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Is this El Dorado to be at last realised in our own day? Are memory of the Devonshire knight, Sir Walter Raleigh, who introCalifornia and Australia to give actual existence to the fables of duced the potato and tobacco into England in the reign of Queen the Middle Ages ? Modern appliances are great; chemistry and Elizabeth. Raleigh was one of her most favourite courtiers, geology have done wonders; and human industry has en- and took an active part in the destruction of the Spanish countered what at the beginning of the present century were Armada in 1588. From this time until the death of Elizabeth deemed impossibilities. But let us not be too sanguine now he was employed in various expeditions against the Spaniards, 23 to the realities of our colonial possessions. Even gold itself and in 1595 he sailed to Guiana, and destroyed the capital of may become a drug; and how sad that state of society would Trinidad. The island of Trinidad lies like a huge breakwater be when this most precious of metals, having made all equally across the mouth of the Gulf of Para, and in the south-west rich, would fail to purchase that human labour from which our corner of this gulf is the Bay of Guanipa, into which flows the comforts flow!
river of the Red Crosse, the stream that bounds the western There has been also the fable of the kingdom of Paititi, a side of the great delta of the Orinoco. Leaving his vessel in the sort of counterpart of El Dorado, another garden of the Bay of Guanipa, Raleigh made his way in a canoe up this river
Hesperides, where inexhaustible treasures awaited the happy, as far as the main channel of the Orinoco, and at last reached mortal sufficiently well instructed to follow the track. This the point where it is joined by the river Caroni. In the angle kingdom or empire was supposed to be situated in the fertile formed by the east bank of the Caroni and the south bank of plains of the Maranon, and to have been founded by the Incas the Orinoco, at the extremity of the Mountains of Emeria, a of Peru, whose descendants knew how to conceal them from the mountain range stretching from east to west, from British view of the Spaniards by powerful enchantments! By degrees Guiana into the interior, lies a hilly tract of country, now the this myth was embellished with a thousand wonders, and the Venezuelan province of Arromaia, and here Sir Walter Raleigh Catholic missionaries themselves contributed not a little to placed his “Land of Gold,” and declared that gold mines existed propagate the conviction that this imaginary kingdom was a there in which more wealth lay buried than in any other part of reality. This state of things continued even in the second the world. In 1615 he sailed to Guiana once more, in an half of the seventeenth century. The close of the Middle expedition to reach these mines. The expedition was a failure ; Ages, therefore, had its mythical or fabulous geography, not. he returned home to meet his fate; and men said that the withstanding the real and ultimate progress made by the mines and their contents existed only in Raleigh's imagination. voyages of discovery. True science had not yet made its But subsequent discoveries have proved that Raleigh was right appearance.
in saying that there was gold in Guiana, if not in such immense The name "El Dorado” is intimately associated with the quantities as he supposed, for, at the present time, in the pro
vince of Arromaia, the very spot where Raleigh placed his " El plural boni pueri. In the ordinary phraseology of Latin gram. Dorado,” not far from the town of Puerto, on the Orinoco, is a mars, this correspondence in form between the noun and the colony of 10,000 Germans, who are chiefly employed in digging adjective is called concord. Here you are to consider the first gold, and who send large quantities yearly to Para, on the coast, concord to require that the noun and adjective should agree in for exportation to Europe.
number, that is, both must in forın be either singular or The fifteenth century having closed with the two greatest plural, and not one singular while the other is plural. A second geographical events of modern times, the discovery of the New concord requires the noun and the adjective to be in the same World, and the circumnavigation of the African continent, the gender, so that if you have to say good bridegroom, you use the sixteenth century beheld the extension and success of European words, bonus sponsus, but if you wish to speak of a good bride, enterprise in distant seas. The Pacific Ocean, which Magellan you change the us into a, and say bona sponsa. A third concord had opened up to the fleets of Christendom, was navigated and is found in agreement in case between the adjective and noun, explored by daring mariners. Soarez discovered the Maldive so that if the noun is in the nominative case, the adjective must Islands; another Portuguese, the Moluccas or Spice Islands; be in the nominative case; if the noun is in the objective or Villalobos, a group now supposed to make part of the Philippine accusative case, in the same case must the adjective be. Putting Islands; Juan Fernandez, the small island that bears his name, these three instances of concord or agreement together, wo and celebrated as the foundation of the history of “Robinson say thatCrusoe." To the latter, also, has been ascribed the discovery of Adjectives must agree with their substantives in GENDER, NUMNew Zealand. In 1567 Alvaro de Mendana first landed on the BER, and CASE. Solomon Isles, the isle of Santa Cruz, and others. Nearly thirty This general statement we call a rule ; and all such general years later the same navigator discovered the Marquesas Islands, statements or rules you should commit to memory. and the archipelago which was afterwards called by Carteret see, is denoted by a change at the end of a noun or adjective. Queen Charlotte's Islands. Francis Drake; the Dutchman In our English nouns we have something of a similar nature. Van Noort; Quiros, who discovered Tahiti, and the Archipelago in the words, father's book, father's is in what is called the of the New Hebrides (the Great Cyclades of Bougainville); possessive case. The condition of the noun is called the pos. Torres, who discovered New Guinea, and the strait which sessive case, because possession is thereby signified. But why separates this large island from Australia—all began to is it called case ? Case is a Latin term, signifying fall. And as clear up the navigation of the Pacific Ocean. In the interval, the different terminations are gone down successively, as you Sebald de Weert, fellow-navigator with Van Noort, had recog. will shortly learn by experience--gone down or declined one after nised the Malouines, or Falkland Islands, discovered by John the other, on the part of the boys who learnt grammar in the Davis. Two of his countrymen, Lemaire and Schouten, dis- schools---50 were those terminations called cases, or successive covered, in 1615, part of the island of Tierra del Fuego, and falls, that is, falls of the roice. The cases then in Latin are the Cape Horn, which forms the southern extremity of the Americ changes which the noun undergoes conformably to variations in can continent. A new passage was thenceforward open to the meaning. Thus, as in English father becomes father's navigators bound for the Pacific Ocean, who were desirous of when used with book, as father's book, so in Latin, pater (father) avoiding the difficulties and storms which were to be dreaded in becomes patris, when used in dependence on liber, book. Notice the Strait of Magellan. The honour of having first landed on that I say, " when used in dependence ;” for the possessive (or New Holland, now called Australia, is generally attributed to genitive) case denotes connection or dependence. In father's Dirk Hartog, who attached to the part of this continent, which book, the form father's is necessitated by the dependence of he had discovered, the name of the vessel he commanded, by the word on book. Such dependence is denoted in the diction calling it Endracht's Land. Zeachen, in 1618; Edels, in 1619; of Latin grammars by the word government : thus, we should De Nuyts, in 1627; and after these De Witt, Carpenter, and say that patris was governed in the genitive case by the word Pelsart completed this grand discovery.
liber. Here again arises a general statement or rule; namely, It is not positively known whether the Spanish and the that-Portuguese had not visited the coasts of Australia nearly a One noun governs another in the genitive case. century before the Dutch, as two chartographical documents This rule simply means that of two nouns which are con. of that date would lead us to believe. Neither is it more cer- nected with each other by a relation of dependence, the noun tain that the Portuguese Menezes and the Spaniard Saavedra which is dependent on the other noun must be put in the had discovered New Guinea, the one in 1527, and the other in genitive (or possessire) case. the following year. The memorable voyage of Abel Tasman In Latin there are six cases: 1, the nominative; 2, the produced rapid and striking progress in the geography of genitive; 3, the dative; 4, the accusative ; 5, the vocative; 6, Oceania, or Australasia and Polynesia. This able navigator, the ablative. These six cases are different forms of the noun, sailing from Batavia in 1642, discovered Van Diemen’s Land, whereby are indicated differences of meaning. The nominative now called, after its discoverer, Tasmania. The circumnaviga- corresponds to the subject, and the accusative corresponds to the tion of Australia was then completed, and the assurance was object, of a proposition. You may find the nominative by asking gained that this continent did not extend indefinitely towards the question who? or what? You may find the accusative by the south pole. Shortly after, the expedition landed on New asking the question whom? or what? You may ascertain the Zealand ; then it discovered the Friendly Islands, and that of genitive by asking the question whose ? You may ascertain the Tongataboo. Lastly, after a successful expedition of nine dative by asking the question for whom? or for uchat? You months, at the end of which it visited New Guinea, and dis may ascertain the ablative by asking the question by whoin? or covered several islands to the north of it and of the island by what ? The vocatire is preceded by the interjection 0! as of Now Britain, the Dutch refitted their vessels in the port of father! and is employed in addresses or invocations. In Batavia, the capital of Java. It was only in 1665 that the strictness of speech the nominative can hardly be termed a case, name of Nova Hollandia, or New Holland, was given to the because as the nouns are commonly given in dictionaries, it western part of Australia by a decree of the States-General of seems to have no fall or case. The nominative, however, is a the parent country.
case, for it is not the primitive state of the noun. The primi
tive state of the noun, as the primitive state of the verb, is LESSONS IN LATIN.-V.
found in the stem. Thus, the stem or form on which the cases
of pater are formed is patr : by inserting e, the stem patr beNOINS-CONCORD OF SUBSTANTIVE AND ADJECTIVE-CASES
comes pater, the nominative case. OF NOUNS-CASE-ENDINGS.
Requesting you to call these changes in the terminations of By the statements and explanations given in our last lesson, you nouns and adjectives case-endings, I add that these case-endings are taught that in both nouns and adjectives, case, number, and are to be termed the Latin signs of the cases. For these Latin gender are in Latin indicated by divers terminations. It is an signs there are corresponding English signs: the English signs casy inference that if a change is made to turn a singular noun give (in part) the meaning of the Latin signs.
Thus, of is the into a plural form, a corresponding change must be made in the English sign and meaning of the Latin genitive i; to or for is adjective which accompanies it; that is to say, if the noun is the English sign and meaning of the Latin dative 0; by, ucith, plural, the adjcctive must be plural ; if the noun is singular, the or from, is the English sign and meaning of the ablative 0. adjective must be singular : thus, bonus puer becomes in the Now as in Latin the o of the dative is not in form distinguished
from the o of the ablative case, some difficulty arises in reading
OUR HOLIDAY-V. Latin. This difficulty grows less by practice, and eventually disappears, for the sense points out in each instance whether
GYMNASTICS.-III. the datire or the ablative case is the case intended by the
JUMPING AND LEAPING. author. Something similar exists in English; for since, as I These exercises, in their various forms, constitute an important have shown you previously, the nominative and the objective, or feature in gymnastic pursuits ; and, simple as they may appear the subject and the object, are in our nouns the same in form; to many, really require skill and practice for the attainment of we learn only by the sense which of the two is meant. With zs, however, there is no difficulty, because the sense is deter
a tolerable degree of proficiency, without injury to the physical mined by the position, for in English, in general, the subject which comparative ease and safety may be secured, and it will
powers. There is a method in the way of doing all things, by precedes, the object follows, the verb. Inasmuch, however, as be our object to explain what is the best method in this case for the subject in English undergoes no change in becoming the the practice of the learner. object, and inasmuch as no preposition goes before either subject or object, so have we no natural English sign for the Latin be necessary to go through certain preparatory exercises, which
1. Before the attempt is made to accomplish any feats, it will aoininative or the Latin accusative, and consequently are forced will accustom you to the proper movements, and give the to indicate the former by the word subject, and the latter by the required degree of elasticity to the limbs. Begin all jumping word object. Finally, the English sign of the vocative is 0; exercises by the upward jump from the ground, which is to be the corresponding Latin sign is in some nouns e, in others the
Stand in an erect form in the vocative is the same as the form in the nominative performed in the following manner :Having given these explanations, I place under your eye at forward and rise slightly upon the toes; then spring upward to
position, with the arms hanging downward; bend the knees once the case-endinjs of a noun in Latin, with the corresponding
a moderate height, and alight upon the balls of the feet--not English signs :
upon the heels, for this will give a concussion to the joints ; also bend the knees slightly on coming down, which will help to
break the force of the shock. In practising all jumping exerCizes. Singular.
Plural. Nominative (subject)
cises the learner should remember these fundamental prinGenitive of
ciples. to or for
to or for In the foregoing exercise the arms may either be kept straight Accusative (object)
(object) to the body, or with the hands resting on the hips, or, thirdly,
thrown forward and upward when the jump is taken. The Ablative by, with, or from
is by, with, or from learner will do well to practise each of these ways in turn ; the You thus see that in Latin the case-endings of the singular last will be useful in giving additional impetus when the height are different from the case-endings of the plural. You also see
or distance of the jump is an object. that the English signs are the same in both singular and plural. 2. Make the same jump, but, in the descent, face to the For the sake of comparison, we commonly use a contraction right; the next time, face to the left; and the next, turn the for the names of the cases ; thus, N. or Nom. for nominative, body completely round when in the act of jumping, so as to G. or Gen. for genitive, and so on with the rest. The case- come to the ground with the face turned in the opposite direcendings which I have just set before you are not the case
tion to that in which it had been before making the jump. endings of all the Latin nouns. I have given these because 3. In taking the jump, stretch the legs out sideways on rising they are the most distinct. Others, however, must not be from the ground, and extend the arms high above the head. omitted. I will exhibit them to you first in succession, and 4. Another useful jump to practise is that shown in our first then the whole combined in one view. In order to do so, I illustration (Fig. 9). Bring the feet back to their original nost set before you what are called the declensions. The position while in the air, and extend the arms at the same declensions, or methods in which the falls of the cases take place, time. It will require some dexterity to enable the learner to are fire in number. To express the same thing differently, in cross and to uncross the legs before descending, so as to bring order to assist you in understanding what I mean, I add that all the feet back to the ground with the heels touching, but this the Latin nouns have by grammarians been arranged into five will come in due time with regular practice. classes. In this classification regard has been had to the termi- Other jumps of a similar nature to the foregoing may be ration of the genitive case singular. Thus, in the first declenpractised. To exhaust the list of such variations would require sion the genitive case of the singular number ends in @ a special paper, but these will suggest others. diphthong, pronounced like our ee; in the second declension the We have touched at present only on jumping movements, genitive ends in i; in the third, in is; in the fourth, in ûs : in designed to practise the muscles, which will be employed in the fifth, in ei, pronounced e-i. These endings are termed the exercises of a higher order. We pass on now to these, which signs of the declensions, and may be thus presented :
may more properly be called leaping. Declensions 3rd
THE HIGH LEAP. Signs
This should be practised with the aid of a leaping-stand (see The sign of the fourth declension has a circumflex accent (A) Fig. 10). It consists of two poles, about six or seven feet high, and over it, in order to distinguish it from other cases, namely, perforated with holes from one to two inches apart; these holes the nominative us, and the accusative us. In the same way, commencing about a foot and a half from the bottom, and conover the ablative case of the first declension, we put a circum- tinuing upward to the top, or near it. The poles are fixed in the ler accent thus, a, as in femind—by, with, or from a female ground at from six to eight feet from each other. Two movable in order to distinguish the ablative case or form from the pegs are inserted into the holes at the desired height for the nominative femina, a female. You may here be informed leap, and across these pegs a rope is then stretched, the rope that adjectives are for the most part declined--that is, form being kept in position by the weight of a small sand-bag at each thair cases in the same manner as the nouns which correspond end; or a stick may be used instead of the rope to rest upon with them in form; for instance, bonus, ending in us, is the pegs, but the rope is preferable for the beginner. While declined like dominus, which also ends in us; and bona, ending it fixes the height as well as any solid object would do so, it in a, is declined like femina, which also ends in a.
gives way at once to the slightest touch of the feet in passing A preliminary remark must be made respecting the article. over, and thus saves the leaper from a heavy fall, should he fail The Latin language is without an article. Neither the definite to clear the object. A piece of coloured cloth may be placed article the, nor the indefinite article an, is found in Latin. over the centre of the rope, more particularly to mark the spot Consequently, we cannot from the form tell whether femina over which the leap is to be made, as well as to show, by its should be translated female, a female, or the female. In this displacement or otherwise, whether the object has been grazed particular there is, in construing or translating from the Latin, in the passage over it. no other guide than the sense as it may be gathered from Now, with this apparatus before you, commence leaping over the general import of the sentence or the narrative : and you a height which you can accomplish with ease; and then will also now be aware that female, a female, and the female, are gradually raise the pegs and the rope from hole to hole, as yo” equally to be put into Latin by femina.
increase in power and dexterity.
2259 st she cagas starting point, the spot ce visit the peie is rested before leapEz. and the position with is sttained by the resp. she be is a straight line with
Is pertising Jonge lears, wben some degree of free srity with the use of the pole is segrered, it is desirable to place the
hands Desree to esch other than is shown omny wym wis WA, VAM, 16 h mi gummi. In a in these engravings; the precise beigbt at which the pole womey land waarmee u rom, systwt, en loch, be very muun. With a humid be grasped depending on the leap to be performed, *** A ***14, tmelye mire. Hva ir kiz lat mume way to me and the amount of assistance required from the pole by the
Plan dumami lung thay voer frustázusit with sivantage, but a High leaps with the pole should be practised with great care, Anong lan w barche, wunu thats siz text skusali he attempted and only in successive gradations from a point that may be
The wount may aperpleh ten of twelve leaped by the beginner with ease. They should not be tried, Jowk, minhsaty. In we, nu in ali sahar luasa, remember the : indeed, antil the learner is familiar with the use of the pole in adowary pule thaligh, om the walls of the feet, and to bend the long leap, and has acquired confidence in his own power to Wees lenneet the alline, w bunk the furen of een ansin with the employ the implement with advantage.
In the high leaps it is necessary that the pole should be held Vaading is muther kind lemp, in which the hands are with both hands higher than the rope or bar it is intended to raumentarily vested in some firm orjent, over which the body leap over; and at the moment when the body is passing over
Vanitána nemuer, en beweke of wirel romghly shaped like the rope, the hold upon the pole must be relinquished, and the the body dhonte, me sometimes employed for this parpone ; pole pushed backward by a slight movement of the uppermost of the came out he wervent hy a piece of atout timber hand, so that it may not fall upon the leaper. A failure of Irenal
two enpporte hxed firmly in the nerve or confidence in passing over the rope will do more than
une in enabling the symment to anything else to prevent success in the movement. It is espegule or mtile, that ho may moet cially needful in these leaps to bend the knees on reaching the with onse and quickneen.
ground, as before explained.
LESSONS IN MUSIC.-III.
learner to know at all times from that staff what part of the
scale he is in-a knowledge which every true singer should carry In order to fix in the memory yet more distinctly the real with him, and which the learner cannot escape possessing if he structure of the scale, it may be well to notice that it is divi- faithfully and constantly uses the modulator. Let him steadily sible into two similar sets of four notes, each set including two do this for the next twenty or thirty singing lessons, and he tones, crowned by a tonule. These sets of four notes have been will find that the modulator has become a ready interpreter of called TETRACHORDS. If the replicate of the key-note is in the “ staff,” and a clear, sure light, guiding him through all the cluded, you will have Don, Ray, Me, Fay for the first tetra
maze of flats and sharps, and clefs and keys, and whatever chord, and Son, LA, TE, Don' for the second. These are called other difficulties may be crowded upon it. disjunct tetrachords, because the tone between Far and Son
2. It gives to the learner a simple and uniform "language separates them. If the key-note is made the highest note of of interval,” for Dou being always the key-note, the intervals the one and the lowest of the other tetrachord, Son, LAH, TE, remain always the same, to Don, will form the first, and Dou (repeated), RAY, ME, Fan, whatever pitch the scale may the second. These are called the conjunct tetrachords, because be raised or lowered. Thus,
SIMPLE MODULATOR, they are joined in the key-note. Take coins or counters to the tonules are always between
OR POINTING represent the notes, and arrange them on the table, first ME FAH, and TE Don, and TEACHING with the disjunct, and then with the conjunct tetrachords, the pupil is so accustomed to thas :
sing those syllables to that TETRACHORD.
interval, that he would find it
di f difficult to sing them wrongly.
DOH f acknowledge the power of this
TE Learn to do this from memory, and, having done it, to name mental association of syllable
f tathe notes you have arranged. Some scale-makers, beginning and interval. When we wish
LAH upon RAY and ascending to the upper Ray', suppose they have to remember some favourite got hold of a different scale, because the tonules (semi-tones) tune, for instance, how freare between the second and third and sixth and seventh notes quently do we ask ourselves in
SOH d from Ray, while they were between the third and fourth and aid of memory, "What are the
-fet, leventh and eighth from Dou! In the same way, they begin words we usually sing it to ?” upon ME, and ascending to the upper ME', suppose they have and immediately that we think
d FAH discovered another new scale, with its tonules differently placed! of the words we remember the
ti ME 1 And so on, making every note of the scale the beginning of what tune. How is this? It is plain they strangely fancy to be a new scale! You will be saved that the first syllables of the from this delusion by simply observing that, whatever note you hymn or song had so often 1, RAY
S, begin on, the tonules are divided by two tones on the one hand, co-existed in our minds along and by three on the other. This will best appear by your with the first intervals of the
tune, that the one had gained placing the notes in the form of a circle, thus :
8 DOH f, a power to suggest the other.
ti m, This power of “association,"
fyproved to be occasionally so
1, ri useful, we systematise and make
of constant use. Several per- ri 8, de LAH sons, recently made acquainted
t2 with this method of teaching
to sing, have written to us in
& very fair sight-singer before
I became acquainted with this 1 r S Our pupil will not blame us for having so long drawn his method, but I frequently, in attention to this foundation scale of all music, when he comes preparing for our choral meet
de f to see the importance in his after progress of thus thoroughly ings, met with passages which comprehending its structure. He will now be prepared to I could not conquer without understand the “ Modulator, or pointing board for teaching the help of an instrument. I tunes.” The middle column represents the seven notes of the now, however, simply trace out such passages on the modulator, scale in their proper order and at their proper distances. The translate them into this accurate and unchanging language of replicates (octave notes) are added, both above and below, with interval, and then it becomes really difficult to sing them the figures attached to them as already described. It will be wrongly." Been that, with the exception of the middle octave (eight notes), 3. It facilitates the practice of teaching by pattern. This is the initial letters of the sol-fa syllables alone are used. The side of great importance. The teacher sings, softly and distinctly, columns (which are but repetitions of the same thing at different a short phrase of the tune to be taught. To this vocal pattern heights in pitch) and the additional notes given in these columns, the pupils so listen that they may be able to imitate immediately namely, Ta, pronounced taw, and FE, need not be attended afterwards. There are two mental processes in learning to sing to at present. They are only printed here for the sake of com- a note. The first is an effort (if we may so speak) of perception pleteness. The scale is sometimes called the “ common mode" in seeking to appreciate clearly the note to be imitated. The (the common mode in which notes are arranged for a tune), and second is an effort of will, commanding the organs of voice to the word modulate means properly to sing “in mode,” or, in reproduce the notes thus clearly perceived. The “pattern other words, to sing correctly “in tune." The uses of the cultivates each of these distinctly. It stimulates the pupil to a modulator are the following :
strong mental effort in endeavouring to bring the ear and the 1. It supplies the learner with a perfect pictorial representa- voice to do the mind's bidding. In this mental effort alone tion of the notes he is singing, and thus enables him, as he consists the real work of learning to sing. That method is the rings and “points,” to measure to the eye the exact intervals best, therefore, which requires the most of it. One hour's which the voice is taking. This cannot be done on the staff of training of this kind is far more effective than five spent in fire lines, for there is nothing there to indicate pictorially the singing with a leader. The teacher also, not singing with his place of the tonules (semi-tones) and it is not easy for the pupils, is better able to criticise and patiently correct their