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hold no commission or authority from the sovereign. papers belonging to an old family of that time, In consideration of their being called to the bar of and had some difficulty at first in distinguishing their inn, they are called to the bar of the Supreme the father from the son, as both had the same Court, and there given exclusive audience by the Christian name ; but, as soon as I observed that judges, not by the crown, in virtue of the power the father's letters were addressed A. B., Esq., inherent in every court to decide who shall prac- and those to his son A. B., Gent., the difficulty tise as advocates before it. I apprehend that it is vanished, and all was easy.

P. P. equally incorrect to speak of barristers as Esquires “ by courtesy.As I understand the matter, they All the sons of peers, and the "eldest” sons are Esquires by the general custom of the realm, (but no others) of baronets and knights, are Esi.e. by the common law. Their title is recognized quires by legal right during their lives. High and its use enforced by the courts, which would sheriffs of counties, deputy lieutenants, and justices not be the case were it a mere matter of courtesy of the peace are legally Esquires, but only exAs for M.D.s, I have yet to learn that they are cepting perhaps high sheriffs, who are supposed to Esquires in any sense, either by law or courtesy, retain the title for life) during their tenure of except indeed by that modern courtesy which be office. Barristers are also legally Esquires, the stows the title upon “ butcher, baker, ånd candle-confirmation of their right being a decision at law, stick-maker.” They have no need to covet the that while practising in court they are such, and humble distinction ; for, like the doctors of the therefore, of course, retain the same rank outside, other faculties, they are possessors of a higher as the judges retain that appertaining to them. title, with precedence over mere Esquires. H. is All persons, too, designated in the queen's comunquestionably wrong in contending that a landed missions as Esquire (such as the heralds, superior estate may give this title. Blackstone has long officers in the army and navy, and others) hold ago laid down the contrary (5th S. iv. ubi sup.). the rank. But no property of any kind can give Cf. Perrin v. Marine, and General Travellers' a right to this title in the absence of any such Insurance Co., 2 E. and E. 317. It may be con qualification as above. The lordship of a manor venient here to enumerate all the several varieties may be regarded as an equivalent kind of title, of Esquires. They all fall, I imagine, under one but it must be remembered that the two designaor other of the following heads, viz. : 1. Sons of tions are of different origin, and that the title of peers ; 2. Eldest sons of younger sons of peers, Esquire did not arise from the possession of land and their eldest sons in perpetual succession : 3. | or property.

EDWARD ROWDOX. Eldest sons of knights and their eldest sons in

St. Stephen's Club, S.W. perpetual succession ; 4. Foreign nobles ; 5. Es

It may not be perhaps known to your correspondquires created by the queen's letters patent or other investiture ; 6. Esquires of Knights of the

ent H. that in the diploma of the Royal Acade

micians the title of Esquire is conferred upon them Bath ; 7. Esquires ex officio as justices of the

and their eldest sons, proving that George III., who peace and others ; 8. Barristers-at-law.

created that body by royal charter, little thought MIDDLE TEMPLAR. what a perfect nullity that title would become.

When residing in the neighbourhood of a small No landed property can give the now absurdly town (or rather hamlet) near Windsor, some years abused title of Esquire. I quote from Porney's since, I was much amused to find that, in an Heraldry, an excellent abridgment of Gwillym.

official list drawn up by the vestry clerk, I was There are only two sorts of hereditary Esquires, I designated plain “Mr., whereas two or three viz., the eldest sons of knights and their eldest retired tradesmen had the Esquire, which was my sons for ever, and the eldest sons of the younger right, tacked on to their names. To be sure they sons of noblemen and their eldest sons for ever, kept gigs, and I was only a hartist and walked. and when such male heirs fail the title dies also.

R.A. He adds that the opinion that every man with 3001. a year in land is an Esquire is a vulgar error; “INFANTS IN HELL BUT A SPAN LONG” (2nd S. for no money or land can give the title, but only the xi. 289; 5th S. vi. 256, 316, 352 ; vii. 19, 214. above reason, or the holding some office which gives The Saturday Review (March 24), in commenting the title for life. Strictly speaking, no eldest son on Dean Stanley's address to the students at St. in his father's lifetime is an Esquire, unless for Andrews, says that “the belief in the perdition of some office or commission he holds, and no younger unbaptized infants in the sense evidently intended son of an Esquire has any right to the title at all, (i.e. by the Dean) was never universal, or even even if his father can trace back his twenty gene-general, in Christendom, though it was maintained rations and has a rent roll of 20,0001. a year, by some theologians, and asserted with an unerunless he has the title through some commission ampled coarseness and ferocity of diction by he holds. These rules were in full force in the Calvin." The above statement is directly opposed Stuart period. I have lately had to examine some to one by a writer whom, on matters connected with the history of religious opinion, I venture to Middle Ages, who, although his creed was on think an almost unimpeachable authority, I mean most points sufficiently stern, could not neverMr. Lecky. In his History of Rationalism in theless find it in his heart to assign babes and Europe, he draws a powerful and pathetic picture sucklings to never-ending tortures. I allude to of the influence this baleful doctrine exercised over the following passage in Dante's Purgatorio (c. vii. agonized mothers, who were assured by a Church, 11. 28-33) where Virgil tells Sordello :which they believed to be infallible, that their “Luogo è laggiù non tristo da' martiri, offspring who were either born dead or died before

Ma di tenebre solo, ove i lamenti the rite of baptism could be administered were

Non suonan come guai, ma son sospiri.

Quivi sto io co' parvoli innocenti, burning alive in an unquenchable fire. The entire

Dai denti morsi della morte, avante passage is too long to quote, but the following

Che fosser dall' umana colpa esenti.” extracts are sufficient to show what, according to Mr. Lecky, was the belief of both the early and

The Saturday Review, in the same article that the mediæval Church on the subject :

I have quoted above, says that “the belief that

they (unbaptized children are in a different con“The opinion which was so graphically expressed by the theologian who said he doubted not there were

dition from the baptized is still universal amongst infants not a span long crawling about th

ut the floor of hel is not one of those on which it is pleasing to dilate. It their condition to which the Saturday alludes ? was one, however, which was held with great confidence

JONATHAN BOUCHIER. in the early Church; and if in times of tranquillity it Bexley Heath, Kent. became in a measure unrealized, whenever any heretic ventured to impugn it it was most unequivocally enforced. CAMELS IN EGYPT (5th S. vii. 349.)- The At a period which is so early that it is impossible to define it, infant baptism was introduced into the Church ;] ro

1. traveller referred to by your correspondent is it was adopted by all the heretics as well as by the ortho- certainly correct, and Burckhardt observed the dox; it was universally said to be for the remission of same. He says :sins'; and the whole body of the Fathers, without ex. " Among the innumerable paintings and sculptures in ception or hesitation, pronounced that all infants who the temples and tombs of Egypt, I never met with a died unbaptized were excluded from heaven. In the case

single instance of the representation of a camel. At of unbaptized adults a few exceptions were admitted, | Thebes, in the highest of the tombs, on the side of the but the sentence on infants was inexorable. The learned

Djebil Habow, called Abd el Gorne, which has not, I English historian of infant baptism states that, with the believe. been noticed by former travellers, or by the exception of a contemporary of St. Augustine named | French in their great work, I found all the domestic Vincentius, who speedily recanted his opinion as here- animals of the Egyptians represented together in one tical, he has been unable to discover a single instance of large painting upon a wall, forming the most interesting an orthodox member of the Church expressing the oppo work of the kind which I saw in Egypt. A shepherd site opinion before Hinckmar, who was Archbishop of | conducts the whole herd into the presence of his master, Rheims in the ninth century...... Some of the Greek who inspects them, while a slave is noting them down. Fathers, indeed, imagined that there was a special place | Yet even here I looked in vain for the camel.” assigned to infants where there was neither suffering nor enjoyment, while the Lating inferred from the hereditary

M. Demoulins published in 1823 a learned guilt that they must descend into a place of torment; essay to prove that the camel was not spread over but both agreed that they could not be saved........Ali Africa tiîl after the Christian era, and in it he says through the Middle Ages we trace the influence of this that the ancient writers from the time of Herodoctrine in the innumerable superstitious rites which were devised as substitutes for regular baptism.

dotus, though they wrote of Africa in peace and in

m. Nothi indeed can be more curious, nothing can be more deeply war, never mention the camel. He goes on to show pathetic, than the record of the many ways by which that there were no camels west of the Nile till the the terror-stricken mothers attempted to evade the awful third century of the Christian era. The appearance sentence of their Church.”-History of Rationalism in

of camels west of the Nile took place for the first Europe (ed. 1875), i. 359-368.

time, when the Vandals and Moors revolted, after In his History of European Morals, the same the departure of Belisarius for the reconquest of writer denounces this dogma in terms of the Italy,

P. strongest indignation ; and indeed it is difficult to conceive how such an atrocious idea first entered The following will confirm and explain the into the heads of theologians, except on the sup- observation of PAROCHUS's father :position that the inventors of it never had any “La multiplicité et la perfection des représentations infants of their own, which I suppose was really murales à Saggarah permettraient de raconter la vie de the case. Perhaps the most painful feature of the

cette société dans ses détails les plus familiers....... Son

isolement frappe tout d'abord. Elle vit rigoureusement dogma is the odious libel that it is on the character

renfermée dans l'oasis de la vallée du Nil, tire toutes ses of Him who said through His Son, “Suffer the ressources de cette terre privilégiée et semble ignorer le little children to come unto me and forbid them reste du monde, ignorer l'Asie sa voisine, à laquelle son not, for of such is the kingdom of heaven."

existence sera plus tard si intimement mêlée. Non. It is very pleasant to contrast with the fierce

seulement ses idées, ses croyances, ses arts, mais sa vie

matérielle, ses besoins, jusqu'à ses végétaux et ses animaux, utterances of inbuman theologians on this subject sont exclusivement égyptiens. Ce serait une curieuse the belief expressed by the great poet of the étude de reconstituer la faune de l'ancien empire, avant

l'acclimatation des bêtes de somme asiatiques, avec ces Wales, but I have endeavoured in vain to extract centaines d'animaux figurés sur les bas-reliefs dont la lany meaning from it as a Welsh word. I have scrupuleuse ressemblance ne laisse jamais place au doute.

seen the following etymology, and give it for as Les auxiliaires actuels les plus indispensables de la vie domestique et agricole sont encore inconnus aux colons

much as it is worth : “Gladuse," “ Gladusa," memphites sous les V. et VI° dynasties : le chameau, le “Gladys” (Latin), meaning “lame.” Before I cheval, la brebis, le porc, la poule leur manquent; il assent to this derivation I shall certainly endeavour n'y a pas un seul type de ces espèces dans les scènes

| to get a better one. In the first place I distrust nombreuses où ils ont retracé à satiété tous les travaux de leur vie quotidienne, tout le monde où ils vivaient.”

any theory resting on a derivation of Cymri from Eugène-Melchior de Vogüé,“ Chez les Pharaons, Boulag

Latin, being inclined to think the former the older et Saggarah,” Revue des Deux Mondes, 15 Janvier, 1877, language of the two. Besides this, it appears to p. 352.

me unlikely that a name indicative of a personal HENRI GAUSSERON. defect would be selected as a favourite one for Ayr Academy.

a female. I hope some of your Celtic correspon“NINE HOLES(5th S. vii. 466.)–MR. WAL- dents may be able to throw light upon the subject.

M. H. R. COTT's note and the editorial addition at the end have reminded me of a matter which interested Gwladys or Gladys is the Welsh name for me a good deal two years ago. I first observed Claudia. Claudia, the daughter of Caractacus the “holes” at Westminster, and set them down (Caradoc), was married to Rufus Pudens, a Roman as recent, as I suppose other people have done, patrician, who had filled high civil and military for they must often have been seen. But after-positions in Britain. The brother of Claudia, Linus wards there appeared very strong reasons for sup (Llyn), was ordained, Morgan says, first Gentile posing them to be medieval, so I determined to Bishop of Rome by St. Paul. Lucius, King of search for them in other cloisters as opportunity Britain, A.D. 124-200, married Gwladys, the offered, which unfortunately has not been often, granddaughter of Marius, the successor of Guidebut I have found some-quite enough, indeed, to rius and Arviragus, A.D. 49-90. From her her take away all doubt as to the antiquity of the present Majesty is in direct descent, and Gwladys things. At Canterbury I counted over thirty sets is still a name not uncommonly given to Welsh in the south walk ; and I have notes of many | females.

W. F. MARSH JACKSON. more at Norwich, where they are to be found all round the cloister, together with other holes also, The first query I can only repeat on my own as it seems, the work of idle hands, which lacked account. But I beg to assure O. that Gladys, or not for employment long before Dr. Watts told Gwladis, is a real name-in fact, it is only in history us the name of their employer. All my examples that I have met with it—of Welsh origin, and are Benedictine ; but I have heard of some at

female. The wife of Rhys ap Twdwr, Prince of Lincoln, and now MR. Walcott finds them at South Wales ; the daughter of Llywelyn ap JorChichester, both secular foundations. I shall be werth and Joan, daughter of King John; and the grateful to any reader of “ N. & Q." who finds daughter of Llywelyn ap Gruffudd and Alianora himself with a few minutes to spare in any cloister, de Montfort, all bore the name of Gwladis or and will look out for these things, and let us hear Gladys.

HERMENTRUDE. of any he finds. So far as I know, they are always

The youngest sister of the present Earl of Pemon the bench, on the wall side of the cloister, and at Westminster and Canterbury they are in the Burke's Peerage. &c.).

broke is Lady Constance Gladys Herbert (see

B. W. ADAMS, D.D. part nearest the church.

The Rectory, Santry. Mr. Walcott is mistaken in calling the game played as the “nine holes” nine men's morris, This, with some variations in spelling, such as which is a much superior affair, requiring a more | Wladis, Gwladus, and in Latin charters Gladusa elaborate board, and depending on the taking of and Gladowsa, is a Welsh female Christian dame. the men. Our game has only three men on each Four ladies bearing it occur in the Brut y side, which cannot be taken, and the game is won Tywysogion ; and, to descend to a later period, by the player who can get all his men in a row. Gwladys, daughter of Sir David Garn, and wife of It is indeed, except as to size of board and number Sir William ap Thomas, was the ancestress of all of men, exactly the popular new game of Gobang, | the Herberts.

J. F. M. which, they tell me, was brought from China, name and all.

| “TRAVAIL”: “ TRAVEL" (5th S. vii. 305, 411.) J. T. M.

-MR. Pictox, in his interesting communication ISOLDA : GLADYS (5th S. vii. 428.)-The latter on these words, tells us :-" In the Middle name is found elsewhere than in novels. It is Ages travail was used to designate a wooden a real feminine name, as I have had reason to know frame for shoeing unruly horses.” This form of the (alas that my verb should be in the past tense !). word is new to me in this sense, but Chaucer's Gladys is not an uncommon baptismal name in trave, quoted by Mr. Picton from The Miller's C.

Tale, is in common use in Scotland. In the rural particulars in one of the Swiss papers-it might districts there is in front of most smithies (smiddies have been the Patrie or Journal of Geneva, where they are called the wooden frame Mr. Picton | I was then residing-and making a transcript of refers to. It is called a treviss (so pronounced), it for the Swiss Times. If I am not mistaken, the and is rightly treated always as a plural. This body was discovered in the Mer de Glace ; it was agrees with the Portuguese trave, stocks, fetters, well preserved, and was recognized by an old guide as well as with the French entraves, chains, ob- as the body of a comrade who had been driven stacles. Diez gives these along with many other from his side by an avalanche, while ascending or Romance cognates, and, with Mr. Picton, condescending a mountain peak, many years before. I nects them with Lat. trabes. The following, from shall be most happy to communicate to M. R. any the Manipulus Vocabulorum (1570), may be in- further particulars I may recall to mind, or to give teresting : “ Traue, numelli, numellce; Traues, him the whole record should I come across it. idem, numelli, orum.” Mr. Wheatley adds, as

Cave North. an editorial note, “. Trave for to scho horse in'.

HERALDIC BOOK-PLATES (5th S. vi. 465, 469 ; (Cath. Aug.); Traves, a kind of shackles for a . horse that is taught to amble a pace' (Phillips).

vii. 36, 76, 233, 435.)-Some forty years ago I Trauell, labor; Trauel, laborare; Trauayle, labor;

commenced a collection of heraldic book-plates

which now contains upwards of 20,000 examples. Trauayle, laborare; Trauayle countries, peregrinari."

I think I may with certainty say that when I made Glasgow.

a beginning no other collector was in the field,

certainly not in Lancashire, where I then obtained WILLIAM HOGARTH (5th S. vii. 108, 256, 294, many rare examples. 459.)- This heading affords an opportunity of re- Miss Jenkins, of Bath, made a large collection cording this little book:

of these plates about the year 1820. This col" Remnants of Rhyme. By Thomas Hogwart, of lection, contained in four quarto volumes and Troutbeck. (Uncle to the great Painter.) Selected numbering over 5,000 examples, was purchased by from an old MS. Collection of his Writings preserved me at Messrs. Puttick & Simpson's sale-rooms by his Descendants." 12mo. pp. 77. Kendal, Lee, 1853.

many years ago. I also obtained subsequently A. Cunningham alludes to this Troutbeck con

the collection of foreign book-plates made by Dr. nexion and old Hoggart's “rude satires "; and Wellesley, of Oxford. Many of these are remarkNichols, when collecting his anecdotes of the able examples, some being struck off on vellum painter, got a sight of the curious things preserved and others dating from the latter half of the sixin this volume, which Geo. Steevens denounces as teenth century. “ Poems in every way contemptible, want of | With the exception of a few book-plates collected grammar, metre, sense, and decency being their by Bagford, and which are now in the British invariable characteristics.” But it is not the fashion Museum, I never heard of any other collections. now to withhold any literary curiosities, and A register of collectors' names would be of great Kendal is perhaps proud to bracket its rustic value, since duplicates will accumulate. poet with the world's burlesque artist. J. 0.

I. I. H.

Dartmouth Row, Blackheath. The old Hoggarth who formerly lived at Yew Tree, Rosegill, near Bampton, was my grandfather. LAVENDER (5th S. vii. 389.) I have often used If MR. WALKER would communicate with me I

lavender to remove stains, &c., from cloth and felt would give him some further information.

hats, but have never tried the effect on any other RALPH ATKINSON.

material. I believe there is but little virtue in the Shar, Westmorland.

lavender, as pure rain water has a similar effect. CURIOUS NAMES (5th S. vii. 386.)— The Thurs- |

Moss. day October Christian whom Mr. Roberts takes “TO-YEAR” (5th S. vii. 426.)-This word, meanout of the Standard would be, I suppose, the ing the present or passing year, was in common grandson of the original Thursday October. This use in the agricultural parts of the East Riding of was a son of John Christian, one of the mutineers | Yorkshire forty years ago, as I can testify. of the Bounty, and was, I believe, the first born on

S. J. Pitcaird's. MR. ROBERTS will find all this in any

ARMS BORNE BY Ladies (5th S. vii. 428.)- An history of the colony. Thursday October was, of

unmarried lady would be entitled to bear arms on course, named from the day and month of his birth. C. F. Š. Warren, M.A.

a coat and in a lozenge if her father be a gentleBexbill.

man lawfully bearing arms, but not otherwise.

The sovereign only, who is the fountain of honour, Human Body FOUND IN A GLACIER (5th S. vii. can grant this hereditary title of “gentleman law428.)-An instance of the kind occurred in 1872 fully bearing arms," through the Earl Marshal and or 1873, I forget which. I remember reading the Kings-at-Arms. No amount of landed or other

property would give this title of the minor order The literal meaning of colt-staff is a lever, French of nobility in this country, of “gentleman lawfully | levier (“ bâton pour soulever et remuer quelque bearing arms,” to the father or to the son, or the fardeau”).

- John PARKIN. title of gentlewoman” to the daughter. If the Idridgehay, Derby. young gentlewoman marry a gentleman lawfully! THE Vow of KING CHARLES I. (5th S. vi. 189.) bearing arms, her husband would bear her arms - This important document, or a copy of it, was impaled with his own; or if the wife have no l in the possession of Mr. Upcott in the year 1836. brother, the husband would bear his wife's arms

He described it in that year at p. 9 of his privately on an escutcheon of pretence, and their children

| printed catalogue, entitled " Original Letters, would, in the latter case, bear their father's and

Manuscripts, and State Papers. Collected by mother's arms quarterly.

Wm. Upcott, Islington, 1836.” It seems to have J. LLEWELYN Curtis.

come under the notice of Disraeli, who states that " THAN” AS A PREPOSITION (5th S. yii. 308, it was attested by several eminent persons (Com454, 494.)-The English is certainly portentous. I mentaries on the Life and Reign of Charles I., Than (formerly identical with then) is no more

1851, vol. ii. p. 438). Who is the present possessor a preposition than the Latin quam would be. In of the document !

J. E. BAILEY. fact, one might just as well write in Latin

Miss MARTINEAU'S Essays (5th S. vii. 468.) “ Nam pulcrior tu es puella quam hanc,

The “ Essay on Moral Independence," quoted by Ut ille sublimior vates quam me”!

Mrs. Chapman in her Memorials of Harriet Mar. C. S. JERRAM.

tineau, is given in extenso in Miscellanies by HIC ET UBIQUE does not quote correctly (ante,

Harriet Martineau, 2 vols., Boston, 1836. It is p. 419). It should be

not stated where this essay originally appeared. " For thou art a girl as much brighter than her.”

In Miss Martineau's preface to these two volumes I do not consider this to be bad grammar.

she says : “ They contain the greater part of my Murray and other grammarians recognize the use

contributions to periodicals during the years 1829,

1830, 1831, and 1832.” I have looked over the of than as a preposition. We always say “than whom," chiefly for the sake of euphony.

volumes of the Monthly Repository for the years E. YARDLEY.

named, as she was a constant contributor to that

periodical, but I cannot find in them the essay in PREMONSTRATENSIAN ABBEYS (5th S. vi. 288, question. The two volumes of Miscellanies 411, 524; vii. 234, 297, 390.)-I will supplement contain much interesting matter, viz., philosophical the list at the last reference :

essays, essay in six chapters on the “ Art of ThinkBeauchief, Derbyshire, founded 1183 by Robert filing," “ Sabbath Musings” in six chapters, moral Ranulphi, Lord of Alfreton. Value, 1571. 10s. 2d. essays, parables, poetry, tales, reviews, &c. Granted 28 Hen. VIII. to Sir Nicholas Strelley.

ALEX. IRELAND. Le Dale, Derbyshire, founded 1204 by William Fitz

Inglewood, Bowdon, Cheshire.
Rauf and Jeffrey de Salicosa Mare. Value, 1441. 12s.
Granted 35 Hen. VII. to Francis Poole.

THE OLDEST PROVINCIAL CIRCULATING LI-
S. Agatha, of Easby, Yorkshire, founded 1152 by BRARIES (5th S. y. 188, 314; vii. 26, 113, 354,
Roald, Constable of Richmond Castle. Value,
1881. 168. 2d. Granted temp. Phil. and Mary to Ralph

452.)-In my original note on this subject (ante, Gower.

p. 26) I claimed for the Rochdale Library that it Torr Abbey, Devonshire, founded 1196 by William was probably the longest lived if not the oldest Briwer. Value, 3961. Os. lld. Granted 35 Hen. VIII. to in England.” Mr. PICTON has proved that both John St. Leger. Home Lacey, or Hamm, Herefordshire, founded by

as to antiquity and longevity it must yield the William Fitzwain, temp. Hen. III.*

palm to Liverpool. Will MR. LANGFORD kindly Kalenda, Northamptonshire, a cell founded by William

say if the Birmingham Library is still in existence, Buttevillan.t Value xxx'. Granted 33 Hen. VIII. to and if not, give the date of its decease? As far as Francis Pygot.

we have gone, the matter stands thus :- Liverpool,

M. V. established about 1756 or 1757, and still in HOWELL'S LETTERS (5th S. vii. 148, 211, 314.) |

existence; Manchester, established 1765 (or - Cacams are Jewish doctors. For Alfange read

earlier), sold in 1867 ; Settle, established 1770, Alfaques, who among the Spanish Morescos were

still existing ; Rochdale, established 1770, broken the clergy, or those who instructed them in the

up (or, rather, amalgamated with the Free Library) Mahometan faith. Colt-staves ; this, I imagine, is

in 1876.

H. FISHWICK, F.S.A. a figure of speech for bearing a charge or burden. FREEMASONS AND BEKTASHGEES (5th S. vii. * Dugdale and Tanner (from whom this list is com.

323, 398, 435, 472.)-Mr. James's false analogy piled) both say that from the lapse of time all further

is almost funny. He should have added that if a account of this abbey is lost.

Christian amphitryon invites & Jew stockbroker + Idem.

to dine at his house with other guests, the party

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