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mind. But his chief dependence was upon the army, which being made up of different parties, he took care to reform by degrees, till they were in a manner entirely at his devotion. He paid the soldiers well, and advanced them according to their merits, and zeal for his government, without regard to their birth or seniority. It was the protector's felicity, that the parties abovementioned had as great an enmity to each other as to him; the cavaliers hated the presbyterians and republicans, as these did the cavaliers; the royalists fancied that all who were against the protector must join with them in restoring the king; while the presbyterians were pushing for their covenant uniformity, and the republicans for a commonwealth. Cromwell had the skill not only to keep them divided, but to increase their joalousies of each other, and by that means to disconcert all their measures against himself. Let the reader recollect what a difficult
situation this was ; and what a genius it must require to.
maintain so high a reputation abroad, in the midst of somany domestic enemies, who were continually plotting his destruction. In pursuance of the instrument of government, the protector published an ordinance, April 12, to incorporate the two kingdoms of Scotland and England. The ordinance sets forth, “that whereas the parliament in 1651 had sent commissioners into Scotland, to invite that nation to an union with England under one government; and whereas the consent of the shires and boroughs was then obtained, therefore for compleating that work, he ordains, that the people of Scotland, and all the territories thereunto belonging, shall be incorporated into one commonwealth
with England, and that in every parliament, to be held
successively for the said commonwealth, thirty members shall be called from thence to serve for Scotland.” Shortly after Ireland was incorporated after the same manner: and from this time the arms of Scotland and Ireland were quartered with those of England. But the protector was hardly fixed in his chair before an assassination plot of the royalists was discovered, and three of the conspirators (viz.) Mr. Foa, Mr. Gerhard, and Mr. Vowel, were apprehended, and tried before an
high court of justice, for conspiring to murder the lord protector as he was going to Hampton-Court, to seize the guards, and the tower of London, and to proclaim the king. Mr. Foa, who confessed most of what was alledged against him, pleaded guilty, and was reprieved; but the other two, putting themselves on their trial, though they denied the jurisdiction of the court, were convicted, and executed July 10. Gerhard, a young hot-headed ensign in the late king's army being beheaded; and Vowel, a school-master at Islington, hanged at Charing-cross : Gerhard confessed he knew of the plot, but Vowel was silent.* These commotions were the occasion of the hardships the royalists underwent some time after. Don Pantaleon Sa, brother of the Portugueze ambassador, was beheaded the same day, upon account of a riot and murder in the new Exchange. Pantaleon had quarrelled with the above-mentioned Gerhard, and to revenge himself, brought his servants next day armed with swords and pistols to kill him; but instead of Gerhard, they killcd another man, and wounded several ethers. The Portugueze knight, and his associates, fled to his brother the ambassador’s house for sanctuary, but the mob followed them, and threatened to pull down the house, unless they were delivered up to justice. The protector, being informed of the tumult, sent an officer with a party of soldiers to demand the murderers. The ambassador pleaded his public character, but the protector would admit of no excuse; and therefore being forced to deliver them up, they were all tried and convicted, by a jury half English and half foreigners; the servants (says "Whitlocket) were reprieved and pardoned; but the ambassador's brother, who was the principal, notwithstanding all the intercession that could be made for his life, was carried in a mourning-coach to Tower-hill, and beheaded. This remarkable act of justice
• Mr. Neal's account, as Dr. Grey remarks, does not agree with lord Clarendon: who represents Vowel as earnestly and pathetically addressing the people, and the soldiers, exhorting them to loyalty: and Gerhard as declaring, “ that he was innocent, and had not entered into or consented to any plot, nor given any countenance to any discourse to that purpose.” Whitlocke, says, that when they were brought before the High Court, they both denied all the charges alledged against them. Clarendon's History, vol. iii. p. 492; Whitlocke's Memoirs, p. 575.
# Mein. p. 577.
raised the people's esteem of the protector's resolution, and of the justice of his government. In order to a further settlement of the nation, the protector summoned a parliament to meet at Westminster, Sept. 3d ; which being reckoned one of his auspicious days, he would not alter, though it fell on a Sunday; the house met accordingly, and having waited upon the protector in the painted chamber, adjourned to the next day, September 4, when his HighNEss rode from Whitehall to Westminster with all the pomp and state of the greatest monarch; some hundreds of gentlemen went before him uncovered ; his }. and lacqueys in the richest liveries; the captains of his guards on each side his coach, with their attendants, all uncovered; then followed the commissioners of the treasury, master of ceremonies, and other officers. The sword, the great seal, the purse, and four maces, were carried before him by their proper officers. * After a sermon preached by Dr. Tho. Goodwin, his Highness* repaired to the painted chamber, and being seated in a chair of state, raised by sundry steps, he made a speech to the members, in which he complained of the levellers and fifth monarchy men, who were for subverting the established laws, and for throwing all things back into confusion. He put them in mind of the difficulties in which the nation was involved at the time he assumed the government. “That it was at war with Portugal, Holland, and France; which together with the division among ourselves (says he) begat a confidence in the enemy that we could not hold out long. In this heap of confusion it was necessary to apply some remedy, that the nation might not sink; and the remedy (says he) is This Gover NMENT, which is calculated for the interest of the people alone, without regard to any other, let men say what they will; I can speak with comfort before a greater than you all as to my own intention. Since this government has been erected, men of the most known integrity and ability have been put into seats of justice. The chancery has been reformed. It has put a stop to that heady way for every man that will, to make himself a preacher, by settling a way for approbation of men of piety and fitness for the work. It hath taken care
• Whitlocke, p. 582.
to expunge men unfit for that work; and now, at length, it has been instrumental of calling a free parliament. “A peace is now made with Sweden, and with the Danes; a peace honorable to the nation, and satisfactory to the merchants. A peace is made with the Dutch, and with Portugal; and such an one that the people that trade thither have liberty of conscience, without being subject to the bloody inquisition.” He then advises them to concert measures for the support of the present government, and desires them to believe, that he spoke to them not as one that intended to be a lord over them, but as one that was resolved to be a fellow-servant with them for the interest of their country; and then, having exhorted them to unanimity, he dismissed them to their house to choose a speaker. William Lenthal, esq.; master of the rolls, and speaker of the long parliament, was chosen without opposition. The first point the house entered on was the instrument of government, which occasioned many warm debates, and was like to have occasioned a fatal breach amongst them. To prevent this the protector gave orders, Sept. 12, that as the members came to the house they should be directed to attend his highness in the painted chamber, where he made the following remarkable speech, which is deserving the reader’s careful attention : “Gentlemen, I am surprised at your conduct, in debating so freely the instrument of government, for the same power that has made you a parliament has appointed me protector, so that if you dispute the one, you must disown the other.” He added, that he was a gentleman by birth, and had been called to several employments in parliament, and in the wars, which being at an end, he was willing to retire to a private life, and prayed to be dismissed, but could not obtain it. That he had pressed the long parliament, as a member, to dissolve themselves; but finding they intended to continue their sessions, he thought himself obliged to dismiss them, and to call some persons together from the several parts of the nation, to see if they could fall upon a better settlement. Accordingly he resigned up all his power into their hands, but they after some time returned it back to him. After this (says he) divers gentlemen having consulted together,
* Dugdale's Late Troubles, p. 426, &c.
jramed the present model trithout my pricity, and told me, that unless I would undertake the same, blood and confusion would break in upon them ; but I refused again and again, till considering that it did not put me into an higher capacity than I was in before, I consented; since which time I have had the thanks of the army, the fleet, the city of London, and of great numbers of gentry in the three nations. Now the government being thus settled, I apprehend there are four fundamentals which may not be examined into, or altered. (4.) That the government be in a single person and a parliament. (2.) That parliaments be not perpetual. (3.) The article relating to the militia. And, (4.) A due liberty of conscience in matters of religion. Other things in the government may be changed as occasion requires. For as much therefore as you have gone about to subvert the fundamentals of this government, and throw all things back into confusion, to prevent the like for the future I am necessitated to appoint you a test, or recognition of the government, by which you are made a parliament, before you go any more into the house.”* Accordingly at their return, they found a guard at the door denying entrance to any who would not first sign the following engagement. I. A. B. do hereby freely promise, and engage to be true and faithful to the lord protector of the commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and will not propose or give my consent to alter the government, as it is settled in one single person and a parliament. About three hundred of the members signed the recognition, and having taken their places in the house, with some difficulty confirmed the instrument of government almost in every thing, but the right of nominating a successor to the present protector; which they reserved to the parliament. They voted the present lord protector to continue for life. They continued the standing army of ten thousand horse and twenty thousand foot, and sixty thousand pounds a month for their maintenance. They gave the protector two hundred thousand pounds a year for his civil list, and assigned Whitehall, St. James’s, and the rest of the late king's houses for his use ; but they were out of humor, and were so far from shewing respect to the
* Whitlocke, p. 587.