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itself, and what every Christian is thought to profess, when he addeth this part of the first Article of his CREED, I believe in God the Father Almighty.
As I am persuaded of an infinite and independent Essence, which I term a God, and of the mystery of an eternal generation by which that God is a Father: so I assure myself that Father is not subject to infirmities of age, nor is there any weakness attending on the “Ancient of days ;” (Dan. vii. 9. 13. 22.) but, on the contrary, I believe omnipotency to be an essential attribute of his Deity, and that not only in respect of operative and active power (concerning which I shall have occasion to express my faith hereafter), but also in regard of power authoritative, in which I must acknowledge his antecedent and eternal right of making what, and when, and how he pleased, of possessing whatsoever he maketh by direct do. minion, of using and disposing as he pleaseth all things which he so possesseth. This doininion I believe most absolute in respect of its independency, both in the original, and the use or exercise thereof: this I acknowledge infinite for amplitude or extension, as being a power over all things without exception; for plenitude or perfection, as being all power over every thing without limitation ; for continuance or duration, as being eternal without end or conclusion. Thus I BELIEVE IN GOD THE FATHER ALMIGHTY.
Maker of Heaven and Earth. Although this last part of the first Article were not expressed in the ancient CREEDS,* yet the sense thereof was delivered in the first rules of faith, and at last these particular
For we find it not mentioned by St. Augustin de Fide et Symbolo; neither hath Rafinus expounded it in the Aquileian, or noted it to be found in the Roman or oriental Creeds. Leo, reciting the three first articles in his epistie to Flavianus, maketh no mention of it. Epist. 10. Maximos Taurinersis bath it not in Traditione Sumbali, nor Petrus Chrysologus in liis Sermons, amongst six several expositions. It is not in the Homilies of Eusebius Gallicanus, or the exposition of Venantius Fortunatus. Marcellus bishop of Ancyra left it not at Rome with Julius ; nor did Arius in his catholic confession unto Constantine acknowledge it.
Neither are the words to be found in the Latin or Greek copy of the Creed, written about the beginning of the eighth century, and publisbed out of the MSS. by the most reverend and learned Archbishop of Armagh; or in that which Etherius and Beatus produced against Elipandus arch. bishop of Toledo, towards the end of the
+ As in that delivered by Irenæus : Εις ένα θεόν πατέρα παντοκράτορα, τον πεποιηκότα τον ουρανόν και την γήν και τας θαλάσσας, , xai távta Ta By aitois. Aurer. Hær. l. i. C. 2. And that by Tertullian : Unum omnino Deum esse, nec alium præter mundi conditorem, qui universa de nihilo produxerit.' De praser. adv. Har. c. 13. And that under the name of Novatian, not in formal words, but with an (id est) by way of explication : Regula exigit, veritatis ut prinio omnium credamus in Deum Patrem et Dominum Omnipotentem, id est, rerum omnium perfectissi. mum conditorem, qui cælum alta sublimitate suspenderit, terram dejecta mole solidavit, maria solito liquore diffudit, et hæc omnia propriis et condignis instrumentis et ornata et plena digessit.' De Trin. c. i. It was also observed by Origen, that the Christians were wont most frequently to mention God under that as the most common
words inserted both in the Greek and Latin confessions. And indeed the work of creation most properly followeth the attribute of omnipotency, as being the foundation of the first, and the demonstration of the second explication of it. As then we believe there is a God, and that God Almighty; as we acknowledge that same God to be the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, and in him of us : so we also confess, that the same God the Father made both heaven and earth. For the full explication of which operation, it will be sufficient, first to declare the latitude of the object, what is comprehended under the terms of heaven and earth; secondly, to express the nature of the action, the true notion of creation, by which they were made; and thirdly, to demonstrate the Person to whom this operation is ascribed.
For the first, I suppose it cannot be denied as the sense of that CREED, that under the terms of heaven and earth are comprehended all things: because the first rules of faith did so express it; and the most ancient Creeds had, either instead of these words, or together with them, the Maker of all things visible and invisible, which being terms of immediate contradiction, must consequently be of universal comprehension; nor is there any thing imaginable which is not visible, or invisible. Being then these were the words of the Nicene Creed; being the addition of heaven and earth in the Constantinopolitan could be no diminution to the former, which they still retained together with them, saying, I believe in one God the Father Almighty. Maker of heaven and earth, and of all things visible and invisible ; it followeth, that they which in the Latin Church made use only of this last addition, could not choose but take it in the full latitude of the first expression.
And well may this be taken as the undoubted sense of the Creed, because it is the known language of the sacred Scriptures. “ In six days (saith Moses) the Lord made heaven and earth :" (Exod. xxxi. 17.) in the same time, saith God himself, “the Lord made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is." (Exod. xx. 11.) So that all things by those two must be understood which are contained in them; and we know no being which is made or placed without them. When God would call a general rendezvous, and make up a universal auditory, the
title : “Η γαρ αορίστως ομολογούσι το, κοινών όνομα, ο Θεός, ή και μετά προσθήκης της, ο δημιουργός των όλων, ο ποιητής ουρανού και γης. Adlv. Celsum, l. i. V. 25. Eusebius deli. vered the first Article thus in bis Confession to the Nicene Council, Socrat. I. i. c. 8. Πιστεύομεν εις ένα θεόν πατέρα παντοκράτορα, τον των απάντων ορατών τε και αοράτων momtur. and that Council expressed the same without alteration in their Creed.
But after the Nicene Council we find added monthy ouça voữ xai vñs, by St. Cyril of Jerusalem, in bis Caterhism, cat. 9. and St. Epiphanius in Ancorato, Q. 120. : which addition was received, confirmed, and transmitted to us by the Council of Constantinople. By which means at last we find this article thus expressed in the western Confessions : Credo in Deum Pae trem omnipotentem, creatoren cæli et terte.
prophet cries out, “ Hear, 0 heavens, and give ear, 0 earth.” (Isa. i. 2.) When he would express the full splendour of his majesty, and utmost extent of his actual dominion, "Thus saith the Lord, the heaven is my throne, and the earth is my footstool.” (Isa. Ixvi. 1.) When he would challenge unto him. self those glorious attributes of immensity and omnipresence, “ Do not I fill heaven and earth? saith the Lord.” (Jer. xxiii. 24.) These two then taken together signify the Universe, or that which is called the World. St. Paul hath given a clear exposition of these words in his explication of the Athenian altar: “God that made the world and all things therein, seeing that he is Lord of heaven and earth, dwelleth not in temples made with hands.” (Acts xvii. 24.) For being God is necessarily the Lord of all things which he made the right of his direct dominion being clearly grounded upon the first creation), except we should conceive the apostle to exempt some creature from the authoritative power of God, and so take some work of his hand out of the reach of his arm; we must confess that heaven and earth are of as large extent and ample signification as the world and all things therein. Where it is yet farther observable, that the apostle hath conjoined the speech of both Testaments together. For the ancient Hebrews seem to have had no word in use among them which singly of itself did signify the world, as the Greeks had, in whose language St. Paul did speak; and therefore they used in conjunction the heaven and earth, as the grand extremities within which all things are contained.* Nay, if we take the exposition of the later writers in that language, those two words will not only as extremities comprehend between them, but in the extension of their own significations contain all things in them. For when they divide the Universe into three worlds,t the inferior, the superior, and the middle world; the lower is wholly contained in the name of earth, the other two under the name of heaven. Nor do the Hebrews
* Καλώς δε πάντες σχεδόν εξεδέξαντο τους άκροις, ουρανα τε και γή, τα μέσα συμπεριειληφέναι στοιχεία, πώς δε άκρα φημί; ότι ή μεν το κέντρον παντός έμπεριείληφε και έστι κάτωθεν μέν αρχή πάντων ή γη, πέρας δε τούτων επάντα περιέχων ουρανός: τούμπαλιν δε άνωθεν, εχρή μεν ο ουρανός, πέρας δε πάντων ή γή μετά δε έρανού και της γης τα λοιπά τρία περιεί27 TAI 6Teixeia. Jo. Philop. de Mundi Creat. 1. i. c. 5. Τα μεν ουρανίω σώματι (ή φύσις) το πέριξ του παντός απένειμε, τω δε περιγείς το κέντρον: εν δε σφαίρα άλλως μεν το κέντρον άρχή, άλλως δε και του περιέχοντος όρος. Hierocl. in Aur. Carm. v. 52. p. 245.
† For the Rabbins usually divide the
;the middle or inmost uorld עולם התיכון this is the world of the הוא עולם הגלגלים
הוא נולס המלאכים ;the superior world העליון
the spiritual עולם הרוחני ,of souls כפשות
spheres, containing the aerial region and the starry heavens. The third is, obw
; this is the world of angels, d'75x of God,
) , world. Now being these three comprehend all things imaginable ; being the first is sufficiently expressed in yox the earth, and the two last in draw the heaven; it followeth that, in the sense of the Hebrews, kearen and earth signify all things.
שלש עולמות whole frame of things into
three worlds: the first, nonny oby the inferior, or own oby the depressed and lowest world; obuy nex977 that is this world, say they, to wit, this globe of earth on
only use this manner of expression, but even the Greeks thenselves; and that not only before, but after* Pythagorast had accustomed them to one name. As therefore under the single name of World or Universe, I so also under the conjunctive expression of heaven and earth, are contained all things material and immaterial, visible and invisible.
But as the apostle hath taught us to reason, "When he saith all things are put under him, it is manifest that he is excepted which did put all things under him:” (1 Cor. xv. 27.) so when we say, all things were made by God, it is as manifest that he is excepted who made all things. And then the proposition is clearly thus delivered : All beings whatsoever beside God were made. As we read in St. John concerning the Word, that “ the world was made by him ;” (John i. 10.) and in more plain and express words before, “ All things were made by him, and without him was not any thing made that was made." (John i. 3.) Which is yet farther illustrated by St. Paul: "For by him were all things created that are in heaven and that are in earth, visible and invisible, whether they be thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or powers; all things were created by him.” (Col. i. 16.) If then there be nothing imaginable which is not either in heaven or in earth, nothing which is not either visible or invisible, then is there nothing beside God which was not made by God.
This then is the unquestionable doctrine of the Christian faith, that the vast capacious frame of the World, and every thing any way contained and existing in it, hath not its essence from or of itself, nor is of existence absolutely necessary; but what it is, it hath not been, and that being which it hath was made, framed, and constituted by another. And as “every house is builded by some man;" (Heb. iii. 4.) for we see the earth bears no such creature of itself; stones do not grow into a wall, or first hew and square, then unite and fasten themselves together in their generation; trees sprout not cross like dry and sapless beams, nor do spars and tiles spring with a natural uniformity into a roof, and that out of stone and mortar: these are not the works of nature, but superstructions and additions to her, as the supplies of art, and the testimonies of the understanding of man, the great artificer on earth : so, if the World itself be but a house, if the earth, which “hangeth Είς ταϊς αληθείαισιν, είς έστιν Θεός,
id dixeris, quod ex omnibus constat.' “ος ουρανός τέτευχε και γαίαν μακράν. . Tertull. de Virg. V'cland. c. 4. Occi de oi Ex incert. Trag. Sophocl. Frag. LI. σοφοί και ουρανόν και γήν και θεούς και άνθρά ed. Brunck,
πους την κοινωνίαν συνέχειν, και φιλίαν, και κο+ Πυθαγόρας πρώτος ώνόμασε την τών όλων σμιότητα, και σαφροσύνην, και δικαιότητα: περιοχής, κόσμον, έκ τής εν αυτη τάξεως. και το όλον τούτο δια ταύτα κόσμον καλούσιν. Plutarch. de Plac. Philosoph. I. ii. c. 1. lamhl. Protrept. but the words are Plato's
# 'Si Mundum dixeris, illic erit et in Gorgia, p. 132. ed. Bipont. calum, et quæ in eo, sol, et luna, et si 6 ο αισθητός ουτοσί κόσμος ουδέν άρα dera, et astra, et terra, et freta, et omnis arão Estivñ olxoz Secū. Philo de Insomn. p. census elementorum. Omnia dixeris, cum 6 48. Κόσμος είπεεπής και έτοιμες, αισθητός
upon nothing,” (Job xxvi. 7.) be the foundation, and the glorious spheres of heaven the roof (which hath been delivered as the most universal hypothesis), if this be the babitation of an infinite intelligence, the temple of God;* then must we acknowledge the world was built by him, and consequently, that “be which built all things is God.” (Heb. iii. 4.)
From hence appears the truth of that distinction, Whatsoever hath any being, is either made or not made: whatsoerer is not made, is God; whatsoever is not God is made. One uncreated and independent essence; all other depending on it, and created by it. One of eternal and necessary existence ; all other indifferent, in respect of actual existing, either to be or not to be, and that indifferency determined only by the free and voluntary act of the first Cause.
Now because to be thus made includes some imperfection, and among the parts of the world, some are more glorious than others; if those which are most perfect presuppose a Maker, then can we not doubt of a creation where we find far less perfection. This house of God, though uniform, yet is not all of the same materials, the footstool and the throne are not of the same mould; there is a vast difference between the heavenly expansions. This first aerial heaven, where God setteth up his pavilion, where “he maketh the clouds his chariot, and walketh upon the wings of the wind,” (Psal. civ. 3.) is not so far inferior in place as it is in glory to the next, the seat of the sun and moon, the two great lights, and stars innumerable, far greater than the one of them. And yet that second heaven is not so far above the first as beneath the “third,” (2 Cor. xii. 2.) into which St. Paul was caught. The brightness of the sun doth not so far surpass the blackness of a wandering cloud, as the glory of that beaven of presence surmounts the fading beauty of the starry firmament. For in this great temple of the World, in which the Son of God is the high-priest, the heaven which we see is but the veil, and that which is above, the Holy of Holies. This veil indeed is rich and glorious, but one day to be rent, and then to admit us into a far greater glory, even to the Mercy-seat and Cherubim. For this third heaven is the “proper habitation”+ (Jude ver. 6.) of the blessed angels, which constantly attend upon the throne. And if those most glorious and happy spirits, those "morning stars which sang together, those sons of God which shouted for joy when the foundations of the earth were laid,” (Job xxxviii. 7. 4.) if they and their habitation were made; then can we no ways doubt of the production of all other creatures so much inferior unto them. 275 TE 886ū. Id. de Plant. Noe, p. 337.
Το ανωτάτω και προς αλήθειαν Θειόν τι μέγεθος ο κόσμος, και οίκος Θεού ιερόν θεού νομίζειν σύμπαντα χρή κόσμος είναι. . als64zás. Id. de Mundi Incort. p. 509. Philo de Monarch. l. ii, init.
• Lucretius calls the bearens : · Mun + "Isov oiuntýp.or. di magnum et versatile templum.' I. v.