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than we intended: And that if, upon the whole, we have endeavoured to give the clearest and most impartial account of foreign and domestic transactions, which the limited and imperfect information, that can be obtained fo near the time of their being acted, will admit of, we shall still continue to meet with that indulgence, which we have hitherto so happily experienced.

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State of the Belligerent Powers. Ruffia. Conduct of the Neutral Powers.

Probable consequences of t'e war. Turky. Firmness of the Grand Signior. Probability of a Peace. Spain. Falkland's Ijlands. Great Britain. Portugal.

HE great successes of the able general, would in themselves

Ruffians in the two laft have nearly provided for the sup

campaigns, though flatter- port of the war. ing and brilliant, have not been In the present instance, the conproductive of those immediate ad- quered countries are in fo ruined a. vantages, which would have attend- state, that instead of contributing ed conquests of the fame nature in to defray the expences of the war, other parts of the world. The fer- they cannot supply the common artile and extensive provinces between ticles of fubfiitence; and forage is the Danube and the Niefter, if they the principal, if not the only aid, had been situated in the cultivated which they can afford to their de. parts of Europe or Asia, and sub- fenders or assailants. ject only to the well-regulated ra- The Russians will, liowever, depine of a disciplined army under an rive great advantages in the future VOL. XIII.



operations of the war from this ac. the Danube and the Niester ; by cefion of territory; and being in their expedition to the Mediterrapossession of all the fortresses, and nean, they seem to have enclosed the Turks driven totally beyond all Europe, from the bottom of the the Danube, this state of security, Baltic, to the Streights of the Daras well as that arising from the sub- danelles, within the line of their mission of the Budziac Tartars, will hostility. Extraordinary events are encourage the remaining natives to feldom brought about, without a cultivate their lands and rebuild singular concurrence of circumtheir houses, and the fugitives to stances to facilitate their executior; return to their country. Nor will and it may perhaps be found, that the Turks find it easy now to renew most of the great revolutions which the war on this side of the Danube; have taken place in the history of an attempt, in which they will ex- mankind, would have failed, if perience many of the same difficul- they had been attempted at any ties, which we had formerly shewn other time than that precise æra, would attend the progress of the which seemed calculated for their Russians, if they were to extend completion, and to have removed their operations into Bulgaria. In or smoothed every obstacle to their either case the river will be found a fuccefs." This expedition is one of very important barrier.

those remarkable events which could Though the Tartars of the Crim have as little taken place, as the and Little Tartary, as well as those attempt could have been believed of Oczacow, have hitherto conti- or foreseen, at any period of time nued frın in their attachment to the prior to the present. Porte, and have despised all the of- It had become the policy of the fers as well as threats, which have great European commercial powers, been used to detach them from it; long before Russia was mistress of a yet it can scarcely be conceived by thip, to suffer no new maritime the present appearance of affairs, state to spring up amongst them; that without the intervention of nor did the antiquity of the repubSome other power, or some extra- lic of Genoa protect her from the ordinary and unexpected good for- jealousy of Lewis the Fourteenth, tune on the side of the Turks, they when she, who had before aspired can be able to withstand the power to be a rival for the commerce of the of Rullia for another campaign. The world, was restrained from building Turkish operations on the Danube ships in her own docks; and even can be considered as little more than restricted as to the possession of more a diversion in their favour, and in than a specified number. Arbi. the present wretched ftate of their trary precedents of the same nature marine, the support by the Black were not unknown in antiquity; Sea must be weak and uncertain. and it is no wonder that the moNor is any extraordinary, defence dern European states, whose avito be expected from the fortress of dity for commerce, as soon as they Oczacow; single and exposed as it had tasted her sweets, was beyond is, without support, and the dread- all former example, and involved ful fate of Bender before its eyes,

them in continual wars While the Ruflians triumph upon themselves for the share they should




possess in her favour, should eager- bitrarily displays in all the affairs of ly convert such precedents to their the north. own advantage, and behold every Such, however, are the peculiar new rival for it with the extremelt circumstances of the present times, jealousy,

and such the extraordinary fortune Peter the Great's efforts to create of the Empress Catherine, that with sailors and a navy, were beheld with a very moderate naval force, ill admiration as a novelty, and as the found and ill provided, and manextraordinary attempts of an extra- ned with raw and unexperienced ordinary man. His great ships and failors, she has sent fire and sword his land admirals were amufing to into the shores of Greece, and the himself and to others in the Baltic, isles of the Archipelago. and destructive to Sweden in the Great Britain, indeed, beheld declining state of that kingdom. without uneasiness, the aggrandizeSuch a naval force as could be form- ment of a power, in whose alliance ed in such a sea, and locked up the is to look for a balance to the within it, was of little consequence family compact. France does not to the great commercial states; and chuse to interfere in a quarrel which it was the ftrict policy of these, as might bring into the Mediterranean well as of later times, that it should an English, to the aid of a Russian be confined to those limits.

feet. The distress which the LeThe particular jealousywith which vant trade suffers, is more felt by the Mediterranean powers have at France than by Great Britain ; and all times regarded every intrusion Great Britain profits more by the on that sea, which being surround- prosperity of the Ruffian arms and ed by their dominions, they seem empire, than she suffers by a temin some measure to consider as their porary suspension of her commerce peculiar property, would in any other in that part of the world, where our circumstances of public affairs, have dealings are not near so extensive as proved an insuperable bar to this those of France. If the progress of the enterprize. Nor is this attempt Russian arms Mould meet any check, more repugnant to the principles it must be owing to the intervention adopted by the commercial states, of Prusia and Austria; neither of than it is to the general political which powers can see, without a system of Europe, which has been rational alarm, Russia becoming the so long and so eagerly pursued, and mistress of Poland, and the total which to preserve a due equilibrium destroyer of the Turkish empire ; is totally averse to the making of out of whose ruins fomething truly great conquests, or to the forma- formidable might arise in time. tion of a new dominion.. To all This Mediterranean expedition these standing impediments to an has however, hitherto, answered more attempt of this nature, may be ad- the purpose of damage to the eneded, the general dread entertained my, than of direct benefit to Rullia. of the over-grown power of Rusia, The passage of the Dardanelles has and a convi&tion of the consequen- not been made good, nor does there ces that have already ensued from seem any great probability, as it that supreme ascendant which she was not effected during the first surhas acquired, and which the fo ar. prize and confusion, that it should

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