that House” (Commons' well annotated editions of our older poets, had Journals, Dec. 13, 1641). “After this," says long before established his reputation as a scholar Clarendon, "all obstacles of the law were removed, and an antiquary. But a glance at the titles of and the people taught a way to assemble together some thirty or forty various articles contributed by in how tumultuous a manner soever(History, Mr. Singer to the first and second volumes- ed. Oxford, 1807, vol. ii. p. 525). The extent to including, as they do, papers on curious points which this was carried is well illustrated in the of Anglo-Saxon and early Teutonic literature, on Memoirs of Nehemiah Wallington, particularly Spanish literature, on Ulrich von Hutten and the in the chapter “Of Petitions and the Manner of Epistolae Obscurorum Virorum, on Early English their Coming." The Parliament, however, afterwriters, popular antiquities, and passages in Shak-wards discouraged the practice, for the fifth head speare- shows that the writer's learning was as of the “Declaration of the Army," sent from St. accurate as it was varied, and proves how important Albans in June, 1647, begins, “ We desire that an addition he was to the list of contributors. I the right and freedom of the People to represent had met him originally at Mr. Douce's, but since to the Parliament, by way of humble petition, the death of my old friend, whose fortune Mr. | their Grievances, may be cleared and vindicated ”; Singer inherited, I had never seen him, and it was and in the New Chains Discovered (1648) of Col. a very agreeable surprise to me when I found I Lilburne, it is alleged that the House had given had been the means of securing to the public some“ private orders for seizing upon citizens and solof the results of his long and well-directed studies. diers at their meetings," which he resents as "the I am inclined to believe that had it not been for bitter fruit of the vilest and basest bondage that “ N. & Q.” the lovers of Shakspeare would never ever English men groan'd under.” It is worth have seen Mr. Singer's most valuable edition of notice that there is no allusion to the right of their favourite poet. WILLIAM J. Thoms. meeting in the proposed Republican constitution, (To be continued.)

entitled the “Petition of Advice," from which I infer that at this period the right was no longer

a matter of dispute. THE FIRST PUBLIC MEETING.

One of the first acts passed after the Restoration In Buckle's History of Civilization (vol. i. p. 394)|(13 Car. II. cap. v.) was directed against "tumulI find it asserted that “in 1769 there was held the tuous and disorderly preparing petitions," and the first public meeting ever assembled in England, preamble somewhat naïvely refers to them as the first in which it was attempted to enlighten“having been a great means of the late unhappy Englishmen respecting their political rights.” It confusions and calamities of this nation.” By this is no doubt true that this form of political agita Act it was made necessary to obtain the consent tion became very common during the unpopular of three justices of the peace for any petition to Grafton administration ; but the assertion that which it was proposed to obtain upwards of twenty public meetings date their origin from this period signatures. A glance, however, at a file of newsis surely altogether wrong, and an example of that papers of the first half of the last century, will intense hostility to the laz:dator temporis acti show that this law did not prevent the holding of which on more than one occasion has led the meetings to petition Parliament upon any subject accomplished author astray. I am inclined to which greatly agitated the public mind- notably think that a little research would afford proof that the Excise Bill, and the laws relating to the at no period of English history were political woollen trade. meetings absolutely unknown. But the public With these precedents at hand, not dog up from meeting in its modern form is unquestionably the musty archives, but lying, as it were, upon the surbirth of that memorable period of civil dudgeon face, it is difficult to account for Mr. Buckle's which ushered in the civil wars. Every reader of statement. the literature of that time will be familiar with There are other assertions in the same chapter the meetings for addressing the king or petitioning which also require revision. In the summary view Parliament, held throughout the country in 1641-2, of the state of literature, it is said that reviews which appear to have differed but little from those were unknown before the accession of George II., of the present day, except that it was customary the fact being that at least three journals of this for every person present to sign the petition or description were published during the reign of resolutions. And these assemblies were declared William III.

C. ELLIOT BROWNE. legal. Clarendon expressly mentions that, owing to the attempted suppression of a meeting in Southwark (1641) by the Under Sheriff of Surrey,

NIAM.NIAM FOLK.LORE. the House ordered that no proceedings were to be The enclosed leaves from a note-book may be taken "upon any inquisition that might concern acceptable at this Christmastide :

THE “ Borru," AN AFRICAN PLANCHETTE.- proper bearing of “even” has been recognized. "From the wood of the Sarcocephalus Russegeri, which That any one's labours should be refreshed by they call damma,' a little four-legged stool is made, sweet thoughts of his mistress, is a fact to be like the benches used by the women. The upper surface

komen; The upper surface generally assumed. But to understand "even" of this is rendered perfectly smooth. A block of wood of the same kind is then cut, of which one end is also

| as bearing upon “refresh" would be somewhat made quite smooth. After having wetted the top of the contrary to such assumption. The word evidently stool with a drop or two of water, they grasp the block, 1 points to “most busy" as qualifying “labours," and rub its smooth part backwards and forwards over the meaning being, “But these sweet thoughts do the level surface with the same motion as if they were refresh even my most busy labours." I would using a plane. If the wood should glide easily along,

therefore remove the comma after “labours" and the conclusion is drawn that the undertaking in question will assuredly prosper ; but if, on the other hand, the put it after “busy.” That would make it necesmotion is obstructed, and the surfaces adhere together- sary to connect “lest," in some way, with “ when if, according to the Niam-niam expression, a score of I do it.The verb“ do" is a pro-verb, repremen could not give free movement to the block-the

senting the verb “think” implied in “thoughts”; Warning is unmistakable that the adventure will prove a failure."-Schweinfurth's Heart of Africa, vol. ii. p. 32.

and the clause“ when I do it” is a loose way of

saying “when I think, or indulge in, sweet thoughts “KARRA," THE MAGIC TUBER.

of my mistress.” Now the mode in which his “I also found a very peculiar creeper, with a double most busy labours are refreshed by sweet thoughts horny or finger-shaped tuber attached to the axils of the of his mistress is indicated by " I forget.” that is. leaves, like the edible helmia, to which genus of plants

| he is rendered oblivious to them. it doubtless belongs. It is transplanted by the natives from the woods, and trained in the neighbourhood of the If the interpretation thus far is correct, there huts, and is known under the name of Karra.' Among must be an idea veiled in “lest,” which reflects or the Niam-niam these tubers are looked upon as a sort points to “I forget," as a consequence of “when of charm, and it is believed that a good show of them I do it.” That idea is revealed by the change of upon the leaves is an infallible prediction of a prolific

one letter, e for 0. The word should be “ lost," hunting season. It was, moreover, affirmed that if a huntsman wants to render his bow unerring in its capa. in the sense of being completely absorbed in anybilities, he has only to hold it in his hand while he thing, and oblivious to all other things. Lady ' slaughters' one of the tubers over it, that is, takes Macbeth says to her husband, “Be not lost so a knife and cuts off the end and cuts it in pieces.”- | poorly in your thoughts." Ibid., vol. i. p. 400.

The passage might be paraphrased thus : “But AUGURIES FROM COCKS AND HENS.—

these sweet thoughts do refresh even my most “There are other auguries common to the Niam-niam busy labours, lost, as I am, to myself and to those with various negro nations, and which are considered as labours, when I indulge in them.” of equal or still greater importance. An oily fluid, con: I would punctuate as follows :cocted from a red wood called 'bengye,' is administered to a ben. If the bird dies, there will be misfortune in

“But these sweet thoughts do even refresh my labours war; if the bird survives, there will be victory. An Most busy,-lost, when I do it.” other mode of trying their fortune consists in seizing

HIRAM Corson. à cock, and ducking its head repeatedly under water The Cornell University. until the creature is stiff and senseless. They then leave it to itself. If it should rally, they draw an omen that “ King LEAR,” Act iv, sc. 2, 11. 50-60 :is favourable to their design; whilst if it should suc

With plumed helm thy slayer begins threats. cumb, they look for an adverse issue.”-Ibid., vol. ii. p. 33. CHARM TO DETECT A THIEF.--.

. .. .. See thyself, devil.” . “The turf-like Chlorophytum, with its variegated Who is this “slayer"? Not France, for he is leaves of mingled white and green, is employed spoken of in the preceding line ; not Cornwall, for among the Niam-niam as a charm to detect a thief, why should he be called Albany's slayer ? He is much in the same way as the Canavalia ensiformis, his confederate against France. notwithstanding known as the overlook' or horse-bean, is employed in Jamaica and Haiti, where it is sown in the negro planta.

the secret designs which may be planned on both tions for that purpose."-Ibid., p. 119.

sides against the brother-in-law; and, finally, why

Tho. SATCHELL. should Albany, after these words of Goneril, be Oak Village, N.W.

driven to the superlative and rather furious expression, “ See thyself, devil”? There must have

been said something horrid, something extraordiSHAKSPEARIANA.

narily unnatural, that drives this mild character to NOTE ON THE CRUX OF "THE TEMPEST.” such an outburst of feeling ; and we cannot sup“I forget :

pose that the other received reading, “thy state," Bat these sweet thoughts, doe even refresh my labours, should answer those questions. Most busie lest, when I doe it.” Act iii. sc. 1, 11, 13, 14.

But let us look back to Act iii. sc. 7, 11. 14-20: Cornwall.

Where is the king ? In the various solutions that have been proposed Oswald. My Lord of Gloster hath conveyed him hence: of this famous crua, it does not appear that the Some five or six and thirty of his knights,

Italian.

Hot questrists after him, met him at gate ;

(De Léris.) Dictionnaire portatif des Théâtres. Paris, Who, with some other of the lords dependants,

1763, sm. Svo. . Are gone with him towards Dover ; where they boast Escudier (Marie et Léon). Les Cantatrices célebres. To have well armed friends.”

Paris, Dentu, 18mo. Goneril hears this, and, exaggerating and dress

Etienne et Martainville. Histoire du Théâtre Francais,

depuis le Commencement de la Révolution jusqu'à la ing it up, relates to her husband what she has

Réunion générale. Paris, 1902, 4 vols. 1mo. heard, namely, that even her father begins threats; Fournel (V.). Les Contemporains de Molière. Paris, but a certain uncourteous feeling prevents her from Didot, 3 vols. 8vo. calling him “My father”-she says in a rather

Gautier (Th.). Histoire de l'Art dramatique en France spiteful and contemptuous tone, “ This Lear.”

| depuis vingt-cinq ans. Paris, Hetzel, 1859, 6 vols. 1Smo.

Hallays-Dabot. Histoire de la Censure théâtrale. Perhaps you will concede that an inarticulate | Paris, Dentu. 18mo. and swift pronunciation of the words, “this Lear,” | Houssaye (Arsene). Princesses de Comédie et Déesses might easily be exposed to a misunderstanding for d'Opéra. Paris, Furne et Jouvet, 8vo., plates. “thy slayer.” And after Goneril has spoken so

Lemazurier (P. D.). Galerie historique des Acteurs du disdainfully of her father, it is not more than

Théâtre François, depuis 1600 jusqu'à nos Jours. Paris,

1810, 2 vols. Svo. natural that Albany calls her a devil.

Loire (L.). Anecdotes Théâtrales. Paris, Dentu, 18mo. Finally, let us not forget that “thy slayer" is Parfait (Frères). Histoire du Théatre François, depuis not elsewhere to be found in Shakspeare.

son Origine jusqu'en 1721. Paris, 1745-49, 15 vols. 12mo. F. A. LEO.

Ricord aîné. Les Fugies de la Comédie Française, et Berlin.

portraits des plus célèbres acteurs. Paris, 1821, 2 vols.

8vo. “Do withAL” (5th S. vi. 405.)— The under Royer (A.). 'Histoire universelle du Théâtre, depuis signed ventures to suggest that those words ought les

nocht. I les Origines jusqu'à la fin du XVIIIe siècle. Paris,

1 1869-70, 4 vols. 8vo. to be printed thus : “I could not do with all." | So many honourable ladies sought his love that he

Allaci (Leone). Drammaturgia continuata sino all' not pay court, or attention, to them all. He anno 1755. Venezia, 1755, 4to. denying that attention which they required, they Arteaga (Stef.). Le Revoluzioni del Teatro musicale fell sick and died. Maybe it is intended that the italiano, della sua Origine fino al presente. Bologna, verb “do” should carry a meaning which may not | 1785, 3 vols. 8vo. appear on the pages of “N. & Q.” Perhaps the

Baretti (Gius.). Italian Library, containing an Account

of the Lives and Works of the valuable Authors of Italy. above suggestion has been made by others ; if so, I London. 1757. 8vo. it is wholly unknown to, and, indeed, cannot now Haym (N. Fr.). Biblioteca italiana. Milano, 1771, be found out by,

R. & - 2 vols. 4to.

Hillebrand (K.). De la Comédie italienne, in Etudes Much as I am pleased to accept the explanation historiyues et littéraires. Tome I. : Eludes italiennes. of the phrase, “I could not help it," it has some Paris, 1868, 18mo. times occurred to me that in the passage F. J. V. Mazzuchelli (G. M.). Gli Scrittori d' Italia. Brescia, quotes from The Merchant of Venice the meaning

1753-63, 6 vols. fol.

Walker. Historical Memoir on the Italian Tragedy. is “I could not do with all," i.e. Portia, she

London, 1799, 4to. and Nerissa, “accoutred like young men,” finding

German. “How honourable ladies sought her love, which Clodius (H. Jonath.). Primæ lineæ bibliothecae lushe denying, they fell sick and died,” meant to soriæ. Lipsiæ, 1761, 4to. assign as the reason that she could not “ do with | Klein (J. L.). Geschichte des Dramas. Leipzig, all”; in other words, could not marry all.

1865.70, 8 vols. 8vo. DAVID WOTHERSPOON.

Lessing (G. E.). Hamburgische Dramaturgie. Leipzig, 1856, 12mo..

Schlegel (A. W.). Vorlesungen über dramatischer BIOGRAPHIA DRAMATICA.

Kunst und Literatur. Heidelberg, 1846, 2 vols. 12mo. The following is a list of some of the works Literatur. Biographisch Kritisches Lexicon deutscher

Wolff (0. L. B.). Encyclopädie der deutschen National which may be advantageously consulted on the Autoren, nebst Proben aus ihren Werken. Leipzig, 1835, subject (see 5th S. vi. 449):

8 vols. 4to. French.

HENRI GarssERON. (Clément et l'Abbé de la Porte.) Anecdotes drama

Ayr Academy. tiques. Paris, 1775, 3 vols. sm. 8vo. Annales dramatiques, ou Dictionnaire abrégé des

SPECIALISTS UPON BOOKS. Théâtres, par une Société de Gens de Lettres. Paris, 1809-12, 9 vols. 8vo.

It appears to me that an instructive book might Beauchamps (de). Recherches sur les Théâtres de be compiled with some such title as the above, France, depuis 1161. Paris, 1735, 4to.

the object being to collect from all quarters the Bamassier (Jules). Les Auteurs dramatiques et la opinions and critical dicta of men, distinguished in Comédie-Française à Paris aux XVII et XVIII Siècles. Paris, 1874, 12mo.

| any line of study, upon other great authors in (Dé la Porte et Chamfort.) Dictionnaire dramatique. I general literature, who have treated more or less Paris, 1776, 3 vols. 8vo.

| fully upon the subjects to which the said specialists have devoted the study of a life. One is glad to WESLEY IN “THE DUNCIAD.”—It is well known hear that a noted metallurgist has passed a high that in the first and, so called, surreptitious edition encomium on the scientific value of Swedenborg's of The Dunciad, printed in 1728, in part i. line remarks on metals. I should like to know what a | 115, occurs the passage — man of the calibre of John Hunter would have to “A Gothic Vatican of Greece and Rome, say upon the medical value of Bishop Berkeley's Well purg'd and worthy W—y, W—8, and Bl—," views on tar-water, as set forth in his Siris. Dr. And that there might be no doubt who was meant, Bucknill, or some medical writer, has called it was stated in The Key to the Dunciad, printed Coleridge “the poet's poet." The remark was the same year,made before in reference to Spenser ; but it is! - Page 7. line 116. Mr. Westly, Mr. Wats. Mr. Blome. interesting to get the record of a medical mind Poets." under the excitation of a poet's work expressing In the first authentic edition, 4to.. 1729, this line its critical appreciation of value in poetry. One I was altered intois pleased to have Prof. Martyn's botanical com

“Well purg'd and worthy Withers, Quarles, and Blome,” mentary on the Georgics, &c., of Virgil, and Lord Bacon's comments on his profundity as a politician.

and the note is subjoinedI was glad to find in Frank Buckland's clever “It was printed in the surreptitious editions W—ly. book, Curiosities of Natural History, when treat

W—8, who were persons eminent for good life : the one

[Sam. Wesley senior) writ the life of Christ in verse; the ing of frogs as barometers, that he quotes the line, other [J. Watts, some valuable pieces in the lyrick kind

“ Et veterem in limo ranæ cecinere querelam," on pious subjects. The line is here restor'd according to from the Georgics, and adds his competent and its original." valuable testimony to the high reputation of Virgil It is, however, to be observed that this correction as “a good observer of nature." In another place was not made first in Pope's authorized edition ; it (p. 273), in treating of the barbel, which he calls was made, I believe, in the second surreptitious a regular fresh-water pig," he compliments Hood | edition of 1728, certainly in the third edition of for so aptly recording this grubbing propensity of that year. If the correction was made by Pope, the fish, styling him “ that most observant of then it follows that he was a party to these so poets, Hood.” It would be charming to know called surreptitious editions. That this was so is what Cuvier thought of Goldsmith's Animated rendered still more probable by the fact that the Nature; what Boyle thought of Paracelsus. One line even as altered did not please Pope, for in likes to see Pascal tackle Montaigne, criticizing | later issues he altered it again intohis Raimonde de Sebonde. Or, if you could get “Well purg'd and worthy Settle, Banks, and Broome.” Spinoza's notions on the Talmud; or what Pales- On the assumption that the surreptitious editions trina thought of the song of birds, or of the music | were issued without the author's knowledge, it is of the rhythm of Dante; what Avicenna thought hardly probable that the printer or publisher of Hindoo medicine, or of the pharmaceutics of would have changed Wesley and Watts into Homer ; what Philo-Judæus would have said to “ Withers” and “ Quarles.” EDWARD SOLLY. the cosmogony of Hesiod ; what Columbus judged | Sutton, Surrey. of the astronomy and navigation of the ancients, which he so profoundly studied. It would be “PANTACLE.”—In Damon and Pythias, by finer than turtle to an alderman to have a sharp | Richard Edwards (Ancient British Drama, i. 87), cracksman's commentary on Hotten's last Slang the two pages, Jacke and Wyll, quarrel, and Dictionary. It would be pleasant to get a timber- Jacke says : merchant's notions about the forestry of Spenser; "If you play Jacknapes in mocking my master and deor Mr. Hancock the jeweller's views upon The spising my face, Stones of Theophrastus, as commented by Sir

Even here with a pantacle I will you disgrace; J. Hill.

And, though you have a far better face than J,

Yet who is better man of us these two fists shall try.” I think enough is said already to show . what a book might be made, and what splendid / Subsequently he says : results and discovery might follow on, from bring

Take this at the beginning," ing all the clear diamond light of now-hidden to which Wyll replies :intellect in contact with the stores of precious "Prayse well your winning : my pantacle is as readie as treasure already gathered in the mine of know- yours.” ledge, but which remain in darkness because there. The editor supposes that by “pantacle” Jacke is not enough of pure brain-light invited to make means pantofle, a slipper, and Nares writes to the its objects stand out in colour and perspective as a same effect; but this explanation can hardly be landscape at noontide. Very much could be done admitted. I would suggest that pantacle stands very easily, and it is worth an effort. If there for pentacle, which properly is a magical figure were many Frank Bucklands, it could be done having five angles, and is here jocularly used for quickly.

C. A. WARD. the hand with its five fingers ; cp. the German,

einen Fünf-thaler-schein auf das Gesicht schreiben. was not at Clapham Common, as has been stated in some The change of e into a before a liquid is common of the papers, but was recently built at his house in enough. I will cite only two instances : Nares

Grafton Street; and it is not easy to describe the ex.

cessive foppery with which his books were ornamented. gives franzie for phrensy, from Taylor, the Water

The present is the age for illustrating books, by fitting in poet ; again, the title of one of Heywood's plays is all manner of prints and drawings analogous to the subThe Fair Maide of the E.cchange, with the Pleasantject. Mr. Thornton bestowed this embellishment in a Humours of the Cripple of Fanchurch Street. way the most expensive. His Suetonius, for example,

F. J. V.

he illustrated by having miniature portraits, in oil, by

the best masters, of the Twelve Cæsars, framed and Curious EPITAPH.-In Crayford churchyard I glazed, inlaid in one cover, while twelve of the principal found the following rather singular inscription on

Roman ladies, painted to match, were in the other, both

Re a head-stone set up by the parishioners in remem

guarded with crimson velvet. His bindings were all in

the most sumptuous style, and many of them curious by brance of Peter Isnell. As I do not remember to

their devices. His Johnston's History of Highwaymen, have met with it in type, it may be worth pre for instance, was ornamented by the Count de Chaumont servation in “N. & Q." :

(an emigrant, who did not disdain to employ his talent, “Here lieth the body of Peter Isnell (30 years clerk

creditably for himself, in bookbinding during the exile of of this parish). He lived respected as a pious and a mirth

the noblesse) with emblems of the fate that robbers ful man, and died on his way to church to assist at a

ought to come to, viz. the gallows, on the four corners !" wedding, on the 31st day of March, 1811, aged 70 years.

- Edinburgh Annual Register, 1814, “Chronicle," p. The inhabitants of Crayford have raised this stone to

cxxxi. his cheerful memory, and as a tribute to his long and

William GEORGE BLACK. faithful services.

THE ISLAND OF BARATARIA.—Every one knows The life of this clerk was just threescore and ten, Nearly half of which time he had sung out Amen.

that the island, to the governorship of which In his youth he was married, like other young men;

| Sancho Panza was advanced by the favour of the But his wife died one day, so he chaunted Amen. duke, was called Barataria ; but it is not so well A second he took ; she departed, what then ?

known that there is a place, I believe an island, He married and buried a third, with Amen.

on the coast of North America, State of Louisiana, Thus his joys and his sorrows were treble, but then

of this name. The question arises, Was one of these His voice was deep bass as he sung out Amen. On the horn be could blow as well as most men,

places called after the other, and was the real So his horn was exalted in blowing Amen.

Barataria so called in honour of the fictitious one? But he lost all his wind after threescore and ten; Cervantes says, in the translation I have :And here, with three wives, he waits till agen

“Sancho then, with all his attendants, arrived at a The trumpet shall rouse him to sing out Amen."

town containing about a thousand inhabitants, which ENILORAC.

was one of the largest and best the duke had. They THE DUCHESS OF DEVONSHIRE.--I have before gave him to understand that it was called the Island of me“ The Passage of the Mountain Saint Gothard,

Barataria, either because Barataria was really the name

of the place, or because he obtained the government of it a Poem, by Georgiana, Duchess of Devonshire," a

at so cheap a rate”; finely printed quarto of 48 pages, 1802, with an

and a translator's note says, “ Barato is the adjecaccompanying French translation by M. l'Abbé de

tive opposed in Spanish to caro, dear, and is Lille, and an inserted portrait represented to me

expressed by our word cheap." I see that on to be that of the authoress, but cut close, and

October 10, 1814, Commodore Daniel Patterson therefore without the inscription it no doubt bore.

addresses a letter from New Orleans to the SecreIt is an oval, seven by five and a half inches, re

tary of the U.S. Navy, acquainting him of the presenting a lady seated before a pillar ; small,

all, success of his expedition against the pirates of thin side face looking to the left, in morning Borg

10g Barataria and the destruction of their establishwrapper, her right hand resting on a book ; hair

ment at the islands of Grandterre, Grand Isle, and brushed back and tied with a ribbon, and a lock

Cheniere. Perhaps some American contributor falling on each shoulder. I can trace no resemblance between the portrait

can say how this place got its name.

W. H. PATTERSON. and that of the abducted charmer lately bewitch

Belfast. ing the town. Perhaps some one having an intact copy will say if this is really Georgiana, the Right OF WAY.--There had always been it authoress, and if she is, notwithstanding, identical path through the churchyard of Walpole St. Peter, with the beauty, but drawn probably by a less near Lynn Regis, and when the new church was masterly hand than that of Gainsborough. built, in the time of Henry VI., the edifice ex

J. O. (tended almost to the verge of the churchyard, Mr. Robert Thornton.—The following ac

thus obstructing the path. The parishioners being

unwilling to give up their path, a vaulted way count of a library of some splendour may not be

y not be į was constructed under the chancel, which caused uninteresting to your readers :“ The splendid library of Mr. Robert Thornton, who

the altar to be approached by ten steps.

IVUS. lately failed in his gambling speculations in the funds,

« ZurückWeiter »