« ZurückWeiter »
breezes, upon whose faithful flow he can | easier than to ascertain the depth of the depend for more than five months toge- sea at any particular spot. Heave out the ther-breezes which will kindly bear his lead, give it as much rope or line as it bark in one direction, and carry it back requires, and when it ceases to run from as well—to those Saharas which seem the real, you have gauged the abyss to a such scars and blemishes on the face of a yard. The task, however, is more diffiour planet. “He that made both sea and cult than it looks. The sea is as coy in land,” says Bishop Hall, “causeth both revealing its depths as a lady in disclosing of them to conspire to the opportunities her age. In the profounder probings of of doing good.”
the ocean how are you to know when the Still what of the depths of the ocean? weight really touches the bottom ? Some To know something of the surface is by persons would tell us that at a certain no means sufficient. Naturally we feel distance from the surface the resistance as curious to probe those silent abysses must become so great that the lead will and to investigate the secrets of Neptune's cease to sink, and that even parted anchors halls as Bluebeard's wife did to pry into and iron cables must remain in suspension. the mysteries of the sealed chamber. This fancy rests upon the assumption that Unfortunately it is not easy to grotify this water is a compressible fluid; for not until laudable longing. The lively and ingeni- its particles were crushed into such small ous Bishop Wilkins—he who maintained compass that a cubic inch of the liquid the possibility of constructing a flying should equal a cubic inch of the metal in chariot which would transport any enter- gravity, could the latter be induced to prising gentleman to the moon—was also float. Practically speaking, however, of opinion that an “ark” could be contriv- water may be regarded as an obstinate ed whereby the bed of the sea might be and irreducible thing, for Oersted ascerexplored, and various interesting dis- tained that under the pressure of each coveries effected not only of sunken trea- additional atmosphere it shrunk to the sures but of remarkable physical pheno-extent of forty-six millionths of its bulk mena. Upon this enchanting topic his only. But still in attempting to fathom lordship is delightfully loquacious; and Neptune's domains, currents may carry after discussing the means by which the out the line, and you may imagine that submarine vessel is to be moved, its fouled the plummet is plowing its way through atmosphere rectified, its passengers re- the waters long after it has reached the ceived or discharged, he asserts that bed of the sea. In 1852, Lieut. Parker “ whole colonies may thus inhabit,” living ran out mile after mile of cord while exconstantly at the bottom of the sea, ploring the ocean off the coast of Southprinting their observations on the spot, America. Deep seemed to call unto deep, and even bringing up families, whose sur- for here no bottom could be found, though prise, on ascending for the first time to ten miles of line were delivered. But on survey the glories of this upper world, is subsequent trials it was discovered that joyously depicted. Tis a grievous pity the true depth was not more than three that the project of this charming visionary miles, and the discrepancy could only be can not be realized; for who would not explained by referring it to the disturbing exult to learn that arks manned by crews action of currents, which may sweep of savans were groping their way along away the cord, or gather it into loops if the floors of the Atlantic and Pacific in they happen to flow in contrary direcall directions, and that sooner or later the tions. geography of the drowned portions of the Amongst the various contrivances which globe would be taught in our schools as have been proposed or adopted for ascerfamiliarly at least as that of Africa or taining when the bed of the sea is really Japan ? But, alas! we know well that reached, some are intended to tell their the pressure of the water upon any man own tale de profundis, either by ringing ageable vessel would be too prodigious bells, exploding shells, giving electroto admit of any extensive descent, and magnetic signals, working clock - machithat the difficulty of procuring fresh air nery, or registering the pressure to which would forbid any prolonged sojourn be- a column of air is exposed. None of these, neath the surges of the ocean.
however, have served their purpose effectPerhaps, however, the reader may be ually, and some have egregiously failed. dispose to imagine that nothing could be In the navy of the United States a very
simple plan has been employed. Nothing tenant Parker by sub-currents as already more than a cannon-ball with a sufficient described. Further investigations, conlength of twine is required for each ex- ducted by the aid of Maury's law of periment. The latter, marked into lengths descent, have sadly curtailed these estiof one hundred fathoms and wound on mates of ocean profundity. reels of ten thousand fathoms, can be greatest depths at which the bottom of sacrificed at small cost, and thus the labor the sea has been reached with the plumof upheaving the apparatus is spared. Of met,” says this writer, “ are in the Northcourse a thirty-two pound ball, though Atlantic Ocean, and the places where it necessarily lost, is quite as honorably em- has been fathomed do not show it to be ployed in ransacking the deep as in deeper than twenty-five thousand feet. battering a hostile fort. Subject to The deepest part is probably somewhere certain inevitable infirmities, this easy between the Bermudas and the Grand contrivance has done good service in Banks, but how deep it may be yet the American navy, and by carefully remains for the cannon-ball and soundingstudying the average times of descent twine to determine." for different depths, it has become possible Something more, however, was still to judge whether the movement of the required. Could not an apparatus be line is due to the legitimate progress of contrived which would bring up specimens the weight or to the impertinent action of matter from the bed of the ocean, and of currents.
enable us to discover what was going on And pray, what is the depth of the in those gloomy and unvisited recesses ? ocean? Speculatively, it has been assum- Mr. Brooke, of the United States navy, ed that the greatest depression at sea set his wits to work, and proposed a would not exceed the highest elevation scheme for the purpose. A shot, slung on land; but bolder conclusions have also to a rod, is so arranged that, when it been deduced. Dr. Whewell, for exam- strikes the bottom, it shall be released. ple, has inferred that the Atlantic may In a small cavity at the extremity of this have valleys which it would take a line nine rod a little soap or tallow is placed, and miles in length to fathom. At the meeting as it alights perpendicularly, any trifling of the British Association in 1855, Mr. substance will adhere, and may be drawn W. Darling suggested that, since the up to the surface for examination. It is ocean occupies three times the area of the needless to say that the apparatus was land, the waters are probably thrice as speedily applied. deep at their maximum point as the tallest What, then, is there at the bottom of of our mountains is lofty. And certainly the ocean? It may well be imagined that some very romantic results have occasion. the first specimens drawn from the sunless ally been obtained. Sir James Ross abysses of the Atlantic would be regarded sounded at the distance of nine hundred with peculiar interest. Up there came a miles from St. Helena, but his plummet number of calcareous shells belonging to could apparently find no resting place at foraminifera, and a smaller number of silia depth of twenty-seven thousand six cious shells belonging to diatomaceæ ; in hundred feet, or five and a quarter miles. other words, the floor of the sea at the Lieutenant Walsh sounded with thirty- depth of more than two miles was found four thousand feet, or six and a half to be strewn, not with sánd or gravel, as miles, and proved equally unsuccessful. might have been expected, but with the Lieutenant Berryman sounded mid-ocean remains of microscopic creatures. Simiwith thirty-nine thousand feet, or seven lar throws in the South-Pacific brought and a half miles; but he, too, failed to up representatives of numerous animaleriprobe the abyss.
abyss. Captain Denham lar groups; neither of the two orders sounded in the South-Atlantic, between just mentioned, however, being very the island of Tristan d'Acunha and the abundant. The result of various soundmouth of the Rio de la Plata, and dis- ings in the North-Pacific, as high as the covered bottom at forty-six thousand two sixtieth parallel of latitude, showed that hundred and thirty-six feet, or nearly eight the bed of the sea was still paved with inand three quarters of a mile.
fusorial shells; but that, unlike the AtlanBut how little trust can be placed in tic products, the samples were particularly these returns from the abyss must be rich in the silicious shells of diatoms, manifest from the trick played on Lieu. I whilst they were destitute of the calcar
eous fragments of foraminifera. Yet, if greatest undertakings in nature is intruststartled by the discovery that the sea is ed to agents the smallest, the feeblest, floored with little organisms, we must not and apparently the most inefficient. If hastily conclude that the creatures passed we wanted a new island, we should never their lives in these dismal depths. `More think of giving the order to a company probably they floated near the surface, of coral insects: nor if a new breakwater, and, when their ephemeral existence con- could we expect any number of infusoria cluded, each tiny shell began its funeral to construct it out of their shells. Yet descent, and sank by slow stages to its here are some of the puniest things in resting place in the huge watery mauso- creation, not only engaged in building leum. For we must now look upon the future platforms of being, but in temperocean bed as a vast burial-ground, where ing the existing climates of the globe, and millions upon millions of animalcules are in maintaining the salubrity of the existdaily interred; with what object we may ing ocean by their labors on its salts. As readily guess. The solid matter abstracted fast as the rains dissolve these ingredients from the waters by their curious chemical“ and send them down through the rivers powers is thus conveyed to the bottom of to the sea, these faithful and everlasting the sea, where it is gradually forming agents of the Creator elaborate them into deposits, such as we see exemplified in the pearls, shells, corals, and precious things; rocks of the olden world. That the pro- and so, while they are preserving the sea, cess of accumulation must be tardy, they are also embellishing the land by imindeed, can not be denied, but it is a not- parting new adaptations to its soil, fresh able fact that the execution of some of the beauty and variety to its landscapes."*
From the London Quarterly.
LIFE AND TIMES OF CAREY, MARSHMAN, AND WARD.*
GREAT honor is designed for the me- | ful tale of Carey, Ward, and his own famory of the fathers of the Serampore Mis- ther, in a work which no missionary, or sion. No Englishman of the present gene- statesman, or student of Indian affairs, ration will forget, and the history of Eng. can safely dispense with or honestly ignore. land will convey to those of future times, It is the moral history of North-India, and how the heart of the nation, when sore of the Indian Government, illustrated by with repeated tidings of disaster in India, and interwoven with a strange tale of enwas first relieved, and then filled with ex- terprise, almost incredible mental prodi. ultation, by gleam after gleam of victory gies, and eminent Christian graces. It from the sword of a hero leading a slender is well told. The author has the advanband ; and how good men told with de- tage of perfect familiarity with the scenes light, that Havelock was a son-in-law of and persons to which his narrative related. Dr. Marshman, the missionary.
Yet sufficient time has elapsed to make The same distinguished man left a son, the men already public personages. The who was long recognized as the unrivaled work has the double advantage of history leader of the Indian press, and who, in and biography—the elevation and gravity the columns of the Friend of India, has of the one, with the liveliness and personal exerted no inconsiderable influence on its interest of the other. Mr. Marshman is a history. Retired now to England, he has practiced writer, holds his pen easily, employed his leisure in telling the wonder- never tries to be eloquent, but often is so;
Life and Times of Carey, Marshman, and One striking result of these deep sea-soundings Ward, Embracing the History of the Serampore has been the discovery of a line of volcanic cinders, Mission. By John CLARK MARSUMAN. In Iwo a thousand miles in extent, which reaches entirely Volumes. Longmans. 1869.
across the course of the Gulf Stream.
and now and then seasons with a gentle At sixteen the death of his master grain of salt. You feel at once that your transferred him, as a journeyman, to one author is outspoken and fair. He does Mr. Old. The well-known commentator not hesitate to set forth the faults of his Scott paid pastoral visits in this family. heroes, or to let it be seen that mission. There his eye was struck by “a sensiblearies are subject to infirmities like other looking lad in his working-apron,” and he men. He is an honest Baptist, a frank foretold that he would be as no ordinary Dissenter, and perhaps a little hard on character.” He who thus foresaw his Bishops; not so much on the genus as a greatness, was a leading instrument of his whole, as on that anomalous species of it, conversion. Carey, chiefly through the the Colonial prelate, who, being a Bishop, influence of a fellow-servant, received deep is always wondering why he is not a religious impressions. That fruitful fear baron. But genial and manly through- which leads to efforts after salvation, lay out, though he deals a few knocks on heavily upon his soul. Mr. Scott's preachnames we are wont to honor, he seems to ing was a blessing to him, which he never feel his reasons to be good, and does not forgot; and, by slow and dimly lighted give offense. The variety of incident, the steps, he rose out of the pit of despondovetailing of events, the shifting of the dency into the sunshine of Christian life. scene, are all admirably managed; and He had not long experienced the joy of men are made to live before you, without true religion, before he began to tell of it formal descriptions of them.
to others. His neighbors relished the We could have wished the conversions words of the wise journeyman. He was both of some of the leaders and their called to one village and another to disciples more fully given. History is preach. In the midst of this good work gradually getting deeper into man, from he adopted Baptist views; and Dr. Ry. the camp and court to the arts, from them land of Northampton says, that to social life, and at length will come to 5th of October, 1783, he baptized a poor the root of all life, the soul. Conversion journeyman shoemaker in the river Nen, has yet to be fairly recognized in general a little beyond Dr. Doddridge's chapel in history as an element in national life, Northampton.” Who, upon the banks quite as much as genius or power. It is of the Nen that day, imagined that the here in the world. It has affected men poor youth would win a name on the who have influenced nations. The histo- banks of the Ganges greater than all the rians must deal with it, or evade the most celebrities of Northampton ? copious source of light upon moral ques Mr. Old died, and Carey, at nineteen, tions. Mr. Marshman is far from over took a business and a wife. He never looking conversion; but we should have was capable of managing the former, and been glad had he, in one or two cases, the latter was not to be managed. Not given the inner history of a soul, as only was she infinitely his inferior, but infully as D'Aubigné has done that of Lu- capable of understanding his pursuits, or ther.
feeling proper respect for his grand chaNo historian has told us what kind of a racter. She was a weight and a tease shoemaker was Clarke Nichols of Hackle- for him while she lived ; leaving a lesson, ton; but he had the most wonderful ap- that men whom Providence marks with prentice in Northamptonshire. The son gifts above their original position ought of the parish clerk and school-master of to beware how they tie themselves for life Pury, William Carey had what store of to a perpetual reproach. Nothing prosletters his father could give. To this he pered but his garden. His congregation had added the whole of a Latin vocabu- could not give him as much as would buy lary found some how. He was always clothes. He was long beset with fever busier with the structure of plants and in- and ague. He trudged and toiled to sects than of soles and uppers. In Nichols's make and sell shoes; but gave up his first house he found a Commentary with here" charge," and came to be over a little and there a Greek word. Of course he Baptist flock in the village of Moulton. was puzzled, but was not to be put down. Here he hoped to do well by taking up At Pury lived a learned weaver, Tom a school, the master of which had just left Jones; and Carey carefully copied each the place. But his genius did not lie in Greek word as best he could, and carried the pedagogue's line any more than in it for a translation.
the tradesman's. “When I kept school,”
was his own remark afterwards, “it was could glean as to the people of the re.
Moulton was a memorable place to than either. In as common a cottage as
out: "Young man, sit down! When It was in a poor cot, in that poor vil. God pleases to convert the heathen, he lage, that, after reading Cook's Voyages, will do it without your aid or mine!" he was teaching some boys geography. All the old men of his denomination were Christendom was a small part of the steadily against him. By degrees the world. The heathen were many. Was young were brought to his side. While it not the duty of Christians to go to the he and his family were passing weeks heathen? It does not appear that he had without animal food, and with but short received this idea from any one. IIis ob- provision of other kinds, he prepared a scure position, and the absence of mission- pamphlet on this great theme. Mr. Marshary spirit in his religious associates, kept man says that it " displayed extraordinary him from all knowledge of what had been knowledge of the geography, history, and felt or done. God sent the thought direct statistics of the various countries of the from heaven into his own soul. It in- world, and exhibited the greatest menflamed and filled it. It became his chief tal energy, under the pressure of the theme. With different sheets pasted to severest poverty."
her he made a kind of Map of the At the age of twenty-eight, Carey reWorld, and entered all the particulars he moved to Leicester, somewhat improving