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two identical. Grammar is only one branch of the tree. Im- rests on phenomena clearly ascertained, invariable in themselves, portant as grammar is, it is scarcely the most important of the capable of being distinctly stated, and equally capable of being branches which combine to form the knowledge of a language. wrought into a system of general truths. Grammar is only a means to an end. It is a pathway to the If the conditions under which thought became speech had temple. The temple itself is the treasure of great thoughts been in all cases the same, there would only have been one lanwhich constitutes the literature, and which we have termed the guage on the face of the earth. Descending as mankind did productions of a language. It is for this treasure that a lan- from a common progenitor, the various tribes would have spoken guage is worth the labour of study; and in regard to literary a common tongue. But at Babel the builders were “scattered treasures, no language will repay attention more fully than the abroad,” and became subjected to outward influences of the English.

most diversified character, and engaged in the most varied From what has been said, it is also clear that the grammar kinds of life. Men's pursuits were different almost from the of a language is to be learnt in its literature. Grammar is no first. Climate and soil change with every change of locality. arbitrary thing. Its rules are not inventions. Its forms are And both original endowments and the degree of culture supernot optional. They are both merely general statements of facts induced by external influencos, or what may be termed indirect --facts ascertained by the careful perusal of what we term education, would be as diverse as the tribes, not to say the indiclassical authors; that is, authors of high and universal repute. viduals of which the species consisted. All these diversified The office of grammar is to make a systematic report of the influences would speedily beget varieties in speech which time usages observed in writing by the great minds of a nation. would increase and harden into different languages. Hence grammar is a science of imitation. The grammarian, From this diversity there arise two kinds of grammar-the like the sculptor, takes a model, and having studied its parts universal and the particular. Universal grammar is formed by and qualities, endeavours to reproduce the whole. Authority, studying language in general, by passing in review the several in consequence, is the great principle recognised in grammar. languages which exist (or most of them), and selecting and The authority of such men as Macaulay, Mackintosh, Addison, classifying those facts which are common to all. Particular Dryden, Shakespeare, is, in grammar, paramount and supreme. grammar is the result of the study of any one given language. What they do we must follow, and we must follow it because By a careful consideration of the usages of the best English it is their practice. Their words, their forms of speech, their writers we discover what constitutes English grammar. If, constructions must be ours. They are our masters, we their after we have ascertained the laws of a number of separate lanscholars. They give laws, we obey the laws they give. Scarcely guages, we then compare our discoveries one with another, and less than implicit and unqualified ought the obedience to be; mark and systematise what we find common to them all, we for grammar merely declares what is customary, and what is compose a treatise on general grammar. Particular grammar customary in a language is known by what is customary among resembles the anatomy of the human frame, and limits its teachits best writers.

ings to one set of objects. Universal grammar is like comLet it be observed that it is the English language that we are parative anatomy, which treats of the general laws of animal about to study. Consequently it is the qualities and the laws life, as deduced from a minute study of the animal kingdom in of that language that it will be our business to ascertain. If general. we were studying Sanscrit or Hebrew, then the qualities and It is with particular grammar that I am here concerned ;-of the laws of the Sancrit and the Hebrew should we be in search the grammar of our nation--namely, the English–I have to of. Disregarding them, we are equally to disregard the qualities treat. and the laws of the Latin. The best of Latin grammars wonld Grammar and logic, or the laws of expression and the laws of be a very bad English grammar, and a usage in Latin is no thought, are, we have seen, closely connected together in the authority for the introduction into English of a similar usage. nature of things. Not easily, then, can they be sundered in

The principles now set forth determine the mode of my pro- manuals of instruction. If separate, they are related sciences; ceeding. I shall not copy forms and rales from the writings of as being related to each other, they may afford mutual light former grammarians. I shall not out of my own head devise and aid. Requiring separate treatment, they each give and forms and rules. I shall rather take the language as it is, and receive illustration. Grammar assists the logician to put his inquire into its qualities and laws. Beginning with the simplest thoughts into a lucid form; and logic assists the grammarian enunciations of thought, I shall aid the student to analyse them, to make his utterances correspond to the exact analogy of his and from such analysis to deduce for himself the fundamental thoughts. No one can be a perfect grammarian who is without facts and principles of the English tongue. This process must skill or logic; and no logician who neglects grammar can sucbe gone through three times: first, in regard to the forms of cessfully convey his ideas to others. the language or its grammar; secondly, in regard to the pro- But in a manual which proposes to handle the subject of ductions of the language or its literature; and thirdly, as an ap- grammar, and of English grammar, reference to logic must be pendage to the last, in regard to the origin and progress of the tacit and latent; it may be felt, it must not be displayed. Yet, language or its history. If the reader attentively accompany in at least one or two terms will our obligations to logic be more me over this extended field, he will possess a full as well as positive and outward, for I shall borrow from that science the accurate acquaintance with the English language.

words subject, attribute, predicate, etc.; and this I shall do, beLanguage is the expression of thought by means of articulate cause these terms, when once their import is understood, afford sounds, as painting is the expression of thought by means of facilities for explanation far greater than the ordinary terms form and colour. The relations which subsist between our employed in English grammars. In these cases, however, and thoughts, when carefully analysed and set forth systematically, in other things in which I shall depart from what is usual, I give rise to logic. The laws and conditions under which the shall also supply the customary views and the ordinary terms. expression of our thoughts takes place form the basis of grammar. As the English language, like other languages, was spoken The logician has to do with states of the intellect, the gram- before its laws were formed into a systematic treatise called a marian is concerned with verbal utterances.

grammar, so the real facts of the language, in their primary and That there are laws of speech a cursory attention to the subject their model form, exist and are to be looked for in the every-day will suffice to prove. There is, indeed, no province of the uni. speech of well-educated persons. Hence the speech of educated verse of things but is subject to law. Each object has its own persons is of authority in grammar no less than the language mode of existence, which, in conjunction with the sphere of cir- the best authors. Nay, we seem likely to find a language in cumstances in the midst of which it is, gives rise to the laws its greater purity when we take it from the lips of educated and conditions by which it is controlled. Accordingly, guage persons generally than when we derive it from the somewhat takes its laws from the organs by which sound is made articulate, artificial shapes which it assumes in the learned or the popular from the culture of the intelligent beings by whom these organs volume. If so, “household words” are good for grammar as are employed, from the purposes for which speech is designed, well as for practical wisdom. And so it is in the nursery we and from even the medium and other outward influences in union may look for the English tongue in a form the most simple and with which these purposes are pursued.

yet the most idiomatic. Of all teachers of English grammar Were there no such laws the science of grammar could not the best is a well-educated English mother. Hence it is evident exist. The sciences are in each case a systematic statement of that a nursery, in a cultivated English home, is the best school generalised facts—in other words, of definite laws; and grammar of English grammar. As a matter of fact, it is in such schools first, among the upper classes of this country, the young learn having provided ourselves with implements, we will proceed to to speak correct English from their earliest days. Were all open our subject. English children trained in such schools, the language would be Many believe that the art of drawing can only be acquired by a Everywhere well and grammatically spoken. Consequently, could favoured few-viz., by those who are supposed to possess a power we place our students in cultivated nurseries, they would soon which is but sparingly bestowed amongst mankind in general. speak and write their mother tongue with correctness and pro- This power or gift is by them called genius, and they would priety. I am unable to accomplish this. I cannot place the young almost deem it an act of presumption to undertake the practice of the working classes in cultivated nurseries, but I may attempt of the art unless they were previously assured that they possessed to do the next best thing; and that is, to bring forth and set this gift, or power, or genius, or whatever else it may be termed. before them, in a living and organic form, the spoken language of There are many who, after making a few attempts towards sach nurseries. And this shall I undertake, the rather because, acquiring the power of drawing, give it up, and excuse themas the mother is the child's natural educator, or, to speak more selves from further efforts by saying, “Oh, I have no genius for correctly, as the mother is an educator of God's own appoint- this; I must be born with the talent, or I cannot succeed.” Such ment, so every system of education will be good and effectual a mistake is very common; there will be scarcely a reader of in proportion as it is in form, substance, and spirit, motherly. this who could not furnish one or more cases in proof of the

I must add that it is for Englishmen I write. I write also statement. That genius is not absolutely necessary, we know for the uneducated and for the young. Having these facts from undeniablo evidence; there are and have been thousands before my mind, I shall study plainness and simplicity. Yet of men who have proved themselves to be able draughtsmen, do I hope to be able to write in such a manner that scholars without adding to the list of our Raphaels and Turners; and may not disdain to cast an eye on these pages. However that there are very few indeed, considering the number who exercise may be, I shall make it my first object and my last so to express the art, and whose success in drawing we must acknowledge to my thoughts as to be fully understood, if not also readily fol. be very great, who can rank as first-rate artists. Knowing, lowed, by the now large and meritorious class who are endeavour then, this to be the case, we relinquish all attempts to create ing to educate themselves. To labour for such is to me a very genius, and confine ourselves, by simple, practical instructions, great pleasure. I ask for their confidence, and will endeavour to open a way by which any one who has the courage to to reward their attention.

persevere may acquire the power of drawing from natural or artificial objects, and enable him to represent his ideas in a way

of which no other art is capable. For purely mechanical draw. LESSONS IN DRAWING.-I.

ing—that is, the exact representation of the forms of objects, be INTRODUCTION.

they animals, trees, machinery, or anything else—no extraordinary BEFORE we enter upon the subject of drawing, and how to genius beyond an earnest desire is required. Only let the pupil drew, it will be of great service to some of our readers who commence and proceed with a determination that nothing shall may make np their minds to practise from our instructions, daunt him, to follow out certain leading principles, which having to give some little advice respecting the materials necessary mastered, he will then discover that the application of these for their use.

First, the paper : the best and cheapest kind is principles will render the art not so difficult as he at first that called “ drawing cartridge,” the imperial size is the most imagined. Nevertheless, it is one thing to be able to draw a tonvenient, which when cut up into quarto, or four portions, simple object, or a combination of these objects, and it is quite Fill afford sufficient room for the subjects we intend to place another thing to expect that having acquired this power it must, before our pupils. Drawing books made of this paper, as without fail, result in producing a talent for the higher qualifiwell as the paper itself, with pencils, drawing boards, and cations of the artist. No; a great deal may be done towards other drawing materials, can be obtained from the publishers. gaining a full mastery of the principles of drawing applicable to The next and most important of all the materials are the a faithful transcript of any object whatever, before arriving at pencils. for free-hand drawing—that is, drawing without the use the stage which introduces us to that exalted position where of instruments—we recommend HB, B, and BB. The B pencil is genius is necessary for the full development of the poetic, or first used for marking in the general proportions and character more elevated results of the artistic mind. In order, therefore, of the subject; this pencil must be used lightly, then the errors to enable a student to overcome the difficulties of drawing, he may be very easily effaced without disturbing the surface of the undoubtedly must be fully prepared and determined to attack paper; and what is equally important is, that after the whole every impediment he may meet in his progress; and for any subject is arranged the drawing may be reduced in tone—that is, one who is earnest in his work there is this encouraging thought, made lighter to receive the finished outline to be done with the that if he meets with a succession of difficulties, and manages by HB, which makes a cleaner and more definite line than the B. perseverance to surmount them all one after the other, he must The B may also be used for shading, especially the broad or flat be making sure progress, whereas if none present themselves he tones of shade: the BB is the finishing pencil for the extreme may be assured he is standing still. depth of tone in the darkest parts. For plan and geometrical Our purpose in these lessons on drawing is first to enlarge drawing, an pencil is the most suitable. Be careful that the upon the leading principles, and, taking these for the groundpencil is cut evenly with a sharp knife, not hacked or jagged as work, we intend to apply them to all subjects, whether they be in Fig. 1. Fig. 2 represents the most suitable form of point. still-life (or objects), figure, or landscape drawing. You must have a deal drawing board, half-inch or three-quarters It is important to mention that, to draw a line successfully, thick, according to size, upon which the paper is to be laid and much depends upon the position of the body, the hand, and the pinned down with flat-headed drawing pins. For highly-finished arm. The pupil must sit as uprightly as he can, having the copy and important drawings it would be better to fix the paper in and the paper he is drawing upon in a direct line before him ; he the following manner :-Wet both sides with a sponge, being must be able to see both his copy and his own drawing without particular that the paper is not rubbed, wetted only; turn the having to raise or lower his head; he has no need to stoop over edges up all round about three-quarters of an inch broad, and his work—it is bad for his health, and bad for his picture. We paste the under-side ; wait a minute or two until the paper has do not sit in the same position to draw as we do to write. The sufficiently expanded (which is caused by the wetting), then, pencil is not subject to the same rules as a pen; it must be so having placed it evenly on the board, turn the pasted edges held that if dropped from the hand whilst in the act of drawing down and press them close to the board, under a cloth or piece the line, it would fall on the paper at a right angle with the of waste paper; once more wet the paper gently all over except line. For instance, to represent a perpendicular line (see a to b, the pasted edges, and lay the board down flat, somewhere, to dry; Fig. 1), the pencil must be held as shown in the engraving; if a the pasted edges must dry first, or the paper will fly up, horizontal position is represented, as in Fig. 2; if an inclined line, because as it dries it will contract. If the pupil is able to fix as in Figs. 3 and 4. By attending to this rule we have such a his paper successfully, he will see for himself the advantage of command of the pencil that without

moving the wrist we can reach having a firma and smooth surface to work upon. The most either end of the line, or that portion of the line we wish to draw, convenient size of board is twenty-three inches by sixteen without any danger of its being directed out of its proper course. inches—this will take half of an imperial sheet of paper, very The pupil, very probably, will have noticed that there are but useful for plan drawing and working plans;

these, with a piece two kinds of lines to draw by which all objects whatsoever are of india-rubber, will be quite sufficient to start with. Thus, represented—viz., straight lines and curved lines. It is the


Fig. 15

disposition of these lines—in some cases all straight, in some all wish particularly to impress this idea upon the mind of the curved, and in others straight and curved united—that makes up student. the representation of the object before us. Their lengths, their To draw a line at random, without a previous arrangement, positions, their curvatures or bendings, and the manner in which trusting more to good luck than to skill for its being correct,

and leaving out all consideration or inquiry as to its fitness antil it is drawn, is the most discouraging practice that can be followed. Let the student make up his mind, before he attempts

to draw the line, where it is to begin, and where it is to end. Fig.2

Take a single line for an example (Fig. 6). Let it be supposed it is to begin at a and end at b; make a point where it is to begin and another where it is to end, and follow this practice invariably, whatever the subject may be, and whatever may be the number of lines that compose it. If the line be too long to

draw at once without leaving off, mark any number of points in Fig.1

the direction between the two points a and b, and mark those points first which are nearest the extremes (the order of the letters in Fig. 6 will explain this), ending with those near the

centre. When these points are properly placed so as to be in a Fig.1 straight direction, join a to c by one continued and carefully

drawn line—that is, without leaving off (observing what has Fig.3

been already said about the position of the pencil); then draw a

line from c to e, from e to d, and from d to b, as in Fig. 7. By b

this process of marking in the distances where there is a com

bination of lines, we overcome one, if not the greatest, difficulty they are connected with each other, combine to represent the in free-hand drawing. There are other helps for placing lines various forms which nature and art so abundantly furnish. The correctly, all of which will be noticed in their due course. This question then narrows itself to the consideration-how are we to method of drawing a line must be practised over and over again treat these lines ? We will begin by a caution, and direct the attention of the

2 student to the pernicious and unsatisfactory way which many pursue when drawing a line. They begin, we will say, at the top (Fig.5), a, and make a series of continuous scratches until they have reached the supposed end at b. Now here, at the outset of our


d instructions, let us endeavour to impress upon the student that such a mode of procedure is fatal to anything like success in drawing. They who follow this practice depend upon the advantage of being able to rub out their failures, and try again and again, with very creditable perseverance, until they arrive 8 at something like the line they wish for; but when the subject is a complex one-that is, one made up of innumerable lines and curves--and this scratching and rubbing-out process is repeated,

h it cannot be surprising if we should see the unfortunate beginner,

g. 14 labouring under despair and excitement, throw the whole aside in disgust, being fully persuaded in his own mind that he will

i i never be able to make any progress whatever. They who follow this plan generally say drawing is exceedingly difficult,

k and that it requires genius or natural talent to enable any one to succeed. We therefore carnestly desire to impress upon all until it is accomplished. Then in the same way draw lines in a who hope to draw well not to allow themselves to fall into a method which we must again call most pernicious and un

horizontal position, as in Figs. 8 and 9; then again inclined satisfactory. To draw a single line requires the same care lines, as in Figs. 10 and 11, 12 and 13. and judgment as a combination of any number of lines; each

As we have said that all objects are to be represented by straight and curved lines, we will present a simple combination

of these lines as an illustration of our system, when the utility 8.

of placing points to mark the positions and distances will be a 으

d 6

evident, for by this process we obtain that which one word will

express, the arrangement of the drawing. It is this arrangement 6

of the places where the lines are to be drawn that we would cl lc

earnestly impress upon the learner the necessity of repeatedly practising, for upor this will depend the power of producing a correct and satisfactı, y drawing.

Figs. 14 and 15 may appear to be only a piece of scribble, yet

they contain all that is necessary for the purpose of illustrating Fig. 7.

Fig. 13 our meaning. First, then, observe the position of a with regard

to b (Fig. 14), and their distance from cach other, and place

points to correspond, as a and b in Fig. 15; and also the posidl id

tions of the other characteristic points respectively, with Fig. 12

regard to a being in a direct line with a and b, c with regard to l and a; also d perpendicular with c, and so on ; c and g on

the same level, e being perpendicularly under 1, i under f, and 6 16 6

k somewhat below the position of į under g. When all these Trig.5.

b 16

characteristic points and distances are determined, then, as in the drawing of a simple line (as before explained), join these points

by lines straight and curved as in the example, Fig. 14, proline must be drawn cleanly, and with a knowledge beforehand ducing the result as in Fig. 15. Respecting the importance of of its proper position. The game principle that regulates this fundamental principle, we cannot too earnestly impress it one rognlates the whole ; it is only a repetition of that prin upon the mind of the pupil, and recommend him to practise it cʻplo according to the number of lines in the drawing. We frequently.

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labourers who depended on them for a living. Sometimes

things were better, sometimes worse; but at all times, as far as MAGNA CHARTA.

the workmen were concerned, bad was best. “ Christ and his It was high time something should be done when the prelates saints slept,” said the poor people in the reign of Stephen, and barons of England made King John sign the Great Charter. 1135-1154. In no other way could they account for their The land had had no rest, the people no security, since the day

grievous condition. “ You might as well have tilled the sea when Duke William overthrew King Harold at Hastings, in as the land, says the Anglo-Saxon chronicler, for when the October, 1066. If we take a glance at the history of the induce the earth to bring forth her increase, lawless men

husbandman had spent his labour and his earnings so as to hundred and fifty years immediately succeeding the Conquest, swooped down upon the crop, and as often as not slew the helpwe shall find it a record of many kinds of violence, an account less owner of it, and drove his family into slavery. Every man of one perpetual striving which should be tho greater, and it who was strong enough built a castle, forcing the poople to shows incidentally how much less than the whole world a man was willing to accept in exchange for his soul. Brother had work at the stronghold which was to overawe them; and he striven with brother, sons with their fathers, for the throne. paid them for neither time nor trouble. “They filled the land kings had striven with prelates, barons with priests, for the full of castles "—there were eleven hundred in England in mastery ; baron had waged war on neighbouring baron on

Stephen's reign, when the population was under two millionsaccount of some private quarrel ; even the religious houses

“they greatly oppressed the wretched people by making them were divided against themselves; and the people” —that is to work at these castles, and when the castles were finished say, all those who were not of the so-called noble class—had they filled them with devils and evil mon.” So writes the

chronicler. been fearfully ill-used. In spite of the spirit of armed religion, as embodied in the institution of chivalry-in spite of the

At times the Church lifted her voice to warn, to exhort, and efforts of great and good men to procure some recognition of to threaten; and now and again, in the most solemn manner, the law which bids ns do unto others as we would have them put the most notorious evil-doers out of the communion of do nnto us, the grossest tyranny prevailed. The weakest went Christian men; but in spite of the superstitious fears, which to the wall, and of the rulers it might well be said —

were general, respecting tho power of the priesthood, the

Church was nearly powerless to stop the universal rapine, until “The good old rule

she resorted to the bold expedient of putting Christianity under Sufficeth them—the simple plan

arms. That they should take who bave the power,

This she did by founding, or rather by moulding on And they should keep who can."

her own plan, the institution of chivalry. She enlisted under

the banner of the Cross the choicest and most generous of the Under such circumstances, it is not very wonderful if we find warlike spirits, and having sworn them by word and deed, in that the position of all classes beneath the highest, and notably every way, “ to break the heathen and uphold the Christ," she the class which furnished labourers, was perfectly intolerable. sent them forth against the wolves who wero making such The king oppressed the barons, the barons fought among thom- havoc in her sheepfold. Murderers, robbers, violators, scounselves and oppressed their weaker brethren, the lesser barons drels of all sorts, began now to count the cost of their actions, oppressed the small freeholders, and the small freeholders and then they hesitated about repeating them, for they found Bolaced themselves with the thraldom in which they kept the they had to lay their account with cracked skulls and slasheu

bodies in this world as well as with a solemn promise of eternal to the trustee. If the ward were a woman, the warder couid damnation in the next.

marry her to whom he pleased. For the purpose of making the Henry II. mended matters a bit when he came to the throne king's eldest son a knight, and for providing a dower for his in 1151, and by persevering in a wise policy strove to reduce to eldest daughter, custom required that all the king's tenants womething like order the chaos into which society had fallen; should subscribe; and when the king went on a journey through but during the crusade which was led by Richard I. in 1190, any part of the country, his purveyors were in the habit of and especially during the king's captivity in Austria, selfishness'taking for the royal use, cattle, provisions, horses, carts, and and wickedness in high places at home found scope for exercise, whatever else might be wanted. Though as a matter of pruand law became silent amid the din of arms. From the Lion- dence the feudal prince summoned the grand council of all his Hearted himself, peer and commoner were content to endure tenants if he wanted their advice, he was under no legal much; they saw in the fearless, generous, though Normanly obligation to summon them; and they might not meet unless cruel King, qualities which commanded their affections if not he did so. While it was not supposed that a feudal prince their judgments, and they bore with something like satisfaction could want money, seeing he had large demesne lands specially the continuous and heavy demands which he made upon their reserved to him, there was not any law forbidding him either to blood and treasuro. But the Lion being dead was succeeded by ask for it or to take it from the tenants. one who had played the traitor against him during his lifetime, Now it is easy to see that all the above-named institutions who had all the ferocity and all the cruelty of his brother with were liable to great abuse ; and as a matter of fact they were out one of his noble qualities, and who was already known to abused to an unbearable extent. Reliefs, wardship, purveyance, the peoplo by the utter depravity of his life. Here is his por- the expensive military attendance, or the money commutation trait, drawn by one of our ablest historians : “He stands before for it-all were made the means of screwing money or money's us polluted with meanness, cruelty, perjury, and murder ; worth out of the people, and the Church, which held a great uniting with an ambition, which rushed through every crime to proportion of the land in the kingdom, was subject to spoliation the attainment of its object, a pusillanimity which often, at the as well as the lay tenants. All were tarted with the same solo appearance of opposition, sank into despondency. Arro- brush. The sacred trust of guarding the infant orphan was gant in prosperity, abject in adversity, he neither conciliated sold for a fixed sum, and the purchaser of the trust got all he afl'ection in the one, nor excited esteem in the other." Nor was could for his money out of the ward's estate ; men bought the this all. The man was the servant of a licentiousness which right to marry heiresses who were wards of the king, and the recognised no bounds. There was scarcely one family, even right was sold to the highest bidder, almost without reference among the nobles, that did not smart under a keen sense of that to personal qualifications. injury which no man pardons to another. The sin for which But this was not all. John gave that worst sign of an evil Lucretia suffered and which drove the kings from Rome, the government—the sale of justice. Henry II. had sold decrees, sin from tho taint of which Virginius saved his daughter by but the nuisance culminated under John. On the roll of the killing her ;-that sin sat heavily on John's soul, and stirred to Exchequer are numerous entries of gifts, sometimes of money, their lowost depths the hearts of all England against him. sometimes of goods, in consideration of the king's influence to

From such an one the nation would endure nothing tamely, get a verdict. The judges also took bribes, and that in cases not even those acts which former kings had done, and which by where the Crown was concerned. prescription had almost obtained the semblance of law. The Lastly, there was the great grievance of the forest laws, barons were utterly enraged, the clergy were fixedly hostile, and those remote ancestors of our existing game laws. These laws, the people were suffering to that degree at which they sometimes made by the cruel Conqueror, who, says a Norman monk, turn and teach their wrongers " in some wild hour how much loved the tall stags as if he had been their father,” made it a the wretched dare.” The king was quite unable to ride on the felony, punishable with loss of limb for an unauthorised person whirlwind ho had brought about him, and everything was ready, to be found in a forest, and by the same law it was made a overybody was prepared, for a revolution. But one thing was capital offence to kill a stag. wanting to make the revolution successful. There was abun- If all these things were done in the green tree, what could dance of muscle, enough and to spare of disposition to kick have been done in the dry? If the king so acted towards the

Linst the tyrant, but there was not any one to gather the barons, prelates, abbots, and other chief tenants, how did these headstrong passions into a focus whence they might act with in their turn behave towards those under them? Badly, it is to effect upon the object of their wrath. The barons and those be feared, though they made the best recompense they could, under them—the wrongs the barons suffered at the king's under the dictation of Geist, by including them with themselves hands taught them sympathy with those who whilom suffered in the charter of liberties. With the wretched labourers, the wrong at their own—represented brute force as the untamed rilleins—the poor slaves who "knew not in the evening what clephant represents it; they lacked the skilful guide who might they were to do in the morning, but they were bound to do rather up their strength and lead it to the goal they wished to whatever they were commanded,” who were liable to beating attain. They wanted Geist.*

and imprisonment at the will of their lord, who were incapable Before we ascertain whence Geist came, and the manner in of acquiring property, or of giving freedom to their childrenwhich it worked, let us see rather more particularly what it was we have not now anything to do. They, alas! benefited but the barons and the people suffered that was so intolerable. slightly by Magna Charta ; their time of emancipation had not

When the Conqueror obtained -possession of the island, yet come. A.D. 1066, he gave the land to be divided among his followers Let us turn now to look at what Geist did to remedy, as 14 a reward for their services. The only condition he imposed regarded freemen, the wrongs from which they suffered. upon them-a very necessary one to a prince who was only in Stephen de Langton was an Englishman who had been promilitary possession of the country-was, that whenever sum- moted to the see of Canterbury by the Pope, in defiance and in moned they should attend him with so many men-at-arms, spite of the king. Before he gave John absolution, and took off arebers, etc., according to the extent of their fees or holdings, the ban under which England had lain for the six years prior for six weeks at their own expense. This was the only strictly to 1213, he made the penitent swear to abolish all unjust feudal obligation; bat custom added a number of other obliga- practices, to do right, and to govern according to law; but a tions which, though smaller, were more galling. If s baron short time afterwards, the barons having refused to follow the died, his heir had to pay a sum of money by way of "relief," as king in an expedition to France, John turned his hired troops it was called, or a fee to induce the king to accept him in his loose on the barons' lands, and burned and pillaged right and father's stead; and if the heir were under age, the king had the left. Langton met him at Northampton, and again at Nottingwardship of him, an office which enabled the king to put into ham, and by threatening to excommunicate every one of his his own treasure the difference between the youth's income and followers, compelled him to desist. But Geist, in the shape of the cost of his keep and edineation, for though the situation was the Primate, knew that other means must be taken to prevent really one of trest, practically it was made the means of profit a repetition of violence. At a meeting of the barons in St.

Paul's Cathedral, London, Langton said he had discovered a mies of the weed Geist is hardly to be rendered by charter of liberties which Henry I. had granted when he was

les is one language. It embodies the meaning of desirous of winning the support of the English against his scretios, Intelligence, and Wm.

brother Robert. He read the charter to them, and suggested

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