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these but one form : er lobt. The present, besides its ordinary

EXERCISE 24. use, is often used in relation to past time, when the period re

1. The teacher presented a beautiful book to the [bem] scholar ferred to is still unfinished, as :-Ich wohne schon ein ganzes Jahr in [Schüler). 2. She had deceived her [ihre) friend. 3. The children Berlin, I reside (have resided) already a whole year in Berlin. have probably (See 9 of this section) grieved the [den) old father. 30 habe ta$ Pferd nur eine Woche, I have (had) the horse only a 4. An ill-bred child grieves (the) father and (the) mother. 5. I week. The present is moreover often used for the future, as :- have heard thy voice (Stimme) in the room. 6. He has probably Mergen gehe ich nach Wien, to-morrow I am going to Vienna. Ich tested the messenger before he sent him to (zu) the [bem] friend gebe Ihnen einen Gulden für das Buch, I (will) give you a florin for [Freunde]. 7. The peasant has covered his house with [mit] the book.

straw. 8. This misfortune has probably taught him to be cau. 7. The imperfect is used to denote continuance of being, tious. 9. I have seen (gesehen] many [viele] fishes in the river. action, or passion, as :-Die Schlacht bei Leipzig dauerte drei Tage, the 10. A cool draught strengthens in [in dem] summer the body, as battle near Leipsic continued three days. Hence it comes, also, [wie) the dew the [das] withered grass of the field. 11. (The) to be used in expressing what is customary or habitual, as :-Die pain loves the moon as [alt] a [einen] comforter, (the) solitude alten Deutschen jagten gern, und führten oft Krieg mit den Römern, the loves it as a [einen] companion, and (the) piety as the [ten] resiancient Germans were fond of hunting, and often carried on war dence of a pure soul. with the Romans. Kindred to this, is its use in cases where one action or event is to be represented as simultaneous* with another, as :-Gr starb, als er auf dem Lande war, he died, while he

LESSONS IN BOTANY.-V. was in the country; er spielte, als ich arbeitete, he played while I SECTION VIII.-ON THE NERVATION OR VENATION OF worked. (See $ 138.)

LEAVES; AND THE FORMS OF LEAVES. 8. The perfect describes an action as finished without re- ANIMAL anatomists understand by veins and nerves two widely ference to another action, and, unlike the same tense in English, different portions of the human frame; not so botanists, in may be used with an adverb that denotes past as well as present whose language veins and nerves mean the same thing, being time, as :

-r hat ihn gelobt, he has praised him. Er hat ihn gestern applied to those cord-like ribs which ramify upon, or rather çelekt

, he has) praised him yesterday. Gr þat ihn heute gelobt, he under, the surface of leaves. The manner in which these nerves has praised him to-day. (See $ 139.)

or veins are distributed requires careful study, as it serves to 9. The second future is often used in reference to past time distinguish divisions of vegetables from each other. Plants to indicate a probability, as :-Er wird es gehört haben, he has pro- examined with reference to the manner in which their leaves are bably heard it; literally, he will have heard it.

veined, admit of being separated into two great divisions : the VOCABULARY.

parallel veined, and the meshed or reticulated. ils, as, than. Junfer, m. young no- | Secle, f. soul.

For example, in Fig. 19 is given the representation of the Arbeit, f. labour.

bleman.
Sehen, to see.

leaves of an iris plant, while Fig. 20 is a drawing of a leaf of lup'enthalt, m. resi. Körper, m. body. Sominer, m. summer.

a melon. How great is the difference between the general dence. Kränken, to grieve. Start, f. city.

aspect of these leaves we need not say, In the former the Bauen, to build. Kühl, adj. cool. Stärfen, to strengthen veins or nerves are almost parallel to each other, or converge at Begleiter, m. atten. Lehren, to teach. Stroh, n, straw.

either extremity of the leaf by a very imperceptible gradation, dant. Mond, m. moon. Stube, f. room.

and never in any part of the leaf combine or interlace together. Betrachten, to regard. Nachmittag, m. after- Sünde, f. sin.

In the second example, the melon leaf, this parallelism is totally Bate, m. messenger.

Tapfer, adj. brave, wanting, and in place of it we find the intermingling of nerves Deden, to cover. Nacht, f. night.

valiant.

to be so frequent that a complete net-work results, hence this Deri, n. village. Nähe, f. vicinity. Täuschen, to deceive, leaf and all like it are said to be reticulated. The word Ghe, before. Person'. f. person. disappoint.

reticulated is derived from the Latin rete, a net. Guísamfeit,j.solitude. Pflüden, to pluck. Thau, m. dew.

Does not the reader remember that we have already estabFelo, n. field. Prufen, to test, prove. Tröster

, m.comforter. lished the existence of two grand natural divisions amongst Grid, m. fish. Rein, adj. pure. Trunf, m. draught.

flowering plants, as determined by the sectional aspect of their drömmigfeit, f. piety. Rose, f. rose.

Un'gerathen, ill-bred.

stems? Does he not remember that, from a consideration of Ganz, adj. and adv. Ruhm, m. fame. Unglück, n. misfortune. this difference of appearance, we have already agreed to divide entire, whole. Schenfen, to present. Vor, before, from.

flowering plants into the exogenous and endogenous ? Does he Geishidt', adj. skilful. Schäßen, to prize, to Vorsichtig, adj. cau

not also remember our promise to tell him other means of disesteem.

tious.

tinguishing an endogenous from an exogenous plant by another biten, to hear. Schiden, to send. Wachen, to watch. sign than the sectional aspect of the stem ? One means is this. Bagen, to hunt. Somerz, m. pain. Warnen, to warn.

The leaves of all endogenous plants are straight-veined, while Jugent, f. youth. Schimmer, m. glitter. Welf, adj. withered.

the leaves of all exogenous are reticulated. Hence, referring to

the iris, we know at once that it is an endogenous, or withinRÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

growing plant, and we know by the same kind of examination Gine (höne Musit stimmt das Herz (A) sweet music (attunes) makes that the melon is an exogenous or without-growing plant. What froh und heiter.

the heart glad and cheerful. can be more simple than this mode of discrimination ? Die Freunde suchten mich in dem The friends .sought me in the Botanists distinguish the various forms that the leaves of Garten. garden.

plants assume by different names, and that our readers may be Der Kaufmann hat den Edelstein The merchant (has) prized the enabled to recognise these shapes at sight, and understand the sehr hoch geschäßt.

precious stone very highly. terms that are applied to them, we have given examples of the Due Freundin wird diesen Nach'mit. The friend will come to the greater part of them in our illustrations of leaves in the followtag nad der Start fommen. city this afternoon.

ing pages, and will now proceed to describe their peculiarities, fr wird die Nachricht schon gehört He will already have heard the and give the derivations of the botanical names by which they haben.

are known. EXERCISE 23.

Pedalate Leaf (Fig. 21).- A leaf of three or five divisions 1. 34 liebe das sind des Nachbars. 2. Der Vater hat mir diesen generally, called a pedate or pedalate leaf, from the Latin pes, a Brief geididt. 3. Ich werde den Freund warnen. 4. Ich habe die ganze foot, because the outer divisions are parted into several segments Maft bei tem franfen Bruder gewacht. 5. Die Jäger jagten gestern which spring from the foot of the mid-leaf at its junction with Kergen in rem Walte, und werden diesen Nachmittag in fer Nähe tes the petiole, Decfes jagen. 6. Mein Freund liebte den Ruhm und den Schimmer. 7. Peltate Leaves (Fig. 22).—Leaves like those of tho nasturtium, fe hat eine Rose gepflückt, und sie seiner Freundin geschenkt. 8. Ein a name improperly applied to some of the varieties of the tro. kibidter Maurer rieser Statt hat vieses schöne Haus gebaut. 9. Napoleon pæolum or Indian cress. This kind of leaf is called peltate ichikte ben tapferen Soltaten, und nicht ten Junfer und Gselmann. 10. from its fancied resemblance to the pelta, or circular buckler of Die Arbeiten in meiner Jugend haben meinen Körper gestärkt. 11. Das the ancients, which was held by a thong fastened to the under Gemiffen warnt die Menschen vor (s 116. List) der Sünte.

side. The chief peculiarity of the peltate leaf is that it is

attached to its petiole at some part of the under side, and not at * Simultaneous--existing at the same time.

the margin, as leaves usually are.

noon.

Grze, n. grass.

news.

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19. IRIS LEAVES. 20. MELON LEAF. 21, PEDATE OR PEDALATE LEAF. 22. PELTATE LEAVES. 23. PENNISECATE LEAF. 24. ALTERNATE LEAVES.

25, PALMIFID LEAF. 26. FASCICULATE LEAVES. 27. SAGITTATE LEAF. 28. SPATULATE LEAF. 29. VERTICILLATE OR WHORLED LEAVES 30. PENNATE LEAF, WITH TENDRILS. 31. CORDATE LEAF. 32. CONFLUENT OR PERFOLIATE LEAVES. 33. LANCEOLATE LEAY, 34, ORBICULAR LEAF.

Pennisecate Leaf (Fig. 23).- A leaf cut like a feather, from the half way down into several lobes, like the leaves of the sycaLatin penna, a wing or feather, and seco, to cut. It consists of more, are called palmate or palmifid, from their resemblance pairs of leaflets, without foot-stalks, ranged along a common to the palm and fingers of the hand when extended. The first petiole with a single leaflet at its extremity. The points at word is derived from the Latin palma, the hand; the second which the pairs of leaflets join the petiole are not exactly from palma, the hand, and findo, to cleave or split. opposite each other,

Fasciculate Leaves (Fig. 26).—Leaves issuing from a common Alternate Leaves (Fig. 24).—Leaves are said to be alternate leaf-stalk, and arranged in the form of bundles, from the Latin when they grow from different points of the stem one above fasciculus, a little bundle. This peculiar arrangement of the another-first on one side and then on the other.

foliage is found in some of the pinaceæ, or trees of the pine Palmate, or Palmifid Leaf (Fig. 25).—Leaves divided about tribe.

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3. DESTATE LEAF.

DIGITATE LEAF.
PENSATE LEAF.

36. DELTOID LEAF. 37. DECOMPOSITE LEAF. 38. RENIFORM LEAF, 39. PENNATIFID LEAF. 40. PALMISECATE LEAF. 42. CAPILLARY LEAF. 43. SPINY LEAF. 44. SESSILE LEAVES. 45. CILIATE LEAF. 46. SERRATE LEAF. 47. OVAL LEAF. 49. BIPENNATE LEAF. 50. DISTIC OR DISTICHOUS LEAVES. 51. ACUTE LEAVES,

41. 48,

Sagittate Leaf (Fig. 27).-A leaf shaped like the head of an grow from a stalk on the same level, they are termed vertiarrow, from the Latin sagitta, an arrow, triangular in form, with cillate, from the Latin verticillus, the whirl of a spindle, derived pointed lobes at the base extending backwards. Leaves of this from verto, to turn. Leaves growing in this manner, in a ring form are sometimes called hastate, or spear-shaped, from the round the stem, are also said to be whorled. Latin hasta, a spear.

Pennate, or Pinnate Leaf, with Tendrils (Fig. 30).—Leaflets Spatulate Leaf (Fig. 28).-A leaf formed something like a attached to a stem, with a tendril issuing from the point of spatula (Latin, spatula), a broad Aat knife used by chemists for junction between them, from the Latin penna, a wing or spreading plasters. It is broad and rounded at the end, but feather. An example may be found in the leaf of the everlast, tapers gradually towards the stalk.

Verticillate Leaves (Fig. 29).—When more than two leaves Cordate Leaf (Fig. 31).- A leaf, such as the leaf o

ing pea.

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19. IRIS LEAVES. 20. MELON LEAF. 21. PEDATE OR PEDALATE LEAF. 22. PELTATE LEAVES. 23. PENNISECATE LEAF. 24. ALTERNATE LEAVES. 25. PALMIFID LEAF. 26. FASCICULATE LEAVES. 27. SAGITTATE LEAF, 28, SPATULATE LEAF. 29. VERTICILLATE OR WHORLED

LEAVES, 30. PENNATE LEAF, WITH TENDRILS. 31. CORDATE LEAF, 32. CONFLUENT OR PERFOLIATE LEAVES, 33. LANCEOLATE LEAF. 34. ORBICULAR LEAF.

Pennisecate Leaf (Fig. 23).- A leaf cut like a feather, from the half way down into several lobes, like the leaves of the sycaLatin penna, a wing or feather, and seco, to cut. It consists of more, are called palmate or palmifid, from their resemblanco pairs of leaflets, without foot-stalks, ranged along a 'common to the palm and fingers of the hand when extended. The first petiole with a single leaflet at its extremity. The points at word is derived from the Latin palma, the hand; the second which the pairs of leaflets join the petiole are not exactly from palma, the hand, and findo, to cleave or split. opposite each other,

Fasciculate Leaves (Fig. 26).-Leaves issuing from a common Alternate Leaves (Fig. 24). —Leaves are said to be alternate leaf-stalk, and arranged in the form of bundles, from the Latin when they grow from different points of the stem one above fasciculus, a little bundle. This peculiar arrangement of the another-first on one side and then on the other.

foliage is found in some of the pinacea, or trees of the pine Palmate, or Palmifid Leaf (Fig. 25).- Leaves divided about tribe.

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3. DESTATE LEAF.

DIGITATE LEAF.
PENXATE LEAF.

36. DELTOID LEAF. 37. DECOMPOSITE LEAF. 33. RENIFORM LEAF. 39. PENNATIFID LEAF. 40. PALMISECATE LEAF. 42. CAPILLARY LEAF. 43. SPINY LEAF. 44. SESSILE LEAVES. 45. CILIATE LEAF. 46. SERRATE LEAF. 47. OVAL LEAF. 49. BIPENNATE LEAF. 50. DISTIC OR DISTICHOUS LEAVES. 51. ACUTE LEAVES,

41. 48.

Sagittate Leaf (Fig. 27).-A leaf shaped like the head of an grow from a stalk on the same level, they are termed vertiarrow, from the Latin sagitta, an arrow, triangular in form, with cillate, from the Latin verticillus, the whirl of a spindle, derived pointed lobes at the base extending backwards. Leaves of this from verto, to turn. Leaves growing in this manner, in a ring form are sometimes called hastate, or spear-shaped, from the round the stem, are also said to be whorled. Latin hasta, a spear.

Pennate, or Pinnate Leaj, with Tendrils (Fig. 30).—Leaflets Spatulate Leaf (Fig. 28).- A leaf formed something like a attached to a stem, with a tendril issuing from the point of spatula (Latin, spatula), a broad flat knife used by chemists for junction between them, from the Latin penna, a wing or spreading plasters. It is broad and rounded at the end, but feather. An example may be found in the leaf of the everlasttapers gradually towards the stalk.

Verticillate Leaves (Fig. 29).—When more than two leaves Cordate Leaf (Fig. 31).- A leaf, such as the leaf of the lime

ing pea.

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