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annard mat] their opponente' goal is reached, and the other If the ball be put through a goal by one not actually a player, triving by every means in their power to beat back the ball, and it does not count for or against either side. free it in turn into the opponents' ground. Great agility and A match is decided by winning three games out of five, unless diterity are required to play an efficient part in the game. Otherwise specially agreed upon. Feetness of foot and quickness of eye are the essential qualifi. We give an illustration of the crosse, and believe the instrucstions of a good player. When one has caught and is carrying tions herein contined will be sufficient to enable any party of the ball upon his crouse, it is allowed to any of the opposite players who may not have seen the game to commence it for side to strike the ball from his crosse with their own weapon. themselves. It has all the elements of popularity, especially as Thns, at the moment when, after a long contest, he may be on a winter amusement, and possesses many of the advantages of the point of winning the game by a dextrous fling of the ball, other games, without that element of danger which is found, which he has obtained with much difficulty, it may be jerked for instance, in football and hockey. An accidental blow of beaten ont of his crows in a contrary direction, and the from the light stick with which the crosse is fashioned could struggle may be renewed as from the beginning.

cause no serious hurt, and beyond this, or the chance of an As played by the Indians, who adopt a light and picturesque occasional fall, there is nothing to canse incidental injury to cortime for the purpose, the game, as we have said, is highly the players. interesting to the spectator. Their skill in the finer points of We conclude our notice of the game with an anecdote, from the game is admirable. A player, running at fall speed, will which it will be seen that it once was on the point of endanger. frequently catch up the ball on the end of his crosse, drop it ing the English rule in Canada. About the middle of the last to the ground to bafile a pursner, dextrously catch it again, and centary, after the conquest by Wolfe, the Indian chief Pontiac propeat this until he has either passed it on to one of his own 'planned an attack on some of the principal forts, which was to side who is nearer the adversary's goal, or carried it well forward be carried out by stratagem throngh the medium of " la crosse." himself. For, contrary to the rule in football, in this game the The known skill of the Indians in the game frequently induced player is allowed to do all he can to pass the ball on to another the officers of the garrison to invite them to play when they were competitor on the same side who may place himself in a more in the locality, and occasionally some hundreds were engaged. favourable position.

Pontiac designed, on one of these occasions, that the ball should The following are the rules to be observed in playing the be struck, as if accidentally, into the forts, and that a few of

the Indian party should enter after it. This was to be repeated The ball must not be caught, thrown, or picked up with the two or three times, until suspicion was lulled, when they were to hand, except to take it out of a hole in the grass, to keep it out strike it over again, and rush in large numbers in pursuit. They of goal, or to protect the face.

| were then to fall upon the garrison with concealed weapons. The players are not allowed to hold each other, nor to grasp This ruse was carried into effect, and partially succeeded; but an opponent's cronze, neither may they deliberately trip or the Indians failed to enter the strongest of the fortifications, strike each other.

and were beaten back with much slaughter. Pontiac afterwards If the ball be accidentally put through a goal by one of the made friends with the English, but he was a treacherous ally, ding it, it is the game for the side attacking that and it was a subject of congratulation when he was at last

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ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY.-I.

that the problem of how to make a serviceable eye is a diffi.

cult one. THE EYE.

The analogy of the mirror, however, must not lead the reader

to suppose that a plane surface, sensitive to light, would be con. The eye is the instrument by which the mind becomes ac- scious of distinct images, or that it would see objects as we, quainted with external and distant objects by means of the light, by the aid of the eye, see them reflected on its surface. For which is one of the most subtle and delicate forces in nature, distinct vision, it is necessary that many divergent rays proceedand needs a correspondingly delicate and complicated organ to ing from each point in an object should be collected together appreciate its effects.

again in a point, and that point must lie exactly on the retina, Without inquiring into the nature of light, it is sufficient for or sentient mirror. Thus, the instrument known as a camera, our subject that we know

which has a lens set into the somo of its constant qualities,

side of a box, and a surface at or laws, as they have been

the other side to receive the called.

image, is a more perfect simile In its simplest condition

for an eye. light trarels in straight lines

We will now describe the in all directions, from its

structure of one of the most source; hence, when we see

perfect instruments for taking 3 luminous body, we know the

note of the impression prodirection in which it lies, be

duced by light with which we cause it must lie in the line of

are acquainted — the human the ray which reaches us.

eye. When a ray of light thus

The human eye is globular; travelling in a straight line

differing, however, from a perstrikes upon the surface of any

fect sphere in some slight but object, it is affected in some

important particulars. The of the following ways accord.

thick, tough capsule, which ing to the nature of the object

maintains the shape of the eye, and of its surface :

and contains all the other parts 1st. It may be destroyed, as

necessary to perfect vision, is far as visual effects are con.

about one inch from front to cerned, partially or wholly.

back, and a little more from 2nd. It may penetrate the

side to side and from top to substance of the body, being

bottom. This is called the more or less bent as it traverses

sclerotic, or hard coat of te the surface. This occurs when

eye. This hard coat, which the body is transparent.

forms the eyeball, differs from 3rd. It may glance off and

a true sphere also, in that its pursue a different direction

1. VERTICAL SECTION OF THE HUMAN EYE IN ITS SOCKET. front part, occupying about outside the object upon which

one-sixth of its circumference it strikes.

2, sclerotie or hard coat of the eye; b, choroid ; c, retina or nervous (in section), bulges forward far The first effect is called ab. mirror; d, membrane holding the vitreous humour; e, vitreous more than it would do if it sorption; the second, refrac

humour; f, cornen; 9, aqueous chamber and humour ; h, crystalline were only a part of the larger tion ; and the third, reflection.

Jens; i i, iris; k k, ligament to hold lens; l, meibomian glands; mm, globe ; and this part differs Reflected light concerns us muscles to wield the eye; n, muscle to lift the eye-lid.

from the other in texture also, most. The eye occupies itself

fo: while it is equally strong with reflected rays. If light were incapable of being reflected, and tough, and even harder, it is purely transparent, while the the sun would appear as a sharply-defined dazzling erb in a rest of the eyeball is opaque and white. This front clear porpitob-dark universe, and eyes would be of no use ; for though tion, which is let into the hinder part as a bay-window is put poets tell us so, not even the eagle spends its time in so profit. | into the wall of a room, or as an old-fashioned watch-glass is less and injurious an

set into the rim of Employment as gaz.

the watch-case, is ing on the sun.

called the cornea, or Now, as reflected

horny structure. Its light travels in

greater projection or straight lines from

convexity is not a the object upon

matter of accident, which it is reflected,

but highly importit is to the eye, in

ant, for if it were all respects, the

not so, no near obsame as though that

ject could be seen 2. DIAGRAM SHOWING HOW OBJECTS ARE IMPRINTED ON THE RETINA. object were itself

distinctly. laminons. As light

Lining the inner proceeds from all parts of an object, and travels in straight surface of the sclerotic is a thin membrane, which supports ħnes, we have only to let the rays fall upon some surface which in its outer layers the larger arteries and veins which carry shall receive them without derangement, to get an image which the blood to and from the front and inner parts of the eye, will give the colour, form, and, by a little inferential reasoning, while it has on its inner surface a very thin pavement of the size and distance of the object.

flat, six-sided cells; each cell filled with black grains. The The first requisite in an eye, then, is a sentient mirror, which grains, and even the cells which contain them, are so small and shall receive the images of objects and feel them.

so closely set as to form what appears to any but a high magThis mirror must be of moderate and table size, and well nifying power, a continuous thin black sheet, perfectly opaque. under control, so that it can be turned about.

This membrane papers the inside of the eye as far forward as All mirrors are perishable and delicate articles, liable to frac- the place where the sclerotic joins the cornea, and is there conture; but when we conceive of a mirror whose surface and nected firmly with this outer jacket by a strong ligament and backing, and even its very frame, must be made not of hard muscle. Before it reaches this point, however, it is puckered glass, imperishable quicksilver, and durable wood, but of soft into somewhat irregular fore-and-aft folds. Beyond this point renewable tissues, and think how indispensable it is that it the choroid, as this membrane is called, is continued as a freelyshould be protected and kept in a state of repair, we must admit hanging curtain, shaped like a quoit, that is, round and opaque,

3

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VOL. I.

with a hole in the middle of it, which is opposite the middle of too little, distinct images of near objects are impossible. If the cornea, or window of the eye.

the crystalline lens is too dry, or too moist, it becomes clouded From the same circle of attachment, but internal to the with hard or soft cataract. If the pigment be not of sufficient curtain before-named, is suspended, or rather held, by a liga- quantity in the choroid, vision is interfered with ; and from this ment, a perfectly transparent body shaped like a lentil, that is, cause albinos, or persons whose hair and skin are deficient in with two convex but flattened surfaces. The quoit-like curtain colouring matter, are dazzled in ordinary daylight. is called the iris, and the disc the crystalline lens. The lens is Further, if the retina, or part of it fail, as it sometimes does, slung at some little distance from the cornea, leaving a chamber, from some cause too subtle to be found out, the object is seen which is filled with watery fluid, which bathes both sides of the only in part; thus, some persons have this peculiar affection of iris. Behind the lens, and occupying the larger part of the hollow half the retina, so that when they look directly at an object, of the eye, is a denser liquid, contained in a thin, perfectly. they only see the half of it. transparent membrane, which not only encircles it, but sends in The retina, perfect in all its other functions, may not dispartitions from its outer wall to divide the liquid into compart- criminate colour. The writer once played a game at croquet ments, so that when the eye is cut into, the humour does not with a gentleman, who disclosed his infirmity thus: Two balls run out, but seems to be of the consistence of clear jelly. Both were lying together one red, and the other green. He asked the liquid and capsule are so transparent that they are called which was his, and being told the red one, asked which red the hyaloid membrane and vitreous humour, or the glassy mem- one ? On another occasion the writer was looking at a brightlybrane and humour.

coloured geological map. A stranger who looked with him soon All the main parts of the eye have now been described except showed that he was quite unaware that it was other than the the essential one for which all the others are made, namely, ordinary ordnance map. the retina : that wonderful stratum of nervous matter which These defects of vision call marked attention to the perfecreceives and transmits to the brain all luminous impressions, tion of the instrument of vision, when perfect, as it is in the glories of colour, the splendid imagery of the earth, and the most cases. soft radiance of the sky.

It would be difficult to determine whether the eye were made The retina lies between the choroid and vitreous humour. for light, or light for the eye; but that the Creator of the one It lines the choroid as closely as that membrane lines the was cognisant of all the wonderful qualities of the other, sclerotic, and so covers the whole back part of the eye.

admits of no doubt; and this goes far to prove that the Creator The retina (or sentient mirror), thin as it is, has been found of the one must have been the designer of the other. under the microscope to consist of many layers of diverse structure. Not to descend into great minuteness, it may be said to consist of an outer layer of cylindrical bodies, called, from their

LESSONS IN ENGLISH.-II. shape, rods and cones, which run perpendicularly to the surface of junction between retina and choroid. These bodies are the

SIMPLE PROPOSITIONS. instruments by which the rays are noted. It would seem that

Alfred reads. each rod or cone conveys but one impression, so that while the THESE two words form what is called a proposition; they form. image of an external object may be made very small on the a simple proposition. Proposition is a word of Latin origin, retina, and yet distinctly seen, because of the minuteness of signifying something that is put before you. As being somethese bodies, yet the image must cover a certain number of them thing that is put before you, it is a statement; it is a statement to be an image at all. In other words, if it only covered one, of a fact or a thought; a statement of something in the mind, the impression would be that of a single point of light.

or something out of the mind. Here the statement is that Next comes the granular layer, the office of which is no further Alfred reads. Such a statement is also termed a sentence. known than that similar structures are found wherever impres- Sentence is also from the Latin, and signifies a form of words sions received by the senses are modified. The innermost layer comprising a thought or sentiment. These words, then-namely, consists of nerve-fibres, which convey the impressions in some sentence, proposition, and statement, have the same significasuch way as the telegraph wires convey their messages. These tion; and they each denote an utterance, the utterance of a fact, all run to one point in the back part of the eyeball, a little on an idea, an emotion. Observe that both words are essential to the inner or nose side of the axis, and there pass through the the proposition. Take away Alfred, you then have reads ; but choroid and sclerotic, which are pierced by a great many holes, reads is no proposition, for nothing is stated. Take away reads, and are united behind into the optic nerve, and this runs to the you leave Alfred; but Alfred by itself says nothing, makes no brain, first, however, being joined by its fellow from the other statement, and therefore forms no proposition or sentence. The eye, and then separating from it again, having received some of two words must concur to make a proposition. If so, less than the strands of this nervous cord, and given up some of its own two words do not make a proposition; and a proposition or in return.

sentence may consist of not more than two words. Let us now trace the course of a number of rays reflected from In these simple statements you have in the germ the suba single point in an object, before they reach the retina (see Fig. stance of the doctrine of sentences. If you understand what I 2). These rays as they come from a single point are, of course, have now said, you have laid the foundation for a thorough diverging. They strike, therefore, all over the surface of the acquaintance with language in general, and with the English cornea, and as they pass through it are gathered somewhat language in particular; for to a form of words similar in simtogether. They then pass the aqueous humour with a slightly plicity to that which stands at the head of this lesson is all altered course. The outer ones are cut off by the opaque iris, speech reducible; and that model presents the germ out of which but the central ones pass through the lons, which rapidly gathers are evolved the long and involved sentences of our old English them together, and they are then transmitted through the divines, and the full and lofty eloquence of Milton's immortal vitreous humour, all the time converging until they meet at a essay on behalf of the liberty of the press. point exactly in or on the retina.

The sentence as it stands is what is called an affirmative In saying that they meet exactly on the retina, it is meant proposition ; that is, it affirms or declares something—it affirms that they will do so if the adjustment is perfect. If it be im- or declares that Alfred reads. The term affirmative is used in perfect, so that the rays unite in a point either before the retina, opposition to the term negative. Negative propositions are or would unite behind it if they could traverse the choroid, the those in which something is denied. An affirmative may become image is blurred and indistinct.

a negative proposition by the introduction of the adverb not ; The problem of how to get a distinct image, of course, is thus, Alfred reads not. In English it is more common to employ more difficult, when the points from which the light proceeds also emphatic does, as Alfred does not read. You thus see are numerous, as from any object of appreciable form. To ob- that the words does (do, or dost, as may be required) and not tain this, the surface of the cornea, the hind and front face of convert an affirmative into a negative proposition. Sentences the lens, and the face of the retina, must all bo of definite and in which a question is asked wo term interrogative; as, does regular curves, or the figure would be distorted. If the cornea Alfred read ? Here by the help of the emphatic form does, and bulga too much, the object can only be seen at a short dis- the inversion of the terms does and Alfred, we make an affirmative

from this cause some persons have to lay their into an interrogative sentence. If into this last sentence we the page before they can read print. If it bulges introduce the negative not, we have an interrogative negative

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reads.

sentence, as Does not Alfred read? We put these four forms of other qualifications might be stated; but here, at least, instead a proposition together.

of entering into them, it will be better to put the statement FORYS OF A PROPOSITION.

in its most general form, a form in which it will embrace all 1. Affirmative. Alfred reads.

particular cases, and render qualification unnecessary. I say, 2. Negative. Alfred does not read.

then, that in every sentence there must be a subject and a verb. 3. Interrogative. Does Alfred read ?

I have thus set before you a new term. That term I must 4. Interrogativo Negative. Does not Alfred read ?

explain. Subject is a Latin word, and denotes that which You thus see an example of the ease and extent with which 'receives, that which lies under, is liable or exposed to; from the original form may be changed and multiplied. The pro- sub, under, and jacio, I throw, I place; in the passive, I lie. position, Alfred reads, is a simple proposition. Propositions are Accordingly, the subject of a proposition is that to which the either simple or compound. Compound propositions are made action declared in the verb is ascribed. Hence, the subject of a ap of two or more simple propositions. Of compound propo- proposition is tho agent, the actor, the doer. The subject of a sitions I shall speak in detail hereafter. Here only a few words proposition answers to the question who? or what ? as, who may be allowed, in order to illustrate what is meant by a simple reads ? Answer: Alfred reads. The term subject is used with proposition. If I were to say, When Alfred reads, he is listened special reference to the corresponding term, predicate. The to, I should employ a compound proposition. In these words predicate of a proposition is that which is attributed to the there are two statements, and consequently two sentences. subject. What is attributed in our model sentence? This, These two statements are, Alfred reads, and Alfred is listened to. namely, that Alfred reads. “ Reads," then, is here the prediThe two statements, united by the term when, constitute a com- cate, or that which is ascribed to, or asserted of Alfred. Hence pound sentence. In one form, at least, a compound proposition you see the propriety of the term subject, since Alfred is subject may easily be mistaken for å simple proposition ; namely, in to the averment that he reads. Now, in the grammatical conthis--Alfred reads and writes. Here, in reality, we have a com- struction of the sentence, it matters not whether you say Alfred pound sentence, for, when analysed, these words are equivalent reads, or he reads. In both cases you have a subject and verb, to these two statements—Alfred reads, and Alfred writes. There or predicate; and consequently you have a complete enunciation being in the sentence these two statements, the proposition is of thought, or a perfect sentence. compound.

The sentence thus analysed and explained may be set forth Let us now consider the two words in their own individual in this form :character - Alfred reads. The first obviously represents a person,

Subject.

Predicate. the second as clearly represents an act. Now, in grammar,

Alfred

reads.

He words which represent persons and things are called nouns ; and words which represent acts are called verbs. Noun is a As the subject undergoes a change by passing, when necesLatin term, and signifies name; hence you see the noun is the sary, into he, so may the predicate be modified. Instead of a name of any person or thing; and were we as wise as were the predicate in one word, you may have a predicate in two words, Latins, we should not employ a foreign word, but call nouns or by substitute a verb and an adjective; as simply names. Thus Alfred is the name of a person. Book,

Alfred is good. also, is a name; so is house; so is pen, so is paper; these are each the name or vocal sign by which Englishmen distinguish the meaning of adjective ? Adjective in Latin signifies that

Another new term demands another explanation. What is and agree to call these objects severally. Nor is there any which is added to, or thrown to (ad, to; and jacio, I throw). To mystery in the term verb. Here, too, we have a Latin term which signifies simply word. With the Latins the verb was the what are adjectives thrown or added ? To nouns, as in this Ford ; that is, the chief word in a sentence. By us the verb stand alone. They perform their office in being added to or

instance. Adjectives, therefore, in their very nature, cannot might be termed the word. Had English grammarians employed connected with nouns. They are connected with nouns in order as their scientific terms words of Saxon origin, the study of to qualify the meaning of those nouns, and to answer to the English grammar would have been very easy. We shall endeavour to simplify it by translating the Latin terms, unhappily he is a good boy.” An adjective, then, is an epithet (a Greek

question of what kind. What kind of a boy is Alfred ? Answer, now become indispensable, into their English equivalents. That word, which denotes that which is attributed to a noun or a the verb is the word, the chief word of a sentence, you may person); e.g., green fields, tall men, hard rocks, where green, tall, barn by reflecting on the proposition, Alfred reads. It is reads, you see, that forms the very essence of the statement. Reads, and hard are epithets, or adjectives, inasmuch as they assign the too, distinguishes this statement from other statements, as Alfred quality of their several subjects. Now, what we call qualities

we call also attributes. The attributes of a body are its qualities. runs, Alfred sings. Now let the reader look back on the several instances of pro- attributed or ascribed to an object. Adjectives, therefore,

Attribute is a word from the Latin, denoting that which is positions I have given, and endeavour to ascertain what is the describe the qualities or attributes of the persons or things they quality in which they all agree. They have a common quality. That quality is averment. They all aver or declare something: attribute of the proposition ; thus,

are connected with. In the instance given above, good is the This they do by means of their verbs. Accordingly, averment

Subject.

Attribute. is the essential quality of the verb. Every verb is a word which makes an averment. Here, then, we learn that the noun names,

good. and the verb avers. By these tokens may all nouns and all But this explanation leaves is unexplained. The word is on Ferbs be known. Whatever names is a noun ; whatever avers is reflection you will recognise as a verb, seeing that it avers ; 3. verb. Chair is a noun, because it is the name of an object; for it avers or declaros that Alfred is good. By comparing stands is a verb, because it avers or declares something of chair; together the two formsand the union of the noun and the verb, as chair stands, forms a

Subject.

Predicate. proposition.

Alfred

reads, Sentences, then, in their simplest form consist of a noun and

Alfred

is good, a verb. A noun and a verb are indispensable. Whatover more you observe that reads and is good hold the same place and you may have, you cannot have anything less than a noun and perform the same function in the two propositions. They in a verb in a sentence or proposition. As a substitute for the each case form the predicate of the sentence. The predicate is noun you may have a pronoun. Pronoun, again, is a word of that which is predicated, declared, or averred of the subject of Latin origin, signifying a word which stands instead of a noun.

a proposition. In the former instance, reads is that which is Thus we may put the pronoun he instead of Alfred ; e.g. (these averred; in the latter, is good is that which is averred. Mark are the initials of two Latin words, meaning exempli gratiâ, for that neither is nor good alone forms the predicate, for what is example):

asserted is not that Alfred is—that is, exists—but that he is good. Alfred reads,

Accordingly, the predicate here consists of two words-namely, reads,

is good; but in the former example it consists of merely one Fbere he holds the place of Alfred. We must accordingly word—that is, reads. Of these two words, good, we have seen, is qualify our statement, and say that sentences,

in their simplest the attribute.' It remains to state that the word is forms what form, consist of a verb and a noun or pronoun. One or two is called the copula, a Latin term which may here be rendered

Alfred

is

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is

link. The term describes its office. The word is in the is not a nominative case. Cases pertain to nouns, moods to sentence liks the subject with the predicate. The whole may verbs. be exhibited thus :

But here we meet with an instance of the complexity and

obscurity that have been brought into English grammar by Subject.

Predicate.

attachment to Latin forms. Our nouns in their actual conAlfred

reads.

dition have but one case, the genitive; or, if the nominative be Copula. Attribute.

allowed to be a case, then two cases are the utmost that our Alfred

good.

nouns can be said to have. Why should more be assigned to

them? It may be doubted, indeed, whether what is called the By ordinary grammariang what we have termed the subject is nominative can be properly termed a case, for it differs from called the nominative case. The employment of such a term is the Latin nominative, which is formed from a stem common to objectionable, for it is incorrect by not being sufficiently com- all the cases through which the noun passes ; whereas in English prehensive. Take, for instance, the proposition, To ride is the nominative is the stem itself. However this may be in healthful. To ride is the subject of the proposition, and the English, nouns now possess no more than two cases. This fact subject, therefore, to the verb is. But is to ride a nominativo is in no way affected by the allegation that the Anglo-Saxon, ccse? Ask the grammarians, and they will tell you that it is the mother of the English, has several cases. It is with the the infinitive mood of the verb ride. If an infinitive mood, it daughter, not with the mother, that we are here concerned.

COPY-SLIP NO. 5.—THE LETTER 1.

COPY-SLIP NO. 6.—COMBINATION OF THE LETTERS u, i.

tt

COPY-SLIP NO. 7.—COMBINATION OF THE LETTERS i, t.

LESSONS IN PENMANSHIP.-III. in making this letter will afford an excellent test of his progress,

and show him whether or not he be holding his pen in the proper We now place before our readers the letter 1, the last of the way and sitting in the proper position. If he find no difficulty four letters that are formed either by the simple bottom-turn in repeating the letter 1 several times, and can do it with ease, itself, or by some slight modification of it. Proceeding by a making a straight and well-formed stroke with an equal pressure regular system of gradation, the self-teacher has been led first of the pen from top to bottom until it begins to narrow, he to make the bottom-turn within the horizontal lines that contain, may be sure that his position is correct, and that he is holding as we stated in our last lesson, what may be termed the body his pen properly; but if, on the other hand, he find, after a few of any letter that has a head, loop, or tail extending above or trials, that the down-strokes of his letters are uneven and crooked, below these lines; and then, after making the simple bottom- owing to the shaking of his hand, and he feel pain in the ball turn, he was shown how to turn this stroke into the letter i by of the thumb and the thick muscles on the opposite side of the placing a dot above it, to form the letter u by the combination palm of the hand, he may be sure that his position and the way of two bottom turns, and to make the letter t by beginning the in which he holds his pen is stiff, constrained, and unnatural, thick down-stroke a little above the upper horizontal line, and and requires amendment. To effect this, he must once more crossing it just above the same line by a fine hair-stroke. He turn to the directions given for holding the pen, etc., in our first must now proceed to make the letter 1, beginning the down- lesson in Penmanship,

and carefully regulating the position of stroke at the line e e, which is placed at a distance above the his hand and body by these instructions, he will soon discover line a a nearly equal to the distance between the lines a a, b b. the points in which he is at fault, and gradually acquire greater

The chief difficulty that the learner has to encounter in making ease and freedom in writing. the letter I arises from the length of the down-stroke, which After accomplishing the letter 1, the learner may proceed to obliges him to bring his pen downwards in the same straight combinations of the letters that he has already made singly, line for a distance nearly half as long again as the letter t. At and for this purpose we have furnished him with copy-slips, first his hand will shake, and, as it is manifestly much easier to showing combinations of the letters u, i and i, t. Let him

short stroko than a long one, his early attempts at copy these and all the examples that we shall give him in future letter I will not be quite so straight and even, lessons again and again, remembering that in no branch of copies of the shorter letters arising out of the learning is constant pmotice more necessary, especially to the

is success, however, greater or loss, as it may be, self-teacher, than in Ponmanship.

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