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home. In case these injunctions are spare forests to burn; or if the rain-makobeyed, your lands will be speedily glad- ing is to be accomplished by such condened by a rich effusion from the sky. ductors as balloons can carry, we could What may be the price of a good nimbus scarcely expect the drenching received does not exactly appear, but doubtless by the soil to be either extensive or prothere are people in Europe as well as in found. Africa who would pay a handsome sum if Looking, then, at water as the great a really superior article could be procured agent of fertility, as the chosen element whenever they wished.
by which the world is kept sappy and The Caffre rain-doctor, however, does verdant, we ask whether the arrangements not pretend to work on philosophical prin- made for the regular distribution of this ciples. Others, more learned and intelli- fluid are not singularly felicitous ? Long gent, have proposed to accomplish the ago the land would have been totally same end by strictly scientific means. drained, and every river would have run Several years ago Mr. Espy of the United itself dry, had there been any flaw in the States suggested that clouds might be machinery by which the floods are uplifted produced by kindling large fires, and in- from their beds, and restored in needful ducing the air to ascend in huge columns, quantities
antities to the soil. But nature's which would draw in vapor and insure a gigantic water-works are never at fault. precipitation of moisture. This opinion Every year whole lakes are hoisted into was supported by the fact that where the atmosphere and lowered with such large prairies have been set alight as in exquisite precision that seed-time and Louisiana, or extensive forests burnt as in harvest, the former rain and the latter Nova Scotia, heavy discharges of wet rain, are certain to arrive in due succeshave invariably resulted. For the same sion. The sea is ever laboring for the reason great battles and sea-fights are said land. The traffic between the billow and to produce rain, though Arago's observa- the furrow is conducted by the ministry tions on artillery-practice by no means fa- of the clouds. Pleasant to think of these vor the conclusion; and the tall chimneys beautiful carriers of moisture! Filled as of manufacturing towns may likewise tend it were by invisible hands at the storeto excite a drizzle such as that for which houses of vapor, they catch the breeze, Manchester is distinguished. Mr. Rowell, and make for the shore, where they however, considers that a stratum of moist deliver their load, some on the plains, that air may be tapped by withdrawing its the fields may rejoice in the refreshing electricity, and for this purpose he sug- shower, some on the mountain slopes, that gests that conductors should be raised to the brooks and streams may be fed; and the clouds by the agency of balloons. In then the surplus food which the ground confirmation of his views he quotes Mr. rejects is rolled off to the ocean only that Weekes, of Sandwich, who states that on it may return with generous obstinacy, several occasions, whilst operating with and thus pursue its never-tiring rounds. electrical kites under a light fleecy cloud By the same means, too, the heat and moderately elevated, after a current of electric fire which the vapor abstracts sparks had passed from the apparatus for from the surface are transported into the ten or twelve minutes, he found himself upper regions of the air, and thrown out bedewed with a fine misty rain, and on in the colder strata where some equalizing looking up to the cloud, discovered that process is required. And not less useful it was greatly reduced in its dimensions. is the rain in scouring the atmosphere, Of course, if we adopt Mr. Rowell's theo- dissolving foreign ingredients, sweeping ry of rain, there can be but little difficulty down impurities, and cleansing the ground in admitting that masses of vapor may itself from much that is feculent and unbe broached like beer-barrels, and, as a healthy. Nor is it to be forgotten that matter of philosophical experiment, it this mild gentle meteor is an active agent might be very delectable to create a gen- in the great geological operations by which tle though a transient mizzle in a time of the level of land and ocean is altered, and obstinate drought, but as a practical ques- the very aspect of the planet remodeled tion we fear that, if the smoke of a great during the long run of ages; for the soft conflagration is necessary to abstract the water-drops are chisels in the hand of electricity of the vapor le jeu ne vaudra | Time with which he indents the vales, pas la chandelle, seeing that we have no seams the sides of the hills, and even
abrades the granite rocks, and where I lavishly that the work of exhumation was accessible, lowers the pride of their craggy postponed. Next morning, when the atcrowns.
tempt was renewed, the clouds gave out Spite, then, of all the discomforts which their contents as before. For forty days are incident to turbid skies and muddy did the windows of heaven continue open; paths and splashy streets, let us admit until at length, discovering that the good that rain is one of the finest and most fas- saint entertained a strong objection to the cinating phenomena in the universe. translation of his remains, the monks were Touching as well as beautiful was the fain to abandon their project, and leave dying request of Saint Swithin, Bishop of him to his rainy repose. And if there Winchester in the reign of Egbert, who could be any sense of poetry in the tomb, departed this life in the year 836: “Let would it not be sweeter to rest where the me,” said he, “ be buried where the rain- clouds might cast their shadows on the drops may water my grave." For a grassy grave, where the showers might hundred years, accordingly, the clouds softly descend like the tears of lamenting were permitted to weep freely over his friends, where the smiling sunshine might resting-place; but at the expiration of gild the fallen drops, as Faith alone can that time the monks resolved to convey gild the griefs of life, where the winds the defunct prelate into the interior of might come and go, whispering peace and the church. "It was an honor for which murmuring their gentle dirges for the the episcopal shade had no desire. Dead dead-sweeter far, we say, thus to lie, as he was, he took measure (so the tradi- than to be imprisoned in lonely state in a tion runs) to frustrate the pious scheme, splendid mausoleum, like a captive lodged and at the period appointed, the fifteenth mockingly in some dark dungeon of of July, the floods began to descend so marble ?
WHEN, enveloped in a cloud, folded up | troop of friends the dimmest, remotest, by the tender care of his Goddess Mother, faintest notion of the cloud that concealed that pious hero Æneas, hidden from his him, what efforts would have been made friends, enjoyed the privilege of watch. to rend it, what cries, what clamors, what ing all their proceedings, he was tasting supplications to the goddess to unvail him the pleasures of reserved character; they before the appointed time; for human standing in the light to him and he in the nature has a detestation of concealmentdark to them. He knew all that they a detestation which proceeds from many were about, and they knew nothing about causes. There is curiosity, in itself a him. Nay, they did not even know that strong impulse; there is pride, and there they knew nothing; for though they were is suspicion. Curiosity longing to peep aware that their eyes did not behold him, behind the curtain, pride resenting the they were not aware that he was near absence of confidence, and suspicion sugenough to them in the relations of space gesting that where the lock is so rigidly to admit of the possibility of his being secured, there must be some blue chamber seen. He was experiencing the delight with its unpleasant contents behind it. without the danger of a reservation ; for The reserved man, therefore, is an object he was not suspected of withholding him- of dislike and distrust; but he is also a self. Had he been suspected-had there subject of interest. He repels confidence, entered into the mind of any one of that but he excites attention; and he has the
whole enjoyment of his own individuality. “Why didst thou send me here? He rejoices in the superiority of an unim Here in this city of the blind to dwell, parted knowledge. Is it not agreeable
With sight too darkly clear ?" from a high window to survey the move It was part of her penalty that she was ments of a crowd below? — dancing, obliged to express herself. laughing, leaping, fighting, crying, kiss Men have been distinguished from ing-to analyze their agitations—to smile beasts, say the loquacious, proudly, by at their disturbances—to be yourself se- the gift of speech. True; but have they cure and still — a looker-on who is not not also been distinguished by the gift of looked at—to be audience to a drama, silence? They are not constrained to and to criticise the actors who can not purr, or to wag their tails when they are criticise you?
pleased, or to howl and caterwaul when This is the privilege of the reserved they are in extremities; they are allowed man.
to reserve their emotions. The human He conceals his emotions, he buries his countenance, the most delicate indicator feelings, he masks his passions. He con- of feeling, the dial that may with its retrols his features: every muscle is under cord fix the shadow of every flitting pashis command; there is no such thing sion, can silence its indications at will, with him as a spontaneous movement. and become a mere blank. A decent He revels in a continual victory. He gravity of expression may cover anger; baffles curiosity, he defeats expectation, tenderness may hide itself securely behind he destroys hope. He wears his shroud the wall of compressed lips; exultation before he is in his tomb. The inquisitive may bury itself under downcast eyelids; crowd will pluck at it, but will draw a movement of joy may shelter itself beback shivering when they feel how cold neath the wrinkles of the brow, or the it is.
whole features in combination may be They wonder, they fear, they admire-ordered by the commanding officer to and they admire with good reason. The stand at ease in a position of total repose power of concealment is in itself worthy while the thoughts are full of war and of admiration; the man who wears so tumult. No other creature but man has strong an armor must needs be a strong this power; it is a high privilege which man, and it is the consciousness of a valu- must be used by all men more or less. able possession that suggests the necessity Those who use it the less are recognized for a defense.
as the frank and open; those who use it The habit of reserve has most often its the more as the reserved and close. origin in a disbelief in sympathy, in the The two characters are sometimes comexistence of some qualities or some emo- bined, and the skillful diplomatist is he tions with which those who are classed as who maintains his reserve under a free fellow-creatures are not likely to have any liberal semblance, whose smile is ready, fellow-feeling
whose hand is extended, whose words There is in such characters, it may be, flow easily, but whose mind is locked up. a sensibility fine and true, that sinks itself “Right humanitie,” says the wise Lord deep; too delicate to mix with vulgar Burleigh in a letter to his son, “ takes streams. If you would taste the purity such deep root in the minds of the multiof this water you must dig laboriously for tude, as they are easilier gained by unproit. There is, it may be, a passionate fitable curtesies than by churlish benefits.” power, fervent and concentrated; too full Now, the unprofitable courtesy is not to dribble out; too strong to dissipate incompatible with reserve, although the itself in petty phrases and agreeable ex- disposition of the reserved man will frepressions of sentiment; or perhaps an in- quently incline him to the practice of its telligence high and extended, to which opposite. The very summit of exterior views are granted infinitely beyond the politeness may be reached without any horizon of the general eye.
revelation from within; and the FrenchCassandra knew too much. She was man who in the bitterness of impending not reserved; and she was therefore suffocation could not forget the polite thought to be mad. In her mental phrase, and gasped out to his host while agony she struggled with the persecuting he struggled with his mortal foe—“Sir, I Phæbus.
have the honor to have a bone in my VOL. XLIX.-No. 1
throat”—may have been as reserved in Your gratitude overflows, you fling yourcharacter as any Englishman. Reserve, self before him and pour it out; you lay indeed, is rather an aristocratic charac- at his feet the rich abundance of your love teristic. And it is the ill-bred, coarse to have it kicked away. He will not mannered man who is the most often stoop to pick it up; his glance is averted, garrulously given, who is glib and oily, and he turns his back upon you; disapwho noises his sentiments and enters into pearing again among those mists in which the detail of his domestic life, of his small it is his pleasure to dwell, though for a afflictions, and of his personal history, as moment he emerged from them, and stood soon as he makes your acquaintance. in that clear light of affection which made Such a man will talk to you of his diseases him look so radiant. and of his remedies, of his troubles with But if it be his pleasure to shroud himhis servants, and of his quarrels with his self again, why should you complain ? wife, with unlimited and undesired free. What just grievance have you? Is the dom, if he do but meet you in a railroad- very nobleness of his nature to serve as a carriage. Such a man is too full of him- plea against him? Because he has made self ever to doubt the full sympathy of his one sacrifice are you to claim another ? hearer.
Do you give him your love and then ex. It is not, however, with the mere act a penalty in return, calling upon him gentlemanly civility that friendship can to give up in exchange his dear impene. be satisfied— politeness belongs to the trability ? Should affection be a matter of early stages of acquaintance, and the barter? Should you not rather check for courtesies that friendship asks are of a him the fullness of your own utterance, different kind. Friendship will ask for a and do homage to his virtue by your selfsoothing, kindly tenderness; and when restraint ? trouble comes, will claim some demonstra There are certain crystals which contion of gentle charity, some drops of tain within them a hidden fire. Cold and sacred pity; but the reserved man will silent for long, long centuries they may not give them. Much else he may give, remain, but if you subject them to the but not that; and if you attempt in such action of heat they will gleam with a quick a sort to draw upon his sympathies, your light-and every particle will show like a bill will be dishonored.
glow-worm in the night. The fire within His atmosphere is incapable of radia- them is only elicited at a raised temperation; the heats of emotion may travel to ture; they must be warmed into life. So his heart, but they will not flow back it is with some hearts. Their vitality is again; they will not pass out in either only to be recognized under the influence words or looks. As lamps in sepulchers, of a sudden glow-to be recognized only they remain unseen; yet not, as those, so, at least, by the general eye; but to useless. They will light the way to the the skilled and delicate observer, the act of sacrifice and self-denial; for the symptoms of that vitality are to be desame man who is so much a miser in ex- tected even in their normal condition. pression will be prodigal in action; will, The philosopher understands the secret with that noblest self-denial which denies sign, and through the subtle structure he its own existence, pour out his generous discerns the mystery of that complex assistance. Let there be a definite, tangi- nature. He discerns it with a deep and ble good to give, and he will give it at loving wonder. any cost to himself. Devotion of time, It is remarkable how the impulsive of strength, of money, of thought; the nature will cling to the controlled, how sacrifice of his own pleasure, of his own the eager and flowing will do homage to comfort, his own desires—the secret sacri- the superiority of a compressed calm. fice—these things may come from him in Shakspeare's Horatio is an essentially good measure, pressed down and shaken reserved man, cool and constant in extogether and running over: he will shrink terior—a man of few words. Hamlet, from no service but that of admitting an impulsive, eager, swayed by contending acknowledgment of his service. He is a passions, amazed with doubts, and friend in ambush.
thoughts beyond the reaches of our souls, In the moment of danger and anguish turns to him with trust, feels a security when you are about to be cut down, he in his repose, a dependence on his quiet starts from his hiding-place to your rescue. I judgment.
Horatio, thou art e'en as just a man tacks of the base, from the rust and moth As e'er my conversation coped withal.
that corrupt, and from the thieves who
break through and steal — to instruct, A man that fortune's buffets and rewards with a view to this end, the yet unknowing Has ta'en with equal thanks; and blest are world how these things came about, not those
when the blow has once fallen passing into Whose blood and judgment are so well co- the extravagances of grief and mourning,
mingled That they are not a pipe for fortune's finger recital of facts, and addressing himself
but entering immediately upon a plain To sound what stop she please.”
to Fortinbras with the settled compoSuch a man Horatio is, till the last dire sure which is becoming to a faithful extremity arrives, when at the fatal mo messenger. ment of his friend's advancing death, the Particular qualities distinguish families, secret passion of his nature is revealed. races, and nations; the northern races are The silent depths of his sensibility are dis- the more restrained, the southern the closed—the affections rise in revolt against more demonstrative. The English are the despotic rule—the emotions defy the noted at once as a reserved and as a master hand, and the man, distracted, poetical people. clutches at the poisoned cup.
“La nation Anglaise,” says M. Ch. de
Rémusat, with a just acknowledgınent of “I am more an antique Roman than a Dane; Here's yet some liquor left.”
our national qualities rare in a French
writer, “est loin d'être un peuple sans Hamlet arrests him:
imagination. Quel pays moderne plus " As thou art a man, give me the cup
fertile en grands poëtes ?” O God! Horatio, what a wounded name,
The French, with their profuse words, Things standing thus unknown, shall live their love of attitude, their natural tend behind me!
ency to display, diffuse their emotions If thou didst ever hold me in thy heart, over a wide surface, and their writers are Absent thee from felicity awhile,
sentimental and epigrammatic rather than And in this harsh world draw thy breath in passionate and poetical. pain
The sang froid Anglais, which, being To tell my story.”
truly translated, is English reserve, is at Horatio obeys. The obedience is evi- once a theme for the satire and the redently consistent with the whole character; spect of the French authors. The well but the momentary triumph of an intense got-up English gentleman in French suffering is not less so. Hamlet loved in comedy is ludicrous in his composure. Horatio, not an insensible man, but a man with a sandy wig, sandy whiskers, an whose sensibilities were under a fixed eye-glass, and a stoop of the neck, he control.
walks quietly through the most agitated It was natural that he should appeal to scenes, never hurrying his step nor altersuch a man to be the vindicator of his ing his favorite position. And when fame. The silent, reserved, just man, things have reached their dramatic climax, would speak only to convince, he would in the general torrent and whirlwind of not waste his force, he would live to tell passion, continuing to take his cool obthe story truly and faithfully, and his servation of proceedings, and uttering story would be believed.
nothing more than these two monosylHamlet appeals in the first instance to lables, “Oh! yes.” that strong manhood, which he with his But the most eloquent, ardent, and more passionate and feminine character- imaginative of French writers has chosen istics clings to; but in the next, to the a calm Englishman for the hero of her self-denying, tenderness which his own romance. While Lord Nevil is sailing fine susceptibilities have been able to re- away in serene dignity, Corinne is beating cognize. And so we see Horatio survive her head against a stone. to fulfill the last wish, to take upon himself The impulsive nature is undoubtedly the sacred office (and what is more sacred the more popular, but the reserved comthan this ?) to defend the dead from slan- mands a higher and a deeper love. The der, to keep the name that remains pure impulsive, ardent in profession, eager in from taint as the life was that is gone-to expression, in action can do no more than preserve a high reputation from the at-I keep pace with promise, and more com