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n.

merman.

Der Knabe hat sein Buch und da 8 The boy has his book and that The first errors that a pupil will make will be in the arrangeseines Vaters.

of his father.

ment of his subject; he will find them out the second time Die Knaben haben ihre Bälle und The boys have their balls and he looks it over before he begins to draw it. We advise die ihrer Freunde.

those of their friends.

him then only to “faint" them, not to obliterate them; they

are useful by pointing out to him where he is not to draw his VOCABULARY.

line; and they may be considered as beacons on a dangerous Adolph, m. Adolphus. Buchhalter, m. book. Tinte, f. ink.

coast, warning him of the perils he is to avoid. Here is their Amerika'nisch, adj. keeper.

Wann, when.

advantage; when mistakes are totally effaced, it is as likely as American.

Fabel, f. fable. Welcher, which. not that the same errors may be repeated, or, what is equally Bild, picture, Gellert, m. Gellert. Zim'mermann, m. Zim. bad, a fresh fault may be committed by drawing the line in an image. Heinrich, m. Henry.

opposite extreme. It is a common thing to hear those who are Bild'hauer, m. sculp- Rathhaus, n. city-hall, Zoll'einnehmer, m. toll struggling with their difficulties say, " It's all wrong, but where tor. counting-house. gatherer.

I cannot tell.” The work may be all wrong, it is true; but Brief, m. letter. Roʻsenfarben, adj. pink. Zwilling, m. twin. that learners may be the better able to tell where the errors coloured.

are, and how to correct them, it is necessary that teachers RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

should take care to set up guide-posts in the shape of the

rules and principles of the art, so that the safest and most Haben Sie den Gesang' der Nach. Have you ever heard the song direct path may be pointed out, and to put up warnings marked tigall gehört' ?

of the nightingale ?

“ dangerous," by which the inexperienced may be cautioned Ja, sehr oft , aber nie den der Lerche. Yes, very often, but never that when they attempt to pursue what may appear to be shorter of the lark.

ways, but which lead only to discouragement and failure. We Das Licht der Sonne ist nüßlich. The light of the sun is useful. have often heard pupils say, "I have tried to draw this so many Wessen Buch ist dieses ? Whose book is this?

times, and I cannot do it." Of course not; leave off the Welchein von Ihnen gehört dieses To which of you does this book drawing, and try the arrangement first. After what has been Buch?

belong ?

now said we resume our instructions with greater confidence, Welches Buch meinen Sie? Which book do you mean? feeling sure that our pupils, knowing where they are likely to Das neue, große Buch. The new large book.

fall into error, will adhere closely to the course of procedure we Welches ist denn der rechte Name? Which is then the right name? have marked out for them.

We turn now to objects of a uniform character-viz., bottles, EXERCISE 27.

wine-glasses, Vases, etc. We will first consider only their profile 1. Welchen Tisch haben Sie? 2. Ich habe den meine Freundes, des form—that is, the outward line when presented horizontally Tischlers. 3. Welches Papier haben Sie ? 4. Ich habe dag meines before the eye; afterwards we will exhibit them with their Freundes, des Lehrers. 5. Welcher von diesen Knaben bat mane blaue retiring parts. Fig. 45 is a bottle. Draw a b, a perpendicular Tinte? 6. Keiner von ihnen hat Ihre Tinte, aber einer von diesen Knaben line passing through the whole centre from the top to the hat Ihr schönes rosenfarbenes Papier. 7. Welcher von ihnen bat ed? 8. bottom. In drawing objects of this class we advise the pupil Adolph hat es, und Heinrich, Ihr kleiner Vetter, hat Ihren hölzernen Blei- always first to draw this perpendicular line, because from this stift. 9. Welches von meinen Büchern ist in Ihrem Zimmer ? 10. Ihre line each way he may mark in the distances of the several parts Gellert's Fabeln find bort. 11. Welcher von diesen zwei fleinen Anaben ist as they approach or depart from it. The characteristic points Ihr Neffe? 12. Sie sind beide meine Vettern. 13. Sind fie Brüder ? | of the outline are c, d, e, f, g, h, marked on both sides of the 14. Ja, fie find Zwillinge. 15. Welche Ihrer amerikanischen Freunde find central straight line with a corresponding equidistance from it ; in dem Rathhause ? 16. Herr 6. und Herr L. 17. Weslen Buch haben therefore, if these points are carefully arranged with regard to Sie ? 18. Ich habe das Ihres Vetters. 19. Wann hat Herr Zimmer, their distances from each other, and from the centre, there will mann meinen Brief gehabt?' 20. Er hat ihn vorgestern gehabt, und sein be very little difficulty in drawing through them the continued Freund, der Maler, hat ihn gestern gehabt, und ich habe ihn heute. 21. outline which will represent the object. Hat der Lehrer den Sohn des Bäders oder den des Schneiders gelobt? 22. The wine-glass, Fig. 46, is another subject requiring the same Gr hat weder den des Baders, noch den der Schneiders, sondern den des mode of treatment; and the method we have given for drawing Maurert gelobt. 23. Haben Sie die Federn des Kaufmanns, oder die des the bottle will apply here also. Buchhalters ? 24. Ich habe weder die des Kaufmanns, noch die des Buch. The vase, Fig. 47, is another example; the letters are not halters, sondern ich habe die des Zolleinnehmers. 25. Wer lobt den alten repeated here, simply because we wish the pupil to apply the Capitän? 26. Der Hauptmann lebt ihn. 27. Er lobt das ganze Volf. above method of drawing it without our assistance; he will 28. Der Wagen des Franzosen ist groß, und der des Engländers schön. easily recognise the characteristic points and angles for himself. EXERCISE 28.

We propose now to draw these objects with their retiring parts,

and, as they are for the most part circular at their extremities, 1. Which umbrella [Regenschirm] have you? 2. I have that of we must first explain the geometrical method of drawing a circle my brother, the sculptor. 3. When did you buy (kauften Sie] in perspective. Many suppose that a circle in perspective is a this pink-coloured dress ? 4. I bought it yesterday from my true ellipse; such is not the case. If the pupil will examine cousin, the draper (Tuchhändler]. 5. Will [wellen) you give this Fig. 48, he will see that the portion above the central line ik book to this man or that ? 6. I will not give it to either is much smaller than the portion below i k, owing, as we have [Reinem].

before stated, to the diminishing appearance of objects in per

spective. LESSONS IN DRAWING.–VI.

To draw Fig. 48, he must make use of parallel rulers and

compasses. Begin, then, by ruling the plane of the picture, hero BEFORE proceeding with the more practical part of our instruc- represented by a line, because, the plane or surface of the picture tions upon drawing, we wish to offer a few words of advice being always considered in an upright position, the plan of that respecting the advantages of the errors the pupil may frequently plane or surface would be a line. This will be fully explained make, and to persuade him, that although errors must naturally when we enter into geometrical perspective. Draw the line of occur, there is no reason for discouragement, so long as he sight, u L, anywhere above, and parallel to, the plane of the understands them and can feel his way out of his difficulties in picture ; place the point of sight, P s, and draw the line Psob correcting them. All beginners are liable to make many and perpendicularly, or at right angles with the u L and picture great mistakes; but it is not their number that onght to dis- plane; from o, as a centre, draw the semicircle a f bf c; about courage; it is the not seeing them, which in the first place it describe the rectangle a dec; draw o d and o e; and through disheartens the master, and then when pointed out disheartens the points where these last lines cut the semicircle draw h , and the pupil, if he has not the courage and capability to correcth g. From a h oh and c respectively, draw lines to the Ps. and avoid them for the future. In the practice of drawing, Place on each side of P8 on the 1 L two points, D P 1 and D P %. errors, when seen and understood, are quite as valuable as those These are called distance points, and represent the distance of portions of the drawing that are right; we know then as well the eye from the picture plane in this case, also, from the what we ought not to do, as what we ought to do, and it is this object, as the circle touches the pieture plane. From c and a imwledge of right and wrong that keeps us in the true path. draw the diagonal lines a m and ci towards the distance

[graphic]

points, DP1, DP 2. Join lm; mc a will be a square in per- more underneath the eye than the top, he has a more enlarged spective, within which we draw the circle by hand as follows:— The view of the base; through k draw pr, the diameter of the base, point n, where the diagonals l c and a m intersect each other, is equal to the diameter a b of the top, and mark the distance k n, the centre of l m ca (see p. 138); through this centre n draw the which, from its being lower to the eye than the distance o e of line i k parallel to ac. Now observe where the lines from h h cut the upper circle, the sine k n will be somewhat longer. (Now the diagonals in s, 8, 8, s; through these points, and also through here, again, we should like to prove this by another geometrical riok, draw by hand the perspective circle as in the figure. We drawing, but we decline it at present for reasons already stated; recommend the pupil to draw this figure several times, as it re- but the pupil may very easily, for his own satisfaction, draw quires much practice to draw the perspective circle properly. again Fig. 48, placing the u L double the height from the plane

When this difficulty has been overcome, he may try to draw of the picture as therein shown, keeping DP1 and D P 2 the the circle without the geometrical perspective lines, as follows same distance from Ps as before; the result will show him

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6 (see Fig. 49):-First draw a b, according to the required width that, when the circle is placed lower, the eye looks more upon or diameter of circle, say the top of a wine-glass; through o, it.) Proceed with k m and the divisions as before, and draw by the centre of a b, draw the perpendicular cd, mark the point e hand the circle through the points p nr m. There is scarcely from o (if the pupil has a glass before him, let him stretch a anything more difficult for a beginner than the circle, under any piece of thread over the top of the glass to represent a b; he conditions; therefore we earnestly recommend him to practise will then perceive that the distance o e must be regulated ac- it well from the foregoing instructions. Our reason for giving cording to the view the object presents to the eye); make oh the above simple geometrical problem for constructing the perequal to o e, and divide o h into three equal parts, add one of ctive view of a circle is to satisfy the mind of the pupil upon these parts from h to f; then through a e b f draw, by hand, the the proportions and changes of its retiring dimensions, according perspective view of the circle as in the copy. This, we allow, is as it is seen nearer to or further below the level of the eye. an approximation, but sufficiently near for practical purposes. Let him raise the glass until the top is on a level with the eye; To complete the wine-glass, Fig. 50, continue the line of to m the top will then present a straight line ; let him lower it graany length; mark fi for the depth of the glass, and i k for the dually, and he will see that the retiring diameter of the circle length of the stem. If the pupil will place a wine-glass before seems to expand, until, when it is exactly under his eye (loob him on the table, he will notice that the circular base, being down upon it), it then presents the true circle.

noun.

LATIN.

EXGLISH.

LATIX.

ENGLISH.

Gen.
Dat.

Dat.

-ārum
.is
-ås

Voc.

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Dat.
Acc.

Voc.

Abl.

EXERCISE 15.-LATIN-ENGLISH.
LESSONS IN LATIN.-VI.

1. Rana coaxat. 2. Rana sæpe est præda ciconiæ. 3. Ciconia nocet NOUNS, SUBSTANTIVE AND ADJECTIVE. THE FIRST rang. 4. Ciconia devărat ranam. 5. O rana, coaxas. 6. Aqua turDECLENSION.

batur a ranå. 7. Plantæ florent. 8. Terra vestitur copia plantarum. We now pass on to the several declensions. By declension, 9. Procellæ nocent plantis. 10. Terra gignit plantas. 11. O plante,

quam pulchre ornatis terram ! 12. Terra vestitur plantis. you know, is meant the manner of forming the cases of a

On this exercise I must give a few words of explanation. FIRST DECLENSION.

In the sentence Ciconia nocet ranæ, you have the object in the Sim x in the Genitive Singular.

dative case. Generally the object is in the accusative case, but

noceo is one of the verbs which govern their object in the dative CASE-ENDINGS WITH THE ENGLISH SIGNS.

instead of in the accusative case, as will be more fully set forth Singular.

Plural.

hereafter. Cases. Cases.

After the passive verb turbatur, you have the instrument rana Nom. (subject) Nom.

(subject)

with the preposition a; whereas after the passive verb restītur, Gen.

of to or for.

you have copiã without the preposition. The reason is that,

to or for. Acc. -ěm (object)

in Latin, when the instrument is a person or living creature, Acc.

(object) Voc. 0!

0! the preposition a is usual ; but it is not used when, as in the Abl. by, with, or from. Abl.

by, with, or from. second case, the instrument is a thing, that is, something with. Here you may remark that in the singular two case-endings out life. are the same-namely, those of the nominative and the

Vestitur is not given in the vocabulary to this declension, vocative, both being å ; and that in the plural taken with the because it has been given before. Here, as in other instances, singular, four case-endings are the same-namely, in the plural words, the English of which has been previonsly stated, are those of the nominative and the vocative ; in the singular, repeated without the English, in order to secure attention and the genitive and the dative. This undoubtedly is a defect to assist the memory by repetition. in the language. By practice only can you learn in reading

As the English sign of the dative is to or for, so you must to ascertain which, in any particular instance, the writer in use the one or the other as the sense requires. And as the tended; the difficulty, however, is not so great as you might English sign of the ablative is by, with, or from, so must you imagine.

use either by, or with, or from, according as the English idiom EXAMPLE.

requires.
Mensa, æ, 1, fem., a table.

EXERCISE 16.—ENGLISH-LATIN.
Cases.
Singular,

1. The plants flourish. 2. The storm injures the plant. 3. Plants
Cases.
Plural.

are injured by the storm. 4. Frogs are swallowed by the stork. Nom. Mensa, a table. Nom. Mensa, tables,

5. The earth produces plants. 6. Plants are produced by the earth. Gen. Mense, of a table. Gen. Mensarum, of tables.

7. O plants, how beautifully are you produced by the earth! & I Dat. Mensa, to a table.

Mensis, to tables.

praise abundance of water. 9. The storm moves the waters. 10. The Acc. Mensam, a table.

Mensas, tables.
Mensa, 0 table!
Voc. Mensa, 0 tables !

waters are moved by the storm. Abl. Mensá, by a table.

Mensis, by tables.

After having learnt each vocabulary, you will do well to try Mensa is thus seen to consist of two parts. These two parts to ascertain what words in it have representatives in English

. are the stem mens and the case-endings. To the stem mens

These English representatives (denoted by the initials E. R.) add the several case-endings, and you form the several cases.

are words in English derived more or less directly from the Thus, if to mens you join am, you obtain the accusative singular; corresponding Latin words. Thus, from aqua we have E. R. if to mens you add arum, you obtain the genitive plural ; and aquatio ; from copia, we have E. R. copious ; from herba we so on with the rest.

have E. R. herb; from præda we have E. R. prey; from terra Before you proceed further, you should make yourself per

we have E. R. terrene, etc. You will soon acquire skill in disfectly master of the case-endings and the example. Exercise covering the E. R. in all cases, and in the discovery you will yo

elf in giving from memory any case-endings you may gain an aid to memory, as well as an insight into the exact please to require ; also in giving the corresponding English original meaning of many English words. Indeed, you should sign.

never allow a Latin word to pass you without endeavouring Observe that in the example, after the word mensa, æ, stand to ascertain whether it has any E. R., and if any, whether one 1 and fem. Here 1 with a noun denotes the first declension, as

or more, what they are, and what their signification. afterwards 2 with a noun will denote the second declension, 3

Adjectives in the feminine gender are declined like mensa. with a noun the third declension, and so on ; f. or fem. denotes This you see exemplified in the following example :the feminine gender, and intimates that mensa is a noun of the

DECLENSION OF SUBSTANTIVE AND ADJECTIVE. feminine gender. It may appear strange to you that a thing

FIRST DECLENSION, FEMININE GENDER. which in English is of the neuter “gender,” as being without Cases. Singular.

Cases. Plural. sex, should in the Latin be of the feminine gender. So, how- N. Bona puella, a good girl. N. Bono puellæ, good girls. ever, it is. In Latin, one way of determining gender is by the G. Bonæ puellæ, of a good girl. *G. Bonarum puellarum, of good girls. termination. Thus, all nouns ending in a (with an exception D. Bone puella, to a good girl,

D. Bonis puellis, to good girls. which will be pointed out by-and-by), are of the feminine gender. Ac. Bonam puellam, a good girl.

Ac. Bonas puellas, good girls. And as all nouns ending in a are of the first declension, so all Ab. Bonã puella, by a good girl.

Bona puellæ, O good girls ! nouns of the first declension, generally speaking, are of the femi

Ab. Bonis puellis, by good girls. nine gender.

EXERCISE.-After the same manner write out and learn by Decline the following nouns like mensa :

heart-
Alauda, a lark.
Columba, a dore. Puella, a girl.
Alba rosa, a white rose.

, a Aquila, an eagle. Insula, an island. Silva, a wood.

Magna præda, great booty. Quadrata mensa, a square table. OBS.—These nouns should be written out like the example

VOCABULARY. mensa, from memory, distinguishing the case-endings and sub- Ancilla, a maid-servant. Est tibi, thou hast. Mihi, to me. joining the English to each case of each noun.

Augusta, sacred. Magna, great.

Tibi, to thee.
Est mibi, I have.
Mea, my.

Tua, thy.
VOCABULARY.
A (prep.), by.
Gigno, 3, I produco.

OBS.—The Latin word ne is employed in asking a question,

Procella, a storm.
Aqua, trater.
Herba, an herb. Quam (adv.), how !

and is placed after a word and joined to the word it follows ; Ciconin, a stork. Noceo, 2, I injuro. Rana, a frog.

the Latin word an is employed in asking a question, and is Conxo, 1, I croak. Planta, a plant. Sæpe (adv.), often.

placed before a word or sentence; nonne asks a question with abundance.

Præda, prey.

[fully. Terra, the earth. not included, as, nonne vituperas ? dost thou not blame? I devour. Pulchre (adv.), beauti- Turbo, 1, I disturb.

EXERCISE 17.-LATIN-ENGLISH. I the preposition a becomes ab, for the sake of sound, 1. Est mihi pulchra alauda. 2. Estne tibi pulchra alanda ? 3. Mea vel or a silent h.

V.

alauda est pulchra. 4. Estne mea alanda pulchra ?

5. Nonne est

V.

tas alauda pulchra ? 6. Toa columba valde est pulchra. 7. Est mihi Lafeuillade ; but the royage, which took place in 1667, produced bona ancilla. 8. Mea ancilla est pulchra. 9. Julia est augusta. 10. no new discovery. Jalis augusta est pulchra. 11. Estne Julia augusta pulchra ? 12.

The discoveries of the Russians in the north of Asia must be Alanda meæ ancillae est pulchra. 13. Tua mensa non est quadrata. noticed. At the beginning of the seventeenth century they 14. Magna est insula.

knew nothing of the coasts of Siberia beyond the Yenisei. War EXERCISE 18.-ENGLISH-LATIN.

and conquests laid open to the emperors the way to this 1. I have a pigeon. 2. Thou hast a good girl. 3. Hast thou a good immense region. In the space of less than a century, the whole girl? 4. I have not a good girl. 5. Thy lark is beautiful. 6. Is not of Northern Asia, from the frontiers of China to the Frozen the island great ? 7. The island is not great. 8. Hast thou a good Ocean, was brought under the dominion of Russia. Geography maid-servant? 9. I have not a good maid-servant. 10. The lark of

was benefited by this annexation, which gave to the Russians the girl (the girl's lark) is beautiful.

new facilities for performing useful explorations in these inIn dea, a goddess, and filia, a daughter, the dative and the hospitable countries. In 1728 Behring made the important ablative end in abus, instead of is; thus, deabus, to or by the discovery of the strait which separates Asia from America, and goddesses ; filiabus, to or by the daughters. This change is made rendered the peopling of the New World no longer a question of in order to distinguish the dative and the ablative cases of these difficulty or doubt. feminine nouns from the same cases of the corresponding mas- The northern circumpolar regions had not been the theatre culine nouns, namely, deus, a god; which has deis or diis, in of any important expedition, from that of Baffin, above menthe dative and ablative; and filius, a son, which has filiis. tioned, until the middle of the eighteenth century. The era of

Nouns of the first declension which denote male beings are scientific expeditions was now begun. Geography, so long of the masculine gender (denoted by m). This fact remains a retarded in her progress to perfection, proceeded with a sure fact, though the termination of those nouns should happen to and rapid step. This was the most brilliant period of the be feminine. Thus, nauta, a sailor, is masculine, though its history of navigation from the time of the great discoveries of termination is the same as that of mensa, a table, and puella, the sixteenth century. It was particularly remarkable for the a girl. Masculine nouns of the first declension are declined positive character of its results. Bougainville, who had gained like feminine nouns of the first declension. Observe, however, renown in the wars of Canada, anticipated that which he gained that they take their adjectives in the masculine ; that is, the as a navigator, by an expedition to the Malouine or Falkland adjectives agree not in form but in sense with these masculine Islands, where he went to found a French colony in 1764. The zoans of the first declension, as in the following example :- circumnavigation of the world by Commodore Byron, also begun

in the same year, produced very important results; and so did DECLENSION OF SUBSTANTIVE AND ADJECTIVE.

the voyages of Wallis and Carteret, in clearing up some FIRST DECLENSION-MASCULINE GENDER.

practical questions relating to the geography of Oceania. CarSingular.

Plural.

teret, in particular, determined the geographical positions X. Bonus nauti, a good scilor. N. Boni nautæ, good sailors. (sailors. (that is, the latitudes and longitudes) of several islands in the G. Boni nauta, of a good sailor. G. Bonorum nautarum, of good direction of New Britain ; his vessel having been the first D. Bono nauta, to a good sailor. D. Bonis nautis, to good sailors. English man-of-war which had touched at the island of Celebes. Ac. Bonum nautam, a good sailor. Ac. Bonos nautas, good sailors.

Three years after his first voyage, in 1767, Bougainville underV. Bone nauta, O good sailor! Boni nautæ, O good sailors!

took his grand expedition to circumnavigate the globe. After a Ab. Bono nauta, by a good sailor. Ab. Bonis nautis, by good sailors,

short stay in the river La Plata, he was detained in the Strait EXERCISE.—Write out after the same manner and learn by of Magellan no less than fifty-two days. He then entered the heart

South Pacific Ocean, or South Sea, as it was then called, and Bonus agriešla, a good husbandman. | Magnus Nerva, great Nerva. discovered the islands of Pomotou, which he called the DanMalus pirata, a bad pirate.

Trepidus auriga, a timid charioteer. gerous Archipelago. He then entered the chief port of Tahiti, VOCABULARY.

or Otaheite ; and his transactions with the inhabitants of New

Cythera were not only pacific but amicable. He next visited Ad, to. Jugurtha, Jugurtha, an Per, through,

the Samoa or Navigator's Islands, touched at Papua or New Anriga, -e, m., a cha- African prince. Perfúga, -e, m., a doLaudo, 1, I praise.

Guinea, discovered to the east of it an assemblage of islands

serter. Equa, -æ, c mare. Magnopere, greatly. Poeta, -æ, m., a poet,

which he called the Louisiade Archipelago, several of the Equito, 1, I ride. Navigo, 1, I sail. Silva, -, a wood. Admiralty Isles, and another called by his own name near SoloErro, 1, I rander, I err. Patria, -e, one's native Tristitia, -e, sadness. mon Isles. In the same direction he discovered several other

country, fatherland. Umbra, -e, a shade. islands of less importance, which had been seen by other navi. EXERCISE 19.-LATIN-ENGLISH.

gators; and having visited New Ireland, discovered by Carteret,

he arrived at Batavia; whence he sailed to Europe by the Cape 1. Pérfuga Jugurthæ est mihi. 2. Malus perfuga est tibi. Poetam bonum laudo.

of Good Hope. This expedition was well received in France and 4. Bonus poeta laudatur. 5. Equa laudatur ab pariga. 6. Nautæ ad insulam navigant. 7. Boni nautæ patriam in Europe ; it had made several important discoveries, and had landant. 8. Aquila a poetis sæpe laudatur. 9. Agricolæ magnopere

been marked with interesting episodes which were related with delectantur plantis. 10. Erras, 0 nauta! 11. Nonne erratis, aurige? spirit and talent; and created a still greater desire for circum12. Tristítia poetarum bonorum est mihi. 13. Umbras silvarum mag. navigating expeditions. nopere amo. 14. Agricolæ per silvam equitant.

The greatest navigator of modern times is acknowledged to EXERCISE 20.- ENGLISH-LATIN.

be Captain James Cook. His first voyage to the Pacific had

for its grand objeet the observation of the transit of Venus, that 1. Hast thou a deserter ? 2. Is the deserter bad ?

3. Good poets is, the passage of this planet in its orbit over the disc of the are praised. 4. I praise good poets. 5. Good husbandmen praise (their) native country. 6. The native country of good poets is

sun, a phenomenon alike important in astronomy, navigation, praised. 7. The pirate rides through the wood. 8. The sailor sails and geography. Having received his promotion from the rank to the island. 9. The mare of the good charioteer is good.

of master in the Royal Navy to that of lieutenant, he was put in command of the Endeavour, a small ship of 370 tons, in which

he left: England in August, 1768. After touching at Rio de LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY.-VI.

Janeiro, he proceeded to the Strait of Lemaire, in order to double DISCOVERIES OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY.

Cape Horn. Tierra del Fuego did not present to him such a

dreadful aspect as it did to Wallis; the naturalists of the IN 1700 Dampier, at this time celebrated for his buccaneer expedition, Sir Joseph Banks and his friend Dr. Solander, a (piratical) expeditions, discovered some new islands contiguous Swedish gentleman, & pupil of the eminent botanist Linnæus, to New Guinea, or Papua. Wood Rogers sailed round the collected there some plants and animals. One of their excurworld in three years and three months; and encouraged by his sions, however, nearly proved fatal to them. Having ascended successful expedition, the maritime powers proceeded to attempt a mountain whose vegetable products they wished to examine, similar enterprises, hitherto considered as extremely dangerous. they were overtaken by the shades of evening and the coldness Towards the end of the preceding century, France had also of a severe frost. Dr. Solander was on the point of perishe made expeditions into the Southern Ocean. Her first vessel under its influence, when the wise importunity, or rather which appeared in the Pacific Ocean was commanded by one nacity, of his companions saved his life, by hindering'

noteer.

3.

giving way to sleep, the forerunner of death. Having spent expedition proceeded directly southward; but in latitude 670 several hours in great distress, and having witnessed two of 13' S. it met with rocks which appeared to be impassable. No their servants sink under its power, the imprudent explorers attempt was made to get beyond this obstacle, and the expediwith much difficulty reached the coast. After this delay in the tion returned northward to the nearest cape, under the con. Strait of Magellan, Cook stood out for Tahiti, where the astro- viction that if any southern continent existed, it could only be nomical observations entrusted to the care of the expedition at a very great distance, and quite in the vicinity of the south were to be made.

pole. The two vessels, which were separated from each other The natives of Tahiti welcomed this expedition in the same among the ice, proceeded to New Zealand, where they again met. way as they had done that under Bougainville, in a hospitable After useless explorations to the east of this island, as far as and agreeable manner. During their three months' residence in the 16th parallel of latitude, Captain Cook made for the this island, Cook and his learned companions made an ample Society Islands, where he remained until the health of the expecollection of specimens of its natural history, and of observations dition was recruited. on the manners and customs of its natives. They then visited A second attempt to discover the southern continent soon several other islands of the Tahitian group, and gave to the brought the expedition to latitude 71° S., but here again the whole archipelago the name of the Society Islands. They passage to the south was blocked up by ice, and it was obliged explored New Zealand, and found the natives the very opposite to return northwards. In a new exploration of the seas of of the Tahitians in their disposition, both hostile and cruel. Oceania, Captain Cook re-disoovered Easter Island, which comThey discovered that this country, supposed to have been a modoro Byron, Carteret, and Bongainville had searched for in single island, consisted of two separate islands divided by a vain; he also discovered some now islands belonging to the

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strait, which now bears the name of Cook; but they durst not | Marquesas group, returned to Tahiti, and ro-visited Tongataboo examine the interior of the country, as it would have been too and the Friendly Islands, where he discovered Savage Island, dangerous to have ventured into the midst of a race of cannibals, and Batoa or Turtle Island, belonging to the group of the whose savage habits were very soon observed by the expedition. Feejee Islands ; ho then re-established several points of New Cook left the shores of New Zealand on the 31st of March, 1770, Guinea, and discovered Tanna, Erromango, and several other and in twenty days afterwards beheld

those of New Holland, or islands of the group called the New Hebrides, as well as New Australia, where he discovered Botany Bay, an inlet on which Caledonia and Norfolk Island. The point of departure for a third stands Sydney, the metropolis of our Australian colonies, and exploration of the Antarctic or Southern Seas was New Zealand. one of the most important of our colonial settlements. Pro- Captain Cook endeavoured to reach the south pole in a more ceeding northward, he was nearly shipwrecked in latitude 16° s. easterly direction than formerly. Having arrived at latitude by the

vessel striking on a coral rock. The Endeavour was pro- 55° 48' s., he sailed towards Cape Horn, and continued his videntially saved, and enabled to reach a small harbour where route towards the east. In this route he discovered the island she was repaired, and put into a condition to resume her home of South Georgia, to the east of Tierra del Fuego ; and south. ward voyage, which she completed without meeting any further east of the former a group of islands which he called Sandwich disaster.

Land. Here he terminated his voyage toward the southern The second voyage of Captain Cook, undertaken in July, 1772, circumpolar regions. He had circumnavigated the globe in high had for its object the discovery of that great southern land southern latitudes, and had demonstrated that no southern con. which had been for ages supposed by navigators and geographers tinent existed in the

immense zone which he had explored. The to exist in the southern part of the

Great Pacific Ocean, and hypothesis of its existence was thrown many degrees nearer the which Abel Tasman fancied he had seen when he landed on south pole ; and the illusion of this problematic continent, so New Zealand. Two vessels called the Resolution and the richly endowed by nature, was dissipated for ever! Adventure were put under the command of Captain Cook. The In this remarkable expedition Captain Cook was absent from

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