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that he published of his own. He died April 27, 1657, aged about fifty-five years. The protector’s arms were no less sucessful this summer than they had been the last, for in the month of June, marshal Turenne, in conjunction with the English forces, laid siege to Dunkirk, then in possession of the Spaniards, which brought on an engagement between the two armies: The Spanish forces consisted of 30,000 men, but majorgeneral Morgan, who covered the siege, attacked the right wing of the Spanish army which came to relieve it with 6000 English, who routed the whole army, which was followed with the surrender of the town June 25. The French looked on, and said, they never saw a more glorious action in their lives.* Cardinal Mazarine intended to keep this important place in French hands, contrary to the late treaty ; of which his highness being informed, acquainted the ambassador; but his excellency denying any such intended breach of contract, the protector pulled out of his pocket a copy of the cardinal’s private order, and desired him to let his eminence know, that if the keys of Dunkirk were not delivered to Lockhart within an hour after it was taken, he would come in person, and demand them at the gates of Paris;t and the cardinal had too

• Dr. Grey, though he allows that Mr. Neal had the authority of Eachard for the merit which he imputes to the English forees in the siege of Dunkirk, yet contends that the French had their share in the glories of the day. And, to prove this, he gives a full detail of the action from the History of Wisc. Turenne. Impartial Examination, v. iii. p. 207—213. Ed.

+ Dr Grey, while he grants that Cromwell was a vain man, very much questions the truth of what is said above; as it does not agree with what Whitlocke says, concerning the surrender of Dunkirk. The story Mr. Neal relates is the same, that we find in Welwood's Memoirs. p. 97, 6th edition. Dr. Harris, treats it as all falsehood and invention; and as, authoritatively, confuted by Thurloe's State-Papers, vol. vii. p. 473; where Lockhart. in his letter to Thurloe, written the day before the surrender of Dunkirk, has these expressions: “ To-morrow before five of the clock at night, his Highness’s forees under my command will be possessed of Dunkirk. I have a great many disputes with the eardinal about several things; nevertheless, I must say I find him willing to hear reason; and though the generality of court, and arms.are even mod to see themselves part with what they call un si bon morceau, or so delicate a bit, yet he is still constant to his promises, and seems to be as glad in the general,(notwithstanding our differences in little particulars)

VoI. IV. - 27

great a dread of the name of Cromwell, to deny any thing he required. By this conquest the protector gained immortal glory, because it gave the English a settlement on the continent, and made them masters of both sides of the channel. How basely it was sold by lord Clarendon to the French, will be seen hereafter. The enthusiastic republicans, or fifth monarchy men, having failed in their design in parliament, agreed, to the number of three hundred, to attempt a revolution of government by force, and having killed the protector, to proclaim king Jesus; but secretary Thurloe, who never spared expense to gain intelligence, had a spy among them, who discovered their intrigues, and seized their arms and ammunition in Shoreditch, with their standard, containing a lion couchant, alluding to the lion of the tribe of Judah. with this motto, who will Rouse HIM up f The chief of the conspirators, as Venner, Grey, Hopkins, &c. were inprisoned in the Gate-House till the protector's death, with their accomplices, major-general Harrison, colonel Rich, colonel Danvers, and others, after which they created new disturbances, which hastened their own destruction soon after the king's restoration. But the most formidable conspiracy against the government, was a new one of the cavaliers, with which the protector acquainted the lord-mayor and common-council of the city in a speech, wherein he takes notice, that the marquis of Ormond had been privately in London three weeks, to promote the king's affairs, who lay ready on the coast with an army of eight thousand men, and twenty-two ships; that there was a design to seize the Tower; and that several ill-affected persons were endeavoring to put themselves in arms for that purpose; he therefore desired them to put the city into a posture of defence, professing a more passionate regard for their safety than his own. The citizens returned his highness thanks, and in an address promised to defend his person and government with their lives and fortunes. The like addresses came from several of

to give this place to his highness, as we can be to receive it. The kins is also exceedingly obliging and civil, and hath more true worth in him, than I eould have imagined.” Life of Cromwell, 452, 3. Ed.

| Compl. Hist. p. 223. Eachard; p. 730.

the regiments at home, and from the English army in Flanders. This was the plot the protector mentioned in his speech to the parliament, and was discovered by one Stapley, whose father had been one of the king's judges. Immediately after the dissolution of the parliament, three of the conspirators were apprehended, and tried before an high court of justice, according to the late act for the security of his highness’s person. Mr. JMordaunt, youngest son and brother of the earl of Peterborough, was acquitted by one vote; but the other two, Sir Henry Slingsby and Dr. Hewet were condemned.— The doctor was indicted for holding correspondence with Charles Stuart, for publishing him to be king of England, Scotland, and Ireland ; and for sending him money. He behaved with great boldness towards hisjudges, keeping his hat upon his head while the indictment was reading; but an officer being sent to take it off, he saved him the trouble. The doctor then refused to plead three times, disowning the jurisdiction of the court; but though they read the clause in the late act, by which they were empowered to be his judges, he continued mute; upon which one of the judges summed up the charge, and was going to pronounce sentence, when he offered to put himself upon his trial, but was told it was then too late, so judgment was given against him as a mute. The doctor had prepared a plea and demurrer to the jurisdiction and proceedings of the court, and exceptions to their judgment, drawn up in form by counsel, and ready to be engrossed, but was not suffered to have them argued. However, he had the favor of being beheaded on Tower-hill, June 8, 1658, being attended by Dr. Wild, Dr. Warmestry, and Dr. Barwick.” His funeral sermon was preached the Sunday following, by Mr..Math. Hardy, at St. Dionis Back-Church, in Limestreet; and soon after, both the sermon and the doctor's intended defence were published, entitled, Beheaded Dr. John Hewet's Ghost crying for justice; containing his legal plea, demurrer, and exceptions to the jurisdiction of the court, &c. drawn up by his council Mr. Wm. Prynne. The doctor was a Cambridge divine, but lived at Oxford, and in the army, till the end of the war, when he came to

* Life of Barwick, p. 175.

London, and was permitted to preach in the church of St. Gregory's, London; though he was known to be a malignant. After his conviction, the lady Claypole and lady Falconbridge, the protector's daughters, interceded with their father for his life; but because he disputed the authority of the court, which struck at the very life of his government, the protector would not pardon him. He told Dr. JManton, one of his chaplains, that if Dr. Hewet had shewn himself an ingenuous person, and would have owned what he knew was his share in the design against him, he would have spared his life; but he said he would not be trifled with, and the doctor was of so obstinate a temper that he was resolved he should die; and the protector convinced Dr. JManton before they parted, that he knew, without his confession, how far he was engaged in the plot. Three more of the conspirators were executed in other parts of the city, but the rest were pardoned. A little before the protector's death, the independents petitioned his highness for liberty to hold a synod, in order to publish to the world an uniform confession of their faith. They were now become a considerable body, their churches being increased both in city and country,” by the addition of great numbers of rich and substantial persons; but they were not agreed upon any standard of faith or discipline. The presbyterians in the assembly of divines had urged them to this; and their brethren in New-England had done it ten years ago; nor were the English independents insensible of the defect; for hitherto, (say they) there have “been no association of our churches, no meetings of our ministers to promote the common interest; our churches are like so many ships launched singly, and sailing apart and alone in the vast ocean of these tumultuous times, exposed to every wind of doctrine; under no other conduct than the word and spirit, and their particular elders, and principal brethren, without associations among themselves, or so much as holding out a common light to others, whereby to know where they were.” To remedy this, some of their divines and principal brethren in London met together, and proposed that there might be a correspondence among their churches in city and country for counsel and mutual edification ; and for as much as all sects and parties of christians had published a confession of their faith, they apprehended the world might reasonably expect it from them ; for these reasons they petitioned the protector for liberty to assemble for this purpose. This was opposed by some of the court, as tending to establish a separation between them and the presbyterians; nor was the protector himself fond of it; however, he gave way to their importunity; and, as Mr. Eachard represents that matter, when he was moved upon his death-bed to discountenance their petition, he replied, They must be satisfied, they must

* The number of these churches was, proportionally, much greater in the two counties of Norfolk and Suffolk. than in most other parts of the kingdom. This was owing to the particular intercourse which those counties have with the city of Rotterdam and Holland, where the Inore rigid puritans, who were driven out of England by the severities of the times, before the civil wars began, had taken refuge, and formed several congregational churches. On the return of the English exiles to England, at the commencement of those dissentions, they brought with them their sentiments on church government, and formed churehes on the independent plan. Of these the most ancient was the chureh of Yarmouth, consisting of members resident in that town and at Norwich ; and the Lord's supper was administered alternately at the two laces. This, after a time, was found very troublesome, and by a majority of votes the seat of the church was fixed at Yarmouth. This new arrangement was attended with great inconvenience to those who lived at Norwich. They therefore, with the consent of the other part who resided at Yarmouth, formed a separate church, June 10, 1644. This consent was given with expressions of the most tender and endeared affection; as having been, many of them, “ companions together in the patience of our Lord Jesus in their own and in a strange land, and having long enjoyed sweet communion together in divine ordinances.” On these models other churches were settled through these counties. As at Denton in May or June of the year 1655. At Tunstead, North-Walsham, Wymondham, and Guestwick, in 1662. In the same year was laid the foundation of the congregational church of Beccles in Suffolk, by nine persons joining together in church fellowship, and by July 29, 1653, their number was increased to forty. The church at Walpole was settled into fellowship in the year 1647. That of St. Edmund’s Bury, in 1648. That of W. in 1651. That at Wattesfield, May 2, 1678. That of Wrentham was first gathered Feb. 1, 1649, under Mr. John Philip, and one of its first members was Francis Brewster, Esq. lord of the manor of Wrentham, who gave the ehurch plate which bears his arms; and some considerable legacies were left by him and different branches of his family. The hall was a place of refuge and concealment for the ministers or any of the people in time of perseeution. Mr. Thompson’s MSS. Collections, under the words Norfolk and Suffolk, Ed. * Confess. Pref. p. 6.

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