Abbildungen der Seite
PDF
EPUB
[blocks in formation]
[ocr errors]

112

.

EMBELLISHMENTS.

Bonapartism in Italy, Westminster Review, 214; 341

Bushnell on Miracles-London Review,

73; 168

PORTRAITS OF EMPRESS EUGENIE AND HER MAIDS

OF HONOR.

0

2, THE ROYAL FAMILY OF ENGLAND.

Ceylon — Its Aspects, Antiquities, and Produc.

3. PORTRAIT OF THE DUKE OF WELLINGTON.

tions Edinburgh Review,

552

-4. PORTRAIT OF QUEEN VICTORIA.

Children's Literature - London Review,

453

8. PETER THE GREAT SAVED BY HIS MOTHER.

Cousin Jonathan-Sharpe's Magazine,

107

16. PORTRAIT OF ALEXANDER I. EMPEROR OF RUSSIA.

1. PORTRAIT OF THE POET LONGFELLOW.

D

8. PORTRAIT or BARON MACAULAY.

De Quincey, Thomas, Death of-Scotsman,. 432

A

Diamonds and Precious Stones Chambers's

Journal, .

163

Alexander, Emperor of Russia, .

414

Diamonds, Trade in-Chambers's Journal, . 419

Alpine Avalanches - Eclectic Reviero, .

133

Atlantic Ocean, Physical Geography of the

E

Westminster Review,

464

Aunt Janet's Diamonds Chambers's Journal, 60 | Earthquakes and their Phenomena — Fraser's

Austrian Government, Secret History of the —

Magazine,

239

Dublin University Magazine,

329 Earth, Our, Past and Present-Eclectic Review, 309

Earth's, the, Old Age-Eclectic Review,

370

B

Elgin's, Lord, Mission to Japan - Edinburgh

Balance of Nature, the-Eclectic Review,

Review,

Battle-Fight on the Peiho — Blackwood's Maga-

Emigrant, the, on the Sea-Shore, (Lines,)

123

zine,

375

Eugenie, tbe Empress, and her Maids of Honor, 121

Bells and their Traditions—Sharpe's Magazine, 127 Everett, Edward, on Washington Irving, 290

Bertram to the Most Noble and Beautiful Lady

Geraldine, (Stanzas, Tait's Magazine, 104

G

Biographical Sketches and Notices of —

Garibaldi and the Italian Volunteers- Westmin-

Ballanche, M. Pierre Simon,

257

ster Review,

89

Carey, William, .

15

Goethe, Poems and Ballads of — Fraser's Maga-

Charles tho Fifth,

267

zine,

53

De Quincey, Thomas, .

432

Great Duke, the, at the Sculptor'sDublin Uni-

Egmont, Lamoral,

275

versity Magazine,

280

Garibaldi, Joseph,

89

Gérard, Balthazar,

277

H
Gomez, Ruy,

270

Hallucinations and Visions-Fraser's Magazine, 83

Granvelle, Cardinal,

271

Historic Phenomena of Human Races - North

Irving, Washington,

290

British Review,

353

Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth,

666 Human Races, Historic Phenomena of, 353

Macaulay, Thomas Babington,

568

Mohammed,

229

I

Marshman, Joshua,

20 Idylls of the King-London Review, .

28

Philip II.,

269 Inspiration of ScriptureLondon Review, 295
Récamier, Jean-Françoiso-Julie-Adelaïdo, 250 Irving, Washington, Death of,

139
Victoria, Queen, .

118 Islamism and its History-Eclectic Review, . 228
Ward, William,

20

Wellesley, Arthur,

286

K

William, Prince of Orange, .

273 King, the, and the Gooso-Herd-Leisure Hour, 550

.

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

.

L

R
Lesden, Siege of,

278
Libraries, Ancient and Modern, Memoirs of -

Raindrops, Phenomena of–British Quarterly, 38
North British Review,

Récamier, Life and Times of — Colburn's New

180
Life and Times of Carey, Marshman, and Ward

Monthly, .

250
- London Quarterly,

14

Recent Religious Revivals - London Review,
LITERARY MISCELLANIES-

398; 495
140–144; 294; 434–438; 680-582 Reserved People, Thoughts on. By a Candid
Literary Suburb, the, of the Eighteenth Century:

Man-Fraser's Magazine, .

48
Alexander Pope-Fraser's Magazine,
478 Royal Family, the, of England, .

118
Lord Macaulay, Funeral of,

573

S
M

Sea-Dreams. An Idyll. By ALFRED TENNYSON
Macaulay, the Historian, Death of — London

- Macmillan's Magazine, .

492
Times,

568

Sea, the, Physical Wonders of British Quarterly, 1
Man's Wooing, A-Macmillan's Magazine, . 486

Song of the Evening Star - Dublin University
Marshals, the, of Napoleon the Great - Dublin

Magazine, ,

487
University Magazine,

194
Bernadotte, Jean Baptiste Jules, . 195-197

T
Macdonald, Jacques Etienne Joseph Alex-

Things New and Old-Dublin University Maga-
ander,

201-202
zine,

488
Murat, Joachim, .

197-199

Thunderstorm, the, (Stanzas,) — Bentley's Maga-
Ney, Michel,

199-200
zine,

111
Soult, Jean-de-Dieu,

200-201

Two Worlds, the, (Stanzas,) - Dublin University
Mother's Vision, the, (Stanzas,)-Sharpe's Maga-

Magazine,

27
zine,

132
Motley's Dutch Republic— Blackwood's Magazine, 261

W
N

Ways of Wild-Fowl-Chambers's Journal, . 575
Novelists, British, and their styles -- Eclectic Wellington and Waterloo,

283
Revicu,
123 Wellington, the Duke of, .

286
Worry- Titan,

424
Р
Peter the Great,

412

BOOKS REVIEWED.
Phenomena of Paper, Pen, and Ink-Macmillan's
Magazine,

390 Idylls of the King. By Alfred Tennyson, 28.
Pleasantness— Titan, .

429

Poems and Ballads of Goethe. Translated by W.
Poets and Poetry, Modern, of Italy, Westminster

Edmondstoune Aytoun and Theodore Martin,
Review,

145 53.
Brief Biographical Notices and Literary Cha Nature and the Supernatural, as together constitut-
racterizations of

ing the One System of God By Horace Bush-
Aleurdi, Aleardo,

160 nell, 73; 168.
Berchet,

155-156 British Novelists and their Styles. By David Mag-
Foscolo, Ugo,

147-150
Giusti,

155, 158 Ceylon : an Account of the Island, Physical, His-
Grossi, Thomas,

159-160 torical, and Typographical. By Sir J. Emerson
Leopardi,

151-152 Tennent, 552.
Mammiani,

154 The Senses and the Intellect. By Alexander Bain,
Marchetti,

152–153 203; 321.
Pellico, Silvio,

147 The Rise of the Dutch Republic: a History. By
Poerio, Alexander,

153 John Lothrop Motley, 261.
Prati,

160 The Secret History of the Austrian Government
Tomaseo,

161 By Alfred Michiels, 329.
F bychology, Bain's—Edinburgh Review, 203 ; 321 | Légende des siècles. By Victor Hugo, 509.

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

son, 123.

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[subsumed][merged small][graphic][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][subsumed][subsumed][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small]

PROBABLY many a Malthusian, on glanc- order to obtain food and keep the populang at a terrestrial globe and observing tion within manageable bounds; yet, he vast space which is allotted to the wanting all the accommodation we can cean, has testily exclaimed : “For what get, not less than three fourths of the urpose does all this fluid exist ? Here planet have been laid under water-some ewe, poor mortals, with insatiable of its finest plains are swamped, and its omachs—our numbers increasing with most fertile valleys converted into liquid ightful rapidity-our acres incapable of wastes !" pansion - our agriculturists unable to Not so fast, however, good Mr. Malake two blades of corn grow in the thusian! No one can explain why this om originally required for one - our particular proportion between the land ospects, in fact, becoming so melancholy, and the ocean has been prescribed. It is at sooner or later people must make up precisely, one of those points in the Divine eir minds to eat little boys and girls in arithmetic with which we are incompetent

to deal. But sufficient may be inferred The Physical Geography of the Sea. By M. from the exquisite working of the great MAURY, LL.D., U.S.N., Superintendent of the tional Observatory. London : Sampson Low. physical machinery of creation to satisfy w-York: Harpers. 1847.

us that he who weigheth the waters in the TOL. XLIX.-No. 1.

1

hollow of his hand, and who fixeth bounds whether its atmosphere could be moder. for the sea that it shall not pass, has ately refreshed and its meadows adeadjusted the fluid and solid surfaces of quately irrigated, if the surface of the our globe with as much care as he has great nursery of vapor were seriously mixed the chemical constituents of the curtailed ? atmosphere, or settled the relative num Such, then, being the primary object bers of the two sexes.

of the ocean, see how beautifully its comGrant that our mournful friend, who position qualifies it for this end. What looks with such a jealous eye upon those other fluid could be substituted with the liquid expanses, could brush them from smallest success ? Would any of our their beds, and convert the whole earth acids answer the purpose required ? into dry ground, what would be the Clouds dropping oil of vitriol, or showers result ? Why, the world would wither consisting of muriatic acid, would soon at once with drought. The fair face of burn up all vegetation and blister every nature, still as fresh and blooming as in landscape on the globe. With Atlantics her infant days, would contract in ghastly of turpentine or Pacifics of train oil, not wrinkles, and the comeliest landscapes an herb would grow for the nourishment grow cadaverous with premature age. of cattle, nor a tree for the use of the car.

As matters now stand, have we not penter. For many reasons, too, a change numerous deserts dispersed over the sur- in the character of the ocean fluid would face of the globe-spots of barrenness be highly detrimental to the interests of and death, where the pulse of the planet man. Considering the sea simply as a can not be felt, and where its life-blood highway for our ships, any alteration in apparently ceases to circulate ? These its specific gravity, or in the cohesive reseem to show that the earth is not over- lationship of its particles, would affect all done with water, and that, spite of the vast our maritime operations; for how could any acreage of the ocean, there are tracts of vessels float in a thin liquid like naphtha, ! Wala land which its vapor can not reach, and or cruise in a heavy one like quicksilver, certainly can not drench. When a wind, or plow their way through a viscid one charged with moisture, sets out on its like tar or treacle? Ransack the whole travels over a continent, it gradually de- list of existing fluids, and not another posits its freight as it proceeds; and should could be found to supply the place and it encounter a range of tall mountains, the perform the multifarious duties of water. cold at their chilly tops extracts the hu But the liquid which fills the vast ocean midity in the shape of snow, leaving the tanks is not pure. It contains, in general, breeze to pursue its course beggared of from three to three and a half the fatness which the soil demands. of saline ingredients. To these, latterly, There are countries where showers rarely philosophers have begun to assign very fall, because the intervening regions steal considerable importance in the economy all the vapor which the prevailing winds of the great deep. They are not chance obtain from the ocean exchequer. Peru items in its waters, but elements of prois notoriously in this predicament. Jup- found significance, seeing that they regn. iter Pluvius is unknown in that!, ality. late its issues of vapor and guide its The south-east trades, which first movements from the equator to the poles. sprinkle the shores of Brazil, a hen The saline materials consist of chloride of ico feed the large streams of South America, sodium, cloride of magnesium, sulphate afterwards rush up the slopes of the of lime, sulphate of magnesia, and other Andes in a state of comparative poverty, mineral compounds, the first of these presenten and finally tumble over into the land of ponderating to such a degree, that for the Incas in a condition of real hygromet- most purposes we are content to regard ric insolvency. Upon similar grounds the the ocean simply as a reservoir of common the existence of Sabaras in Africa, Asia, Aus- salt. Nor should we forget to remark, men tralia, and North-America may be ex en passant, for it is certainly worthy of plained. Looking, indeed, at these barren being ranked amongst the noticeable harpatches, and assuming that other physical monies of nature that the substance circumstances continued the same, we which is most largely diffused through the may well ask whether the world could be sea is precisely the condiment which kept in working order—whether its rivers man's instinct has taught him to employ to and lakes could be sufficiently supplied— most extensively on land. The quantity

per cent

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

varies according to circumstances and has gradually acquired its present charge,
locality. It is less in inland seas, for ex- is a point which may be yet open to dis-
ample, than in the main ocean, because cussion; but there are many reasons which
the rush of river water into these basins appear to intimate that what it is now,
serves to keep them in a fresher condition, such it has been throughout the whole
particularly if the outlets are few and historic period at least. We can scarcely
contracted. Exception, however, must suppose that the entire amount of salt has
be made in favor of the Mediterranean, been wrung out of the land, for, tak-
but the superior temperature of that ing the average depth of the waters at
splendid sheet, and consequently the two miles only, it is calculated that there
greater concentration which is given to is enough chloride of sodium in the sea
its brine, will explain the result. It is to cover a continent measuring seven mil-
less, again, towards the poles, where snow lions of square miles to the depth of one
and ice are such chronic phenomena; and mile. Shafhäutl computed that the
the same observation applies to those mineral matter suspended in the ocean
humid portions of the tropics where um- was equal to double the Himalayas in
brellas and mackintosh capes are peculiarly bulk. Yet this mass is diffused through-
required. Humboldt ascertained that the out the abyss without increasing its
charge of salt was greatest between the volume, for soluble substances pack into
fifteenth and the twenty-fifth degrees of the interstices of fluids, as odds and ends
north and south latitude. Forchhammer of luggage do into the crevices of a car-
discovered that the ocean became softer pet-bag until the mysterious point of
in this particular as land was approached saturation is reached.
-a circumstance, indeed, which we might And what is the use of so much salt ?
expect, considering that the river gods The answer to this question has generally
are always pouring large contributions been that it is intended to preserve the
into the main. Marcet concluded that Great Profound from putrefaction. The
the seas of the southern hemisphere are sea is a huge pickle. But this explanation
fresher than those of the northern, and is by no means satisfactory. For, in the
that if necessity compelled you to choose first place, stagnant sea-water is subject
between the Atlantic and Pacific in regard to corruption, and when voyagers have
to their potable qualities, you would find been caught in a calm and forced to lie
the latter much more to your taste than idle on the ocean for weeks together, they
the former. There are certain land- have seen all sorts of “slimy things
locked expanses which receive as much crawl forth from the abyss, or, as Sir Rich-
fresh liquid as the streams will supply, ard Hawkins relates, “the sea was so
bat make it a point never to disgorge; replenished with several sorts of gellyes,
and consequently—true emblems of nig- and forms of serpents, adders, and snakes
gardly, selfish souls—their waters become as seemed wonderfull ; some greene, some
bitter and unblessed. The saline elements blacke, some yellow, some white, some of
are left to accumulate as the vapor is car- divers colours, and many of them had life.
ried off by the winds; and thus we have so much so," continues that ancient mari-
surly and inhospitable seas like the Aral “that a man could hardly draw a
and Caspian, or that still more ill-omenen trket of water clear of corruption."
mere, the Lake Asphaltites.

Salt, therefore, will not prevent decomIf, however, the quantity of these in- position, if the waves are permitted to gredients varies, their quality and relative sleep. Further, provision appears to be proportions are singularly uniform. Bear- made in other ways for the removal of ing in mind that the soluble matters of the decaying matter which may be poured the land are constantly washed into the into the great marine cesspools. To say ocean, and that each river carries its own nothing of chemical operations, the sea is particular contingent to the deep, we peopled by crowds of microscopic animals, might expect that a more mongrel fluid which banquet in a great measure upon would result. But every where the water the refuse organisms of the land ; and seems to yield the same species of salts these become food in their turn for the when dissected by the chemist's art. bulkier denizens of the deep. Whole Their origin is still a question of much legions of infusoria go down into the mystery. Whether the existing ocean caverns of the whale at a single gulp. was produced in a brackish condition, or / Patches of white or colored water, stretch

[ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small]
« ZurückWeiter »