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mistades. The papel who has to teach himself, with only an " accent." Close observation will enable you to distinguish GeekIchi pattern from some voice or instrument, must make three degrees of accent thus produced—the louder (or stronger), himself thru itay perfect in pointing on the modulator, and the softer (or weaker), and the medium. Listen to a well-sung singing those pizces in which he has had the advantage of a tune more closely still, and you will find that the accents recur pautern, an they wil help him to the rest. The first sign of in regular order, and at equal distances of time. Take care to interende in a learner is that he knows when he sings wrong. verify all these assertions by singing some well-known tune Let 32 sissys in that case, go back to the key-note and yourself, or by listening to another. Then remember that-the ord sod - try again.” Many persons have taught themselves distance of time from one of the louder accents to the next is to sisg in this way, often making mistakes of which they were called a MEASURE. (It is sometimes inaccurately called a BAR.) ignorant for a while, but discovering their error and the means The distance of time between any accent and the next is called o correcting it, in their efforts to sing some following exercise. an ALIQUOT, or equal part, of the measure. It may also be A teacher always by our side will, doubtless, save us from many called a “pulse” of the voice. There are four sorts of MEASURE misunderstandings and blunders; but he who cannot enjoy this in common use. advantage, may work on sturdily and hopefully without one. The BINARY or TWO-PULSE MEASURE contains two aliquots, Let him remember that his first business is to use the modulator one having the louder and the other the softer accent. We use 60 constantly that it shall become "printed” in the eye of an upright bar to represent the louder accent, and two dots to memory.

represent the softer. The binary measure may, therefope, be This introduces as our next topic that simple way of writing represented thus :vocal music which we intend to use as thc companion and interpreter of the more difficult and cornlex “old notation,” of

etc., or

etc. which we hope finally to make you master. It is the invention of an excellent and intelligent lady-Miss Glover, of Norwich

The TRINARY or THREE-PULSE MEASURE contains three and has been modified and adapted to popular purposes by Mr. aliquots, one of which has the louder and the other two the Curwen, in his “Grammar of Vocal Music," «Tonic-Solfa softer accent. It may be represented thus :Edition of the People's Service of Song," and other works. It consists of the first letters of the solfa syllables, which you have

etc., or 1 1 used in learning a tune from the modulator, written down. And if you have used the modulator till you are able to carry the binary by changing every alternate louder accent into one

The QUATERNARY or FOUR-PULSE MEASURE is formed from one “in your mind's eye,” this simple notation answers the purpose of pointing out the notes on that mental scale. But let of medium force. We represent the medium accent by a shorter it be remembered that this notation should never be used apart bar than that used for the louder accent. This measure may, from a perfect modulator either on paper before the learner, or

then, be thus represented :clearly seen in his mind's eye. When we remember that to secure this mental modulator it is only necessary to learn the

:1:1:1: proper position of seven notes, the effort does not appear a

The SENARY or SIX-PULSE MEASURE is formed from the difficult one; yet, so inrooted is laziness in some people, that we trinary measure by changing every alternate louder accent into have found many who go on using the solfa syllables to no advan

a medium accent, and may be represented thus : tage for years, without taking the trouble to learn this little ten minutes' lesson, which would make those syllables, in connection

|: : | :: or 1 1: with the power of association just described, clear interpreters of music to them. You will perceive, then, that these notes of You perceive that these measures often begin on the softer the new notation do not appear to our own pupils as they would or medium accents, but the imperfect measure is always comto others, only on one horizontal line, but seem, as they sing pleted at the end of a tune. Much of the delicacy and expresthem, to rise or fall to their proper places in the scale. Some siveness of music depends on this proper recurrence of accent, persons have objected to this marking of the notes by the solfa sometimes called rhythm. By neglect of this a properly beautiful syllables, saying, “ If the old notation must be learnt at last, tune is often made dull, heavy, and unmeaning, while careful however difficult it is, because it contains all the stores of clas- attention to it will give beauty to some of the plainest melodies. sical music, then why not begin with that at once ? why teach Many of our most popular tunes owe their effect almost entirely two notations P” First, because there is really no trouble in to rhythm, and it forms nearly the sole power of such instruteaching the solfa notation; we have seen children in an infants' ments as the drum and the tambourine. It makes even the school use it before they had learnt to read. It was to them, regulated step of the soldier and the dancer akin to music. The as we have described it, simply the letters from the modulator philosophy of the origin of our sense of rhythm is treated very " written down.” Secondly, because the old notation presents admirably in the appendix to Dr. Bryce's "Rational Introducsuch difficulties to the learner as to make it impossible to teach tion to Music.” He shows its connection with the pulsations of music in any short time by its means alone. Many of the best the heart, which are multiples of the respirations of the lungs. systems make use of some simpler notation to interpret the old. “ About the commencement of each expiration of the brenth, Mr. Gall, of Elinburgh, Mr. Waite, and some others, make use there is one moment at which the effort, whether muscular or of a notation by figures. Dr. Bryce, of Belfast, uses both the elastic, is stronger than at any other time in the whole breathing. figures and the solfa syllables. And we have lately learnt that This is most apparent in a person sleeping soundly, when the a sort of solfa notation was printed under the notes with some mechanism of the body, not being controlled by the mind, follows of the very earliest English psalm-tunes. It consisted of the unceremoniously its own laws

... Between the expiration initial letters of the solfa syllables placed under the notes much and inspiration there seems to intervene a pause, during which as we shall use them. Thirdly, because the use of some such the lungs are at rest; but during or immediately after great new notation is the quickest and most perfect means of gaining bodily exertion-running for example-this pause disappears, a real command of the old. Already, by the method which we and expiration succeeds inspiration immediately, or with a very are now developing, many children in day-schools, in addition to brief period of rest. The same happens when the breathing is a large number of adults, have learnt to sing "at sight" from impeded by disease.... Hence, a respiration may be divided the old notation.

into two (Binary) or into three (Trinary) parts. If into three It is of small consequence what syllables are used for this parts they will be-1st, expiration; 2nd, pause; 3rd, inspiration. purpose. A great variety have been used at different times. If into two-1st, expiration ; 2nd, inspiration." We have chosen those given above because they are best known, Rhythm in its fullest sense has a wider range and more delionly changing Se into TE for the sake of having a different cate expression than can be given within the boundaries of a initial letter from Son. We have given the English spelling of single measure. General Thompson (Westminster Review, Oct., tho syllables instead of the Italian, as we have nothing to do 1832), very beautifully describes it thus :-“Whoever has been with the Italian language in these lessons.

rocked in a boat upon what in plain prose may be called the It may be easily noticed that, at certain distances throughout ocean waves' will have been conscious that besides the petty the voice is delivered with increased distinctness and furrow which lifted its head and stern alternately in a time

combination of distinctness and forco is called approaching to the vibrations of a church pendulum, there was

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a larger swell, of which the others were but inconsiderable parts, FRENCH. PRONUN. ENGLISH. FRENCH. PROXUN. ENGLISH and even a mightier still, of which this second was but a limb Jalon Zha-lolh Beacon.

Zhay

Stream.

Zha-may and portion. Something like this appears to be the nature of Jamais

Aluays. Joujou Zhoo-zhoo A toy. the undulations of musical notes. There is a great swell and a 54. K, k.-This letter has the sound of the English k in all little one, and both of them contribute to the general effect. situations. The examination may therefore on this principle be conducted 55. L, 1.—This letter has the sound of the English l in nearly in two directions :—First, to inquire what quantity of minor all situations, except when used with the vowel i, as a liquid. undulations may be within the compass of a bar or 'measure ;' In a few words, 1 final is silent. The dictionary will best deterand secondly, to ask whether bars themselves may not be mine which these are. fractions of greater undulations, and whether out of these again 56. M, m.-When initial, the letter m has only the sound of may not be constituted undulations of higher orders in succes- the English m. It is used in nasal combinations like the followsion, to an extent that can only be measured by the skill of the ing, viz. :performer, and probably also by the cultivated sensitiveness of

im, the hearer. Any person who will attend critically to the execu- and in old French :tion of superior instrumental performers, will be surprised to

em,

ym, find to what an extent this species of linked sweetness' may be traced, and how large a number of bars may be formed into which sounds will be illustrated at the proper place. It is also a connected whole, by means of the relations of what is here silent in the body of some words. Refer to the dictionary to termed accent."

determine when.

57. N, n.-When initial, the letter n has only the sound of

English n. It is used in nasal combinations mostly, namely:LESSONS IN FRENCH.—X.

in, SECTION 1.-FRENCH PRONUNCIATION (continued). and in old French :IV. NAME AND SOUND OF THE CONSONANTS.

yn, 52. E, h.—This letter is used in the French language in two which sounds will be illustrated in the proper place. ways, usually styled mute and aspirate-a definition perfectly After m and n in the end of words, final consonants are usually intelligible to natives of France, but not equally so to others, silent, viz.:that is, to foreigners. Let us explain. When we say h is mute,

Prends as if printed Pren, and pronounced Pranh, every one knows what is meant; but when we say h is aspirate Romps

Rom,

Ronh. in the French language, we do not mean that it ever has the Temps

Tem,

Tanh. same sound as h in the English words have, high, hold, and hull, When n is final before another word beginning with a vowel that is, a forcible breathing, or emission of the voice at the com- or h mute, it requires, besides being pronounced with a nasal mencement of a word. There seems to be a misapprehension of sound, that another n should be added in pronunciation to the this matter with many writers and teachers, not natives of beginning of the next word, namely:France. It is believed that the true theory is this, namely—the

Ancien ami as if printed Ancien-nammee. French never sound the h. It is with them, virtually, always

Bon homme

Bon-nomm. mate. But, besides being mute, it has a particular duty to do,

Mon ame

Mon-nahm. so to speak. But when we say h is aspirate, we only mean that

Mon ami

Mon-nammee. the vowel immediately following partakes so much of the pro

SECTION XIV.-LIST OF WORDS FOR EXERCISES IN perty of a consonant, as to prevent elision with the preceding

COMPOSITION (continued). Evel

. The following examples will illustrate our meaning very clearly, viz. :

11. ARBRES FRUITIERS, FRUITS.–FRUIT TREES, FRUITS. First, of the k mute.

Abricot, m., apricot.

Mûre, f., mulberry.
Abricotier, m., apricot-tree.

Nèfle, f., medlar.
Habit is pronounced Ab-bee.

Amande, f., almond.

Noisette, f., hazel-nut.
Homme
Om, etc.
Amandier, m., almond-tree.

Noix, f., nut.
Ananas, m., pineapple.

Orange, f., orange.
In these words there is no sound whatever of the h.

Aveline, f., filbert.

Pêche, f., peach. Secondly, of the h aspirate.

Châtaigne, f., chestnut.

Poire, f., pear.
Citron, m., citron, lemon.

Poirier, m.,
Héros is pronounced Ay-ro;

pear-tree.
Coing, m.,
quince.

Pomme, f., apple. reof hay-ro, as an Englishman would pronounce it, with a strong

Datte, f., date.

Pommier, m., apple-tree.

Prune, f., plum. guttural articulation. But to add to the force and office of the Fraise, t., strawberry.

Figue, f., fig.

Prunier, m., plum-tree. aepirate h in the word héros, let the article le be placed before Framboise, f., raspberry.

Raisin, m., grape. it, thus-le héros. Now, if the h were mute, these two words Groseille, f., gooseberry, currant. Vigne, f., vine. wonld become one in pronunciation, viz.—léros. The h not Melon, m., melon. being mate in this word héros, but aspirate, what is its office ?

12. ARBRES FORESTIERS, ETC.-FOREST TREES, ETC. It enables the following letter é to prevent elision with the e of

Bouleau, m., birch.

Peuplier, m., poplar. the word preceding it, and consequently, the two words must be

Chêne, m.,
oak.

Rameau, m., bough. pronounced as if printed le-é-ros.

Ecorce, f., bark.

Sapin, m., pine. Thus it will be seen, that one particular use of the aspirated Erable, m., maple.

Saule, m., villow. h is to prevent elision of the two vowels between which it may Frène, m., ash.

Tilleul, m., linden-tree. chance to be placed, in being the initial of a word. H aspirate is Hétre, m., beech.

Tremble, m., aspen. best determined by consulting a French dictionary, because no Mélèse, m., larch.

Tronc, m., trunk. particular and definite rule can be given for distinguishing it Orme, m., elm. from k mute. It must be granted that this whole matter is now

13. OISEAUX.- BIRDS. considered debatable ground among orthoepists.

One side Aigle, m., eagle.

Chauve-souris, f., bat. afirms that the h aspirate is never sounded, any more than h Aile, f., wing.

Cigogne, f., stork. mate is, but serves the sole purpose of preventing elision. Alouette, f., lark.

Colombe, f., dove. The other side affirms that the aspiration is very slight, which, in Autour, m.; hark.

Corbeau, m., raven.

Corneille, f., crow. common conversation, amounts to nothing, but is barely obsery- Autruche, f., ostrich.

beak.

Coucou, mn., cuckoo. able only in serions reading, and the use of devotional language. Bec, m.,

Cygne, m., suan.
One thing, however, is quite certain that a native Frenchman Bécasse, f., woodcock.
never aspirates the h of his own language as we do in pro-Bergeronnette, f., wagtail.

Dindon, m., turkey.
Bécassine, f., snipe.

Faisan, m., pheasant.
Douncing the words have, high, hold, and huli.

Caille, f., quail.

Geai, m., jackdaw. 53. J, j.—This letter has the sound of the two English Canard, m., duck.

Grive, f., thrush. letters th. In the two English words, glazier and azure, the x Canari, m., canary-bird.

heron. has the sound of zh, viz.glazhier and azhure.

Chardonneret, m., goldfinch, Hirondelle, f., swallow,

Héron, m.,

Linotte, 1., linnet.
Pigeon, m., pigeon.

Avons-nous plus de dix mètres de Have ve more than ten metres (yards)
Merle, m.,
blacicbird.
Poule, f., hen.

cette toile de Hollande ?

of this holland (linen of Holland), Oie, f., goose. Poulet, m., chicken.

Vous en avez moins de six aunes. You have less than six ells of it. Oiseau de proie, m., bird of prey. Roitelet, m., wren.

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.
Paon, m., peacock.

Rossignol, m., nightingale.
Passereau, m., sparrow.
Rouge-gorge, m., redbreast,

Il n'est pas encore deux heures. It is not yet two o'clock.
Perdrix, 1., partridge.
Serin, m., canary-bird.

Est-il une heure et demie ? Is it half-past one?
Perroquet, m., parrot.
Tourterelle, f., turtle-dove.

Il est midi et quart ou midi et demi. It is a quarter or half-past twelve.
Pie, f., magpie.
Vautour, m., vulture.

Il est huit heures moins un quart. It wants a quarter of eight.
Quel åge votre fils a-t-il ?

How old is your son ?
14. QUADRUPEDES.-QUADRUPEDS.

Il n'a que dix-huit ans.

He is only eighteen years old. Agneau, m., lamb. Lièvre, m., hare.

Votre beau-frère n'a-t-il pas plus Is not your brother-in-law more than Blaireau, m., badger.

Lion, m.,
lion.
de dix-neuf ans ?

nineteen years old!
Castor, m.,
beaver.
Loup, m., wolf.

Ma belle sæur n'a pas moins de My sister-in-law is not less than Cerf, m., stag. Mule, f., mule.

dix-huit ans et demi.

eighteen years and a half. Chamois, m., chamois, wild goat. Ours, m., bear.

Est-il plus de dix heures à votre Is it more than ten o'clock by you: Chèvre, f., goat. Poulain, m., colt.

montre ?

watch?
Chevreuil, m., roebuck.
Pourceau, m., hog, swine.

Il n'est que neuf heures à ma It is only nine by my clock,
Ecureuil, m., squirrel.
Renard, m., fox.

pendule.
Furet, m., serret.
Singe, m., monkey.

Votre fils est-il plus âgé que le Is your son older than mine? Hérisson, m., hedgehog. Taupe, f., mole.

mien ? Lapin, m., rabbit. Tigre, m., tiger.

Il est plus jeune que le votre. He is younger than yours.
15. POISSONS.-FISHES.

VOCABULARY.
Anguille, f., eel.
Merlan, m., whiting.

Âgé, -e, old.

Belle-sæur, f., sister-in-Jeune, young.
Baleine, f., whale.
Morue, f., codfish.

Aune, f., el.

law.

Jour, m., day. Brochet, m., pike. Perche, f., perch. Beau-fils, son-in-lar. Cela, that.

Maintenant, now. Carpe, f., carp. Requin, m., shark.

Beau-frère, brother-in- Cinquante, fifty. Mars, m., March. Chevrette, f., shrimp. Saumon, m., salmon.

lau.

Cousin-germain, m., Mètre, m., yard." Ecrevisse, f., crayfish. Sole, f., sole. Beau-père, father-in- first-cousin.

Mois, m.,

month. Esturgeon, m., sturgeon. Tanche, f., tench.

lar.

Enfant, m., child. Pendule, f., clock. Hareng, m., herring. Tortue, f., turtle.

Belle-mère, mother. in. Février, m., February. Ruban, m., ribbon. Hareng saur, m., red herring. Truite, f., trout.

lave.

Indienne, f., printed | Tard, late.
Homard, m., lobster.
Turbot, m., turbot.

calico.
16. INSECTES, ETC.-INSECTS, ETC.

EXERCISE 33. Abeille, f., bee.

Lézard, m.,

lizard. Araignée, I., spider. Limaçon, m, snail.

1. Votre beau-frère est-il plus âgé que le mien ? 2. Le vôtre Chenille, f., caterpillar, Mouche, f., fly.

est plus jeune que le mien. 3. Quel âge a votre belle-mère ? 4. Cigale, f., grasshopper. Papillon, m., butterfly.

Elle a près de cinquante ans. 5. Quelle heure est-il maintenant? Couleuvre, f., adder. Puce, f., flea,

6. Il est six heures passées. 7. Etes-vous certain de cela ? 8. Cousin, m., gnat. Punaise, f., bug.

Oui, Monsieur, j'en suis certain. 9. Est-il plus de deux heures Crapaud, m., toad.

Sangsue, f., leech. Escarbot, m., beetle.

à votre montre ? 10. Il n'est que midi à ma montre ? 11. Sauterelle, f., locust. Fourmi, f., ant. Serpent, m., serpent.

Avez-vous plus de cinq ans, mon enfant ? 12. Je n'ai pas Grenouille, f., frog. Teigne, f., moth,

encore quatre ans. 13. Avez-vous plus de six mètres d'indienne? Grillon, m., cricket. Ver, m., vorm.

14. J'en ai moins de trois mètres. 15. Combien d'aunes de Guêpe, f., wasp. Vipère, 1., ripor.

ruban votre beau-père a-t-il ? 16. Il n'a guère de ruban, il n'en SECTION XIX.—THE VERBS AVOIR AND ETRE IN REFER. a qu'une demi-aune. 17. Est-il midi moins un quart? 18. Il ENCE TO THE TIME OF DAY, QUANTITY, ETC.

est plus tard, Monsieur ; il est midi et quart. 19. Quel jour du 1. For the time of the day, the verb être is used unipersonally mois avons-nous ? 20. Nous avons le six Octobre. 21. N'estin French, in the same manner as the verb to be is used in ce pas le huit Février? 22. Non, Madame, c'est le huit Mars. English for the same object. The word heure, sing., heures, 23. Combien de jardins a votre cousin-germain ? 24. Il n'en a pl., represents the English expressions o'clock, or time, and must qu'un, mais il est très-beau. 25. Il en a plus de dix. always be expressed.

EXERCISE 34.
Quelle heure est-il ?
What o'clock (time) is it?

1. How old is your brother-in-law ? 2. He is fifty years old. Il est une heure,

It is one o'clock.
Il est dix heures,
It is ten, it is ten o'clock.

3. Is your sister-in-law older than mine? 4. No, Sir, my sister

in-law is younger than yours. 5. Is your son twenty-five years 2. Midi is used for twelve o'clock in the day, and minuit for old? 6. No, Madam, he is only sixteen. 7. What day of the midnight, or twelve at night. Douze heures is never used except month is it (have we) to-day ? 8. It is (we have) the eleventh, in the sense of tưelre hours.

9. Have you the twentieth volume of Chateaubriand's works ? Est-il midi ? Est-il minuit ? Is it noon! Is it midnight! 10. No, Madam, we have the eleventh. 11. What o'clock is it,

3. Et quart, et demi ($ 84 (2)], answers to the English er. Sir? 12. It is only twelve o'clock. 13. Is it not later ? 14. pressions a quarter, half-past, after, etc.

It wants a quarter of one. 15. It is a quarter after five. 16. 1 est neuf heures et quart, It is a quarter after nine.

How many yards of this holland (toile de Hollande, f.) have you? Il est midi et demi, It is hay after tweelre.

17. I have ten ells and a half. 18. I have six metres of it, and I est un heure et demie, It is half after one.

sixteen yards of Italian silk. 19. Is your mother-in-law younger 4. Moins un quart, moins vingt minutes, answer to the English than your father-in-law. 20. She is younger than he. 21. Are oxpressions a quarter before, tuenty minutes before, etc.

you twenty years old ? 22. No, Sir, I am only nineteen and a Il est dix heures moins un quart, It tants a quarter of ten.

half. 23. Are you sure (sûr) that it is ten o'clock? 24. Yes, Ilost neuf heures moins dix minutes, It is ten minutes before nine.

Madam, I am sure of it. 25. Is it twenty minutes of ten? 5. The word demi, preceding the word heure, does not vary. 26. No, Sir, it is a quarter before twelve (midi). 27. How Placed after it, it is variable ($ 84 (2)].

many houses have you? 28. I have only one, but my sister-inUne demi-heure, Half an hour.

law has two. 29. Have you mine (f.) or yours ? 30. I have Une heure et domie, An hour and a half.

neither yours nor mine, I have your son-in-law's. 31. Has your 6. The vorb avoir is used actively [$ 43 (2) (3)] in French in only two yards of it. 33. What o'clock is it by (a) your watch?

mother-in-law five yards of that printed calico ? 32. She has speaking of ago, and the word an, year, is always expressed. 34. It is half-past four by my watch. 35. It is more than seven quel Age avez-vous ?

How old are you ? i.e., What age , o'clock by mine (à la mienne).

have you! -- ** de vingt ans. I am more than twenty.

The French målre is exactly 30-871 inches English measure; it is * do, moins do, nro used for more than, less than, before therefore longer than the English yard by about 34 inches, or more

| accurately 3!! inches.

LESSONS IN PENMANSHIP.-X. by drawing or dragging," or the word hull, which means the

" frame or body of a ship,” the huge black mass that floats With the three copy-slips on this page the learner will finish upon the waters that sustain it, and from which rise the tapering the series of copies that is based on letters or combinations of masts and network of cordage that give grace and beauty to a letters formed of the bottom-turn, top-turn, top-and-bottom- vessel's form. It is unnecessary to mention more cases in which turn, and straight stroke. In our next lesson we shall give the confusion would arise from a want of proper attention to the relaself-teacher a new letter, which is in itself an elementary form tive proportion of the strokes of which letters are formed. The that enters into the composition of the majority of the letters reader can find out many for himself by altering the height or that he has yet to learn to write.

length of strokes above or below the lines that contain the body of If any of those who are endeavouring to acquire a knowledge the letters in any copy-slip that is either a combination of letters, of the art of Penmanship from our lessons will now take the or a word that conveys a distinct and special meaning of its own. trouble to glance over the thirty-four copy-slips that we have A clear and legible handwriting is what every man should placed before them, they will see by how gentle and easy a strive to attain, whatever may be his rank or station in life. gradation we have led them on from the first simple stroke, Many suppose that it is vulgar and commonplace to write a known as the bottom-turn, to words involving combinations of legible hand—that it shows good breeding to write such a all the four elementary strokes that have hitherto been brought serawl that it is impossible for any one but an expert to decipher

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before their notice. The words in Copy-slips Nos. 33 and 34 | it. How the notion has arisen it is difficult to say; but, to will bear efficient witness to the truth and propriety the hazard a guess, it is fair to suppose that it originated in an idea statement we made in our last lesson, that unless due attention that to be engaged in trade and commerce was low, and that as be paid to the relative proportion of the strokes of letters that people in business generally wrote legibly and plainly, it was extend above or below the lines that contain the body of any the stamp of a commercial huxtering spirit to go and do likeletter, the appearance of any handwriting will be far from wise. Happily, in our times legible handwriting is not thought pleasing, as it will be wanting in that harmony that is so abso- unworthy of a man of education and good social position, while, lutely necessary to satisfy the eye. Suppose, for instance, that indeed, it is one of the principal qualifications that is insisted in Copy-slip No. 33 the letter 1 in the word hilt had been carried on in those who aspire to the Civil Service and employment in Do higher than the t, how unsatisfactory would have been its Government offices. To write a good hand is one of the first aspect: or, again, if the letter t in the same word had been steps towards the attainment of that liberal education which carried as high as the 1, what trouble would the reader have stamps a man as a gentleman without any of the adventitious to determine whether the writer meant what he had written to claims that arise out of a man's descent and social standing, be the word that means the “ handle of a sword,” or that by and it is now as absurd for any man to sneer at another because which“ rising ground” is denoted. Then, also, in Copy-slip he can write legibly as it was for Jack Cade to dub the clerk of No. 34, if the straight stroke of the p in pull were not carried Chatham a villain because he was taken “setting of boy's down to its proper extent, but allowed to terminate a littlo copies,” and to hang him as a traitor, with his pen and ink-horn below the lower of the lines that contain the letter u, what about his neck, because he could write his own name, and had doubt would arise in a reader's mind as to whether the writer not a mark to himself, like, in Cade's estimation, “ an honest meant to write the word which means “ to draw," or " to move plain-dealing man.”

LESSONS IN GERMAN.-LX.

seng made by sie das the lette : The second person SECTION XVII.- PERSONAL PROXOLSS; VERSS OF YE

zsiznes by sa s tihe root the letters test; the NEW CONJUGATIOS, E.c.

puszis of sätesse person sing and In English the relation of property or possessice is denstad se gessen: staisse sis tristes (to praise), take en,

12 saat is furad tas tie letters ez from the form means of personal pronouns in the possesste esse. S sai es ist, siis me 1906 German the same relation is shown by means of sociacs sia

The Frases Panagie is made by sing to the root the of words (Sect. X.), called possessine pecnoes: set these ze ased not merely in the corresponding case e tihe genitive.

ristie 18. Da sag but in all the cases. The German persons Canone timerer

The Forsiden ased by prebieg to the root the is rarely used in the genitive de ces persze neste 362 4. si steag se ista i (sometimes et): possessive.

Izei Seed by combining the perfect participle DECLENSION OF THE PERSONE2305 X

are sent a saber ez sein, to

ZATE SI 22. 5. er i bere resised Masculine

12 Fre some seminag the perfect participle ł 3a. I;

* ముందు కున్నాడు. <i saic sr in. a, a hearts salt, I had 6. Piret ci ne:

Te ius fear is Szenei beg to the present of the DEST DE 5. fee: 11. Si ar z 132 zie essens de stary serien, to

13".1 35. a. I sin

Te Linn sisa the perjedt of the 2577. szepte ce ne

sy uitres: as, it

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