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in his expeditions, and thus travelled over Central Asia; in a short rest at the Canary Islands, were refitted on the 6th of 1335, an Italian merchant, Balducci Pegoletti, went to Pekin by September following. From that moment the crew of the little the central Asiatic route; and in 1403 Clavijo was sent as an fleet, alarmed at the immensity of the ocean, and destitute of ambassador by the court of Spain to Samarcand. About the the hope of success to sustain their courage, cherished a thouend of the fourteenth century the brothers Zeni re-discovered sand apprehensions which almost led them to despair. DeGreenland, and announced the existence of a large island, which spondency gave place to anger, and anger produced revolt. The they called Frisland. Modern geographers have not yet arrived energy of the great leader of the enterprise calmed these at the satisfactory solation of the problem, to what country or extravagant fears, and warded off the dangers with which even island this name applies.
his life was threatened. Yet keen anguish continued to agitate Africa had almost become unknown, when the Portuguese his noble heart during those long and dreary nights when the began to explore the western part of this continent. This land, indicated by certain customary signs, seemed to fly from nation, animated by a zeal for making voyages and discoveries, his presence. At last, at ten o'clock on the night of the i1th of undertook to rectify the errors of geographers, and to contradict October, 1492, Columbus distinctly perceived a light. Some the dreams of Greek and Roman antiquity, as well as the hours afterwards, the rising sun showed him in the distance the reveries of the middle ages, by experimentally proving the fact land which he sought. America was discovered ! that the zone of the globe hitherto deemed uninhabitable was as The first land seen by Columbus was the island of Guanahani, accessible to man as the temperate regions. Previous to the which is now called San Salvador. The Spaniards discovered, in year 1411, the Portuguese had never ventured beyond Cape Nun, succession, the West India Islands, including Cuba and Hayti, which they considered as an impassable limit. An expedition which received the name of Hispaniola, and in 1497 Columbus was then prepared and sent out, which proved completely suc- set foot for the first time on the mainland of the continent of cessful ; it not only doubled this redoubtable cape, but extended North America. It has been said that Amerigo Vespucci its researches as far as Cape Boja
visited, a year before Columbus, the dor. Then commenced that series
coasts of Guiana and Terra Firma, of successful enterprises which have
now Venezuela; but this is mere gained for this people their lasting
conjecture. Two years later, howreputation as early discoverers of
ever, this learned Florentine careunknown lands. Under the direc
fully reconnoitred the northern tion of Henry of Portugal, a noble
coast of South America. and zealous prince, in 1432, explor
In the space of a few years, coning squadrons from Lisbon doubled
stant accessions were made to these Cape Bojador, discovered the river
discoveries in the New World. In Senegal, reconnoitred the coast of
1497, John Cabot, accompanied by Africa from Cape Blanco to Cape
his sons Lewis and Sebastian, disVerd, landed on the islands which
covered Newfoundland and Labratake their name from the latter
dor, and is said to have sailed Cape, and took possession of the
southward along the coast of North Azores, situated about nine hundred
America as far as Florida. Yanez miles from the African continent.
Pinzon, in 1500, reached Brazil, and Some years later the Portuguese
three months after him, Alvarez crossed the equinoctial line or equa
Cabral landed on the same coast, tor, and established the fact, hitherto
which he transferred to the soveproblematical, that the torrid zone
reignty of Portugal; while Gaspar was not only habitable, but also
Corteréal touched at the coast of very populous and fertile. No longer
Labrador, which had already been did the black statues of the Canary
discovered by Cabot. Ponce de Leon, Islands appeal to the fears of the
in 1512, landed in Florida. Three traveller, and forbid him to go a step
years later, the Rio de la Plata, or beyond that limit. Suddenly also
River Plate, was laid open to Europe was the Sea of Darkness illumined
by Juan Diaz de Solis. Magellan, by the rays of the tropical sun, and
one of the most illustrious of these soon were its waves opened up as
early voyagers, in 1520, established a public highway to enterprising
the fact of the existence of the strait diavigators. After new exploring ex
which bears his name, saw Tierra peditions to the kingdoms of Benin and Congo, the Portuguese, del Fuego, and reached the Philippine Islands, after having under Bartholomew Diaz, in 1493, reached the Cape of Good ploughed the Pacific Ocean, which Nunez de Balboa had taken Hope, which was then called by him the Cape of Tempests, on possession of, in the name of the king of Spain! This Balboa account of the stormy aspect which it presented to them on its was the first who saw, from the elevated shores of Central first appearance. In 1497, however, under the auspices of America, the waters of the great Pacific Ocean, which he named Emmanuel of Portugal, Vasco de Gama doubled the Cape of the South Sea. Now the Spaniards commenced the exploration Good Hope, and reached India, after having sailed along the of the new continent. The curiosity of Europe was raised to whole western and southern coast of Africa.
its highest pitch. An unknown and mighty world unfolded its Whilst the Portuguese were thus striking out a new route wonders to bold adventurers, when Mexico, Guatemala, and to the East Indies, the Spaniards were opening up America to Peru exhibited to the eyes of the astonished Europeans the Europe. The latter years of the fifteenth century made this splendours of their imperial cities, and their inhabitants told double present to Christendom. The erroneous representations them of the priceless
store of inexhaustible treasures that lay which the maps of the world presented at this period, and hid in the bowels of their mountains. which, according to the authority of Ptolemy and the travels of But the wealth of the men of the New World proved their Marco Polo, gave an exaggerated extent to Asia on the east, ruin, and led to their speedy subjugation and the overthrow of led Christopher Columbus to imagine that by sailing continually empires and dynasties that were older, perhaps, than any that Festward, it was possible to reach the continent of Asia and the existed in that quarter of the globe from which their conquerors East Indies. There was, besides, a vague but common belief The sight of gold and silver used for purposes for which that there existed towards the west a great unknown land. the baser metals were thought even too valuable in Europe; the The history of all the difficulties which the illustrious Genoese indifference with which Mexicans and Peruvians alike regarded met with in the execution of his project, and of all the obstacles that which the Europeans looked upon as the only thing which which ignorance, indifference, and jealousy raised up against could render life desirable; and the incredible news that, any him is well known; but the facts of the discovery must be day they liked, they could get more than a strong man could repeated here. The three vessels charged with this great ex. stagger under, at the price of a few hours' work with spade ploring expedition set sail on the 3rd of August, 1492, and after and pick, raised in the human valtures that had flocked west
NEW DECLENSION OF THE NOUN.
... ne hox Columbus, hunger and thirst ! prisoner and strangled by order of Pizarro in 1538, while Pizarro
viable, that no mat of the himself was assassinated by D'Almagro's son in 1541. **1 fy the one or allay the other. Other leaders at the head of handfuls of men, so to speak,
moins in 1492, and the discovery were equally, though not so notably, successful in other parts
the West Indian Ilands, including of the American continent; and fifty years had not elapsed from antine St. Domingo, at which Columbus the time of the discovery of America, ere the whole of the country
a ne returned to Spain in the foilow. south of the Isthmus of Panama, and a very large portion of that i'm novate colonisation of the Caribbean on the north, had been reduced from the position of independent Livin. of Panama or Darien, that links empires to that of dependencies of Spain and Portugal. mer, men as of the American continent. - 1 B., adventurous spirits in Spain who Among them were some whose
LESSONS IN GERMAN.–VI. no tem from rising in their own country,
SECTION XIII.-NOUNS OF THE NEW DECLENSION. eing the opportunity to make a name and
of these, the most notable was Nouns of the New Declension form their genitive by adding n Bir! son of an unnatural parent, an or en to the nominative, as : - Nom. Der Mensch, the man, the o listen the Catholic and Isabella of human being; der Herr, the lord, or Mr.; der Fürst, the prince ;
** W ot pain, who cared so little for the ter Elephant, the elephant, etc. Gen. Des Menschen, des Herrn, tos
od ums or low bone," that he allowed the Fürsten, tes Elephanten, a. Nouns of this declension retain the
land his obscurity, and turning his back 5. Des guten Knaben, the good boy's; tes Odjen, of the ox; unday without a nigh, he worked his passage D. Dem guten Snaben, to the good boy; tem Odjen, to the ox; Hey, where tho bane-born hewer of wood A. Den guten Knaben, the good boy ; ten Ocjen, the ox. Tidla wil win a much wealth and honour as
—toilsome. Hauptmann, m. cap. Prinz, m. prince.
tain. Holly Will Doon on tho Spanish main went Francis Christ, m. Christian.
Ruhig, quiet, peace1, le Almasero a man who knew even less about Deutsche, m. German. Heiter, brisk, lively.
able. Le l'airro did, and who took his name from Franjoʻse, m. French- Immer, always, ever. Russe, m. Russian. in wave Pool ho was picked up and a host of
Jute, m. Jew. Schreibtisc, m. writHulle with littlo bottor lineage to boast of than they Freiheit, f. liberty, Knabe, m. boy. ing-desk.
freedom. I.. month, one of the recently established centres to
Land, n. country. Soltat, m. soldier. Walth of the Now World was steadily gravitating, Freistaat, m. republic. Leben, n. Nife. Sondern, but. waretoand mo mapidly to a position of importance, furit, m. prince. Monarchie', f.
mo. Türfe, m. Turk. Iwon was no more to him than an acorn had been Gesicht, n. counte- narchy.
| linser, our 1 to wo has hoga to feed in the shady alleys of the oak. nance, face.
Nachbar, m. neigh-! Unsicher, unsafe, un. Tupu Ry plundering and robbing right and left, Gewissen,
certain. Tinh to make him long for more, when a rumour
Neffe, m. nephew. Zeichen, n. sign, token. I think tho xroat gold-fields of the Western world Graf, m. count. Nihte, f. niece. Hill hund in Porn, and put him on the scent of playing Dried in the Innd of the Incas that Hernan Cortez had Karl der Große starb in tem Jahre Charlemagne died in the year
RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. In this country of Montezuma. Cortez had upset a bullshment, that hold sway over an empire whose area
tes Herrn Act bundert und vier. of the Lord eight hundred thala thousand thousand square miles in extent, and
and fourteen. pilly much the pleased in Mexico, a city of 300,000 Der tap‘fere Ungar ist ter Feint des The gallant Hungarian is the IIwith my a tritling force of 600 or 700 Spaniards, Did tuf'tente Peloten ist ein schönes The fragrant violet is a bean
enemy of the Russian. lililou lost a third before he reached the heart of the the pace of two years (1519-21) Cortez had reduced Bertien'ses Brot it jüs.
Grzeug niß des frühlings.
tiful production of the spring. I filla and powerful country to the position of a Spanish Gin gutes Gevus'en ist ein sanftes A good conscience is a soft
Earned bread is sweet.
pillow, hp and about eighty men, and soon found ont enongh
Many an industrious man is ham that he was on the right track to increased wealth Netb ist der vertien'te saba ver want is the merited reward of
poor. Bat hardships and privations quickly Tinerande of his followers, and he found it necessary to
idleness. u un to his standard before he attempted to carry
EXERCISE 16. After a hastr visit to Spain to obtain from 1. Gat ter hranice tea aia dos Patiten? 2. Ja, und der Deutsche the wornorship of the newivulisourered conntry, Bat tako Jait tek tanicien 3. 33 bat der Nuije? 4. Er hat das 11h to the Spanish main, and, by the aid of the co2a
5. Tiriet nethe itt fein dreunt te Türfen. 6. Wer ! Mi monipped a second expedition against Peru. hattal is remettres Caben? 7. Der dreunt rieses Griechen hat in which was then maging between the Inca Atahna pa & 8. But guten Siretzat ibret NeFen? 9. Nein, ich babe ren lih Hamnr farond his attempt. He tak the strebunt mai atrol 11. Gahn Sie ra: Buch dieses Knaben, otet
ww, inving wrong from him gold and silver y Parit igned Teren? 11. Sabe tal Put tes snaben, unt meine
om twenty two feet long hy sixteen free broad. Not a Barist der Waren 12 je unier steund, der Hauptmann, lowoh, he murdered him, weized his capital andandi atct ca fruta? 13. GT Ê en branżcie, und ein großer awwwww to be honeoforth an appan yn of the Rount re* Nuen 14. duris at ein Sobn uniers Nad bars, des
Wowwe wp the good fortune of Mearns, for inne!? 15. Net DT Sahn eines Suren, und sein Vater it ha antolas Para Mentenant in the con terator: hern 16. fe heiteres Geficht ist nicht immer das
Www bo to win a postingan Beta 17948 ruben este 17. Haben Sie das Buch tes Grafen?
Mot alma makina bwreef 18 animaettdet tro: bartaf Su 19. 128 leben eines Solraten
RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. 1. The writing-desk of the (bed] gallant Pole. 2. The life of a Das Meer'wasser hat einen salz'igen The sea-water has a salt taste. prince is unsafe. 3. The gallant Pole with (mit] the [bem] lively Geschmack'. flebhaften] countenance (Gesicht] is an enemy of the Frenchman. Dieser Schneidergeselle ist ein ge This journeyman tailor is a 4. Is [ist] he a friend of the good (guten] captain ? 5. That sjener] schickt'er Ar‘beiter.
skilful workman. soldier is the brother of his beautiful cousin [Gousine]. 6. The Der Hund ist ein treues Thier, und The dog is a faithful animal, diligent son of the brisk German has a good [gutes) conscience. die Kaße ist ein schlaues Thier. and the cat is a sly animal.
Sie haben etwas Schönes, und ich You have something fine, and I SECTION XIV.-ABSOLUTE POSSESSIVES, ETC.
babe etwas Gutes.
have something good. 1. When mein, tein, sein, x. (8 58) are not followed by an adjec- Der Adler ist ein Naub'vogel. The eagle is a bird of prey. tive or a noun, they are called absolute possessives, and are
EXERCISE 18. declined, as are also kein and ein, like an adjective of the Old Declension, as
1. Hat dieser Tuchhändler gutes Tuch? 2. Ja, er þat gutes Tuch ; und
dieser Gerber hat gutes Leter. 3. Was hat der Barbier ? 4. Er hat Mein Hut ist groß, und sein-er (sein My hat is large, and his (his gute Seife. 5. Wer hat gutes Heu? 6. Dieser Bauer hat gutes Heu. Hut) ist flein hat) is small.
7. Was hat der Schmied ? 8. Er hat gutes Eisen, und fein Bruder, der Sen But ist groß, und mein-er (mein His hat is large, and mine (my Papierhändler, hat gutes Papier, rothes, blaues, and weißes. 9. Haben Hut) ift klein. hat) is small.
Sie rothen oder weißen Wein? 10. Ich habe weder rothen, noch weißen. Sein Buch ist neu, ihr-es (ihr Buch His book is new, hers (her 11. Jür Wein ist füp, aber dieser hier ist sauer. 12. Ihr rother Wein ist
ist alt, und Ihr-es (Ihr Bud) ist book) is old, and yours (your start, und der weiße Wein meines Nachbars ist schwach. 13. Hat dieser cin.
book) is beautiful.
Müller gutes Mehl ? 14. Ja, und dieser Bauer hat gutes Korn, guten Er hat Gelb, und Sie haben kein-es He has money, and you have Hafer, unt gute Gerste. 15. Dieses Märchen hat eine schöne Stimme. 16. (kein Geld).
none (no money).
Mein Bruder hat etwas Schönes und ich habe nichts Häßliches. 17. Dieser Gines and feines (the neuters) often drop the vowel of the final Mann hat nur ein wenig Gelt, und der andere hat gar keins. syllable ; thus producing the forms eins and keins, as :
EXERCISE 19. Er hat ein Pferd, Sie haben eins, He has a horse, you have one, 1. Has my brother, the tailor, black (schwarzes] or red cloth ? und ich habe feins.
and I have none.
2. The friend of my (meines] brother has good paper, red, blue OLD DECLENSION OF THE ADJECTIVE IN ALL GENDERS.
[blaues], and white. 3. The son of the bookbinder has some
thing of the [von dem] barber. 4. The beautiful daughter of the Masculine. Feminine.
Neuter. old blacksmith has a [einen] dog and a cat. 5. The diligent carN. Gut-er Wein, good Gut-e Seite, good Gut-es Wasser, good penter [Tushler) has something beautiful. 6. The draper is a wine. silk.
son of the industrious merchant (Kaufmannes]. 7. The old tanner G. Gut-cs Weines, of Gut-er Seide, of good Gut-es ($ 28) Wassers, had not seen (gesehen] the sly cat and the faithful dog. 8. Is the good wine. silk.
of good water. carpenter at home [zu Hause] P No [nein), he is not. 9. Have D. Cut-em Weine, to, Gut-er Seite, to, for Gut-em Wasser, to, for you taken (genommen] something ? I have taken nothing. 10. for good wine. good silk.
Has pump-water (Brunnenwasser] a sweet or a salt taste ? It has 1. Gut-en Wein, good Gut-e Seide, good Gut-es Wasser, good not (keinen) a salt taste, but [fontern] a sweet taste. wine. silk.
water. 2. Etwas is to be rendered "something," "anything," as Haben Sie etwas ? have you anything? Ich habe etwas, I have some
LESSONS IN DRAWING.-IV. thing.
Nicht (not) is seldom used with etwas ; " not anything” being As it is necessary to dwell a little longer upon Parallel Pertranslated by nichts, which also signifies “ nothing,” as Ich habe spective, in order to lay before our readers as many varied nichts, I have not anything, or, I have nothing. So etwas is best examples as we can in this division of the subject, we will for a
few minutes restrict our observations to the details and method translated, " such a thing."
But before taking up our pencil, let us 3. “ At all” in such phrases as “nothing at all,” “none at of drawing Fig. 32. al,” and the like, has in German its equivalent in the particle say a few words upon a general principle of procedure, which gar, which, however, always comes immediately before the word merits the careful attention of all who are seeking to acquire a to which it relates. Kindred to this, is the still stronger expres- knowledge of Drawing by the aid of these lessons. There is tion, .ganz und gar,“ wholly and utterly; .ganz und gar nicht," doubt, the inquiry will be made by many, if not all, of our
one question almost always asked by beginners, and as, no wholly and utterly not, i.e., by no means ; not at all.
4. When an adjective is used with, etwas" or „ nichts," it readers who wish to become good draughtsmen, we answer it follows the Old Declension, and is written with a capital initial; This is a very natural query, and may be answered in more
The question we allude to is, “ Where shall I begin ?”
than one way, according to the nature of the subject to be 3d babe etiras Schönes, I have something beautiful.
copied. Er sagt nichts Schlechtes, he says nothing bad.
We wish our readers to understand that the instructions Sie sprechen von etwas Neuem, you speak of something new.
contained in these lessons apply to drawing from objects as 5. German verbs are conjugated negatively in the present and well as drawing from copies, and the same method is to be imperfect tenses, without an auxiliary, like the English verbs observed in both cases. If the subject before us is a drawing of “have” and “be;"
a building, as in Fig. 32, begin by drawing the line of sight; Sd habe nicht, I have not. Sie sind nicht, you are not. this line may be ruled, but let it be the only ruled line in the Gr fiebe nicht
, he sees not (he Sie hört nicht, she hears not (sho work. Then place the point of sight, and mark in the distance does not see).
does not hear).
of the nearest line to this point on each side of it, and then the Gr batte nicht, he had not. Es war nicht, it was not.
succeeding ones, without passing over a single line. It is much Ich sah nicht, I saw not (I did Sie liebten nicht, they loved not easier to mark in the distances between lines close together than not see). (they did not love).
when they are wide apart. The whole distance from Ps to x is
made up of the intermediate distances, P s a, a b, bc, cd, and VOCABULARY.
d x, and if we correctly determine all the intermediate distances, Unte, other. Gerber, m. tanner. Sauer, sour.
we undoubtedly obtain the whole distance correctly. The reason Barbier', m. barber. Gerste, f. barley. Schön, beautiful, fine. we commence upon the line of sight from the point of sight is, Blau, blue. Hafer, m. oats. Seife, f. soap.
because the eye is on a level with the parts of the subject on Budh binter, m. book- Häflich, ugly.
Stimine, f. voice. and near this line and point, from which we gradually extend binder. Hier, here. Süß, sweet.
our drawing to the outer limits. Once more we must impress Ganach, something, Leter, n. leather. Weizen, m. wheat. upon our readers that this plan is to be followed when drawing anything.
Nichts, nothing. Wenig, little, few. from both copies and Nature, as it must be evident, when Gar (R. 3 above). Roth, red.
drawing from Nature, that the parts opposite the eye can be
more easily and correctly arranged for the commencement of a with the wall have the same vanishing point. A question may drawing than those parts which are much above, or to the right be asked with regard to the point of sight, as to whether the or left of the eye. We have frequently seen beginners sit down drawing, Fig. 33 (or any other where the point of sight is the to draw a house from a copy, and commence with the chimney, principal vanishing point), could have been correctly made if scratching away without having made any settlement as to the the point of sight had been to the left of the door at g, instead walls, doors, windows, etc., and when they get to the bottom of the right ? Certainly it could. We have stated the point find it altogether out of proportion. Who can expect anything of sight determines the part of the building which is directly but difficulty and failure, if he attempt to copy a drawing after opposite us from the spot where we stand.
This spot, rethis manner? No, we must copy from copies as we would copy member, is called the "station point.” If the point of sight from objects. When we are seated opposite the house of which had been to the left in this subject, we should not have seen we are about to make a drawing, it will naturally occur to the such a broad extent of the retiring side of the projecting wall, mind that the parts most in view, and best seen and understood, ce; if it had been at h, we should not be able to see this remust be the first to be drawn, for from them the proportions of tiring side at all, since we cannot see round a corner. Therefore
all the rest of the subject are made and arranged. It very it will be evident that four or five persons might sit in a row, rarely occurs to any one, when drawing from the object, that to all draw the same object, and all produce correct drawings, begin with the chimney is the right thing; then why should we though not all alike, arising from the difference of position, do it when drawing from copies ? When drawing a building, each having his own point of sight, and each drawing his realways commence with the parts opposite and on a level with tiring lines to that point. the eye, and proceed to the foundation : then the superstructure We said, when giving an explanation of the definitions or may next be sketched, and the chimneys added last of all. fixed principles relating to retiring lines and planes, that the last Follow this practice in drawing from copies, and then you will (Definition 11) should engage our attention at a future time; not find any difficulty when you are drawing from objects. we will now endeavour to make it clear with the help of a
When the question, "Where are we to begin ?” refers to drawing, after repeating the definition itself, which was as ornament, or to an arrangement of objects which can be placed follows :-“All lines inclined with the horizon and with the on a table, look well at the whole first; then examine it care picture plane, have their vanishing points above
or below the fully to discover the principal lines and characteristic angles, line of sight, according to the angle they form with the horizon, and begin with those nearest to the centre, passing outwardly their vanishing points being always on a line perpendicular to from all sides of the centre gradually, without allowing any line the vanishing point upon the line of sight, to which they would of importance to be unnoticed, that is, unmarked.
have retired had they been horizontal." In Fig. 32 the eye of the pupil will quickly recognise the In Fig. 33 the learner will perceive that the inclined retiring lines which po to the point of sight, and he will observe that lines are the lines of the roof ab and ed. If the roof had been fat
the window thrown open at a right angle 1 –that is, horizontal—its line would have been ce, and would
be directed towards Ps; but one end being raised from e to d, improve, the hand by practice will soon become able to carry the whole plane of the roof becomes inclined, consequently the out with facility all that the mind and eye require. razishing point is raised according to the angle of inclination; We call perspective a portion of the grammar of Art, which thus c d being determined, continue it until it cuts the perpen- assists us to draw correctly, as the grammar of a language helps dicular line drawn from the point of sight, Ps, which will be at us to speak and write correctly; and, without a grammar, it
p. Then, as the opposite side, a b, is, in reality, parallel to cd, would be as hopeless to succeed in the one as it would be in ab must have the same vanishing point; and all inclined lines of the other. the slates would, if produced, meet at the same point, namely, v P. Our readers will begin to see the importance of having & We regret that at this stage we cannot give a goometrical proof vanishing
point, by the help of which we are enabled to draw of this fact, because we fear to confuse the mind of a beginner parallel retiring lines, both horizontal and inclined, accurately. with too many rules; but we propose to give him this proof The eye of the draughtsman may be very correct, but he must
hereafter. He must, in copying this example, mark the distance not disdain to use a help which is not only true in principle, from e to d in the nsual manner, draw cd, and carry his pencil but a ready and decisive way of setting at rest every doubt on to the perpendicular from P s; the vanishing point, v P, and uncertainty relating to the treatment of these lines, which will then be a guide for the remaining inclined lines. The eye, without vanishing points would be very difficult to determine. in determining the positions and proportions of lines, is very In Fig. 34, the lid of the box to the right inclines downwarddeceptive; many have recourse to measuring, in order to ensure that is, the upper edge is nearest us-consequently, the VP of à correct outline. We beg the pupil not to measure; the the lid is below the line of sight; the lid of the cellar retires understanding and the eye must be educated; and, as these upwards, having its v P above the line of sight.