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LESSONS IN FRENCH.-XI.

I steinste which has the musal sounds

PDA sie die and does not date from its Ezpie SECTION 1-FRENCH PROST'SCIATION Detta".

1V. NAME AND SOUND OF THE CONSONANTS 6. I, 1-2 tss eest soods in the inne 58. P, p:-When initial, and in the body of words, pissa

Ihas

fre aferent sounds, Dzes, izsually rounded; and then it has the sound Engine

I basical the toowing words: When final, it is generally silent Esceptions a best be found out by consulting a French dictionary. 59. Q, q.-Q is pronomced like the Engüish t.

Lautan 60. R, r.-The sound of this letter is somet peer. having a rolling or jazring sound, produced by beatize the tip

2 Engisa itas is, the following wariscf the tongue against the roof of the most sear the enez front teeth. It is never sounded in the French ais kurs and monsieur.

Its sound in other respects is that of Englisár. It is a dropped. or nearly so, in the body ci a zsitas espeasy =

Toot the last syllable, in common costersstion, ases:

Letus

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But in solemn and dignified reading a reaking it is E- bere a scosces: bas se sei , as in the is sounded very distinctly (when at a, tber: 3 sci gez eza

61. S, s.-S has two distiret souds, wick sze deterse 3 Liebe Ezis the scoring words:by its position, riz:—the sharp, biasing soods in the Enziish wcris disserer and kiss, ael the soft soud of si tie

Grat English word nie, equivalent to the Esssh lette . It has

To cappede the sharp and hissing sound benere it is in, It has the sift sound wheneve it soeurs between tro rovels.

India namely:

BE PESCE. Pasts.

FePeosts. ESINE Baptiser Ba-te-zay Ty beytus. Desubeur Day-z-bay. I. d.ey.

4. Lite E s. - ? ** voeds. be alone. Best Bah-zay 1. కాంది ,

be precis sobre a vorelai sute: Choisir Sh'wab-zeer Is egen Muun Mag-zoek A hom. Disordre Daz-zerd: Dsoria.

Say-zeer

Sur
There are, however, a fes exeptions to the above rales

Soinusta
Sveis

Suts
final, before abouter ucci commencing with a towel or h Eate,
has the sound of the Ergizah z, and is cuenected with the f. 3*. 3. Like Engüss in the iscriza sezis-
ing word in pronunciati...ss if it were its first letter, namely:- !

PESTIS.S.

ESSIGE

Dennene Deb-sum
Apris avoir disé as it posted Aprzy zatoiz Esé.
Dis à mon frère de recer

Dazs son trere de recir.
Disse

Tonth
Pas excusable

Pa seseosalis. Vues are

Τα ειτει.

Ii:sis est in mary soris, exceps proper names Vras étouaez.

Voa zetumnes.

I.3, stes carried to be sent word in pronunciation bas
8 frl, and other circumstances, is tenally cat, namely:- the sound of Ezgësh , zaras-
PRosts. ESGLISZ.
PLES PRST.

As bones as pristel Azz hommes.
Advertise · Legs
Lay Locy.

Doa et

Dons et
J. et

Jaion et
Dai
Bemorda E DOE

Voix en

You en
Dr.Ters De-Tag
Tamis

66. Z, Z.-Z is usually som ledie English s. Jaer, zes Zhshk

Tbomas fo-mah Tina.
Judas

Z final, before a word commercing with a consonant, is set
Zazda
Judas,

Isu.

z jinsh, before a word commencing with a rowe, este In a few words s final is sounded Refer to the dictionary for carried to the next word in precanciation, as if it were it is

letter, namely 62. T, t.-T, when initial, o in the body of a word, is

Essayez en as if pantes Essare-zen issually pronounced like Engscht. Sometimes, however, both

Laissez un

Laisse-zun. in the body and in the last fiable of words, it has the sotrd

Songez à

Soage-zi, ete. of English s in the word ur, names:

SECTION XIV.-LIST OP WORDS FOR EXERCISES IN FEEXCL. PostSCUTAS. ENGLISH

COMPOSITION 1881cised. Cautia

Castion. Dément

Democraci.

17. OUTILS.—TOOLS. Inepto Ekpene 'int syll, short) Frly.

Alène, 1., ovl.

Fusil, m., yur. Inertie Baarten (Arst silshorti Iractivity.

Balance, 1, scale.

Hache, 1., cze. Miantie

Beche, f., ypade.

Hameçon, m., Ashkook.
Patience Pare-aaha

Patience.
Brosse, f., brush.

Herse, L, harrou.
Primatie Pro-ma-see

Primacy.
Brouette, 1., thatbarron.

Hove, 1., hoe
Prophétie Pro-fay-use

Prophecy.
Cachet, m., sal

Ligne, 1., line.
Batiste Bataytay

Satiety.
Carabine, 1., rije.

Lime, 1., file.
Charrue, 1., plough.

Meule, f., grindstone.
In a few other words, the t in the last syllable of tie and tier Chevalet, mn.,

Pelle, 1., shovel. has the common sound of English t. Refer to the French dic-Cire, f., sez.

Piace, f., croubar. tionary for their pronunciation.

Cognée, 1., hatche.

Pincean, m., brush, pencer T final is usually silent, and is seldom carried to the next Colle, 1.

, glue.

Poulie, f., pulloy. word in pronunciation.

Compas, m., compasses.

Rabot, m., plane. 63. V, 1.-In all situations, t has the sound of English v. Echafaudage, m., scaffolding. Rouleau, m., roller. 64. W, W.-W is not properly a French letter. It is not

Echelle, 1., ladder.

Sablière, f., sandbox.
Enciame, f., areil.

Scie, f., sav. found in the French alphabet, though it is sometimes used in

Etan, m., vice.

Serrure, lock. foreign words, names of persons, places, and things. When Faucille, L., sickle.

Tenailles, pl., piroers. thus used it has the sound of English v. The proper name Faux, L., scythe.

Truelle, 1., trondi Newton, however, is printed in French Neuton; and, with the Fléan, z., Aail.

Vis, 1., screw,

Voo

1

18. MINÉRAUX ET MÉTAUX, ETC.-MINERALS AND

VOCABULARY.
METALS, ETC.
Acheter, to buy. Faire, to make

Mars, m., March.
Fer-blanc, m.,
Acier, m., steel,

Champ, m., field. Fatigué, -e, tired, woary. Ne-rien, nothing. tinned iron, Fil d'archal, m.,

Danser, to dance. Aimant, m., loadstone, magnet,

Journal, m., newspaper. Page, f., page. iron wire,

De bonne heure, early. Juillet, m., July. Parler, to speak.
Ainin, m., brass.
Fil de laiton, m., brass wire.

Dormir, to sleep. Juin, m., June.
Marbre, m., marble.
Alun, m., alum.

Seize, sixteen.
Ecrire, to write.
Lire, to read,

Travailler, to work,
Antimoine, m., antimony.
Mercure, m., quicksilver,
Envie, f., wish, desire. Marcher, to walk.

labour. Argent, m., silver.

Or, m., gold.
Arsenic, m., arsenic,
Platine, 20., i latinum.

EXERCISE 35.
Bronze, m., bronse.
Plomb, m., lead.

1. Votre belle-mère a-t-elle quelque chose à faire ? 2. Elle Chans, f., lime. Soufre, m., sullur,

n'a rien à faire. 3. A-t-elle deux pages à écrire ? 4. Non, *: Chie, f., chalk.

Similor, m., pichbeck. in Caivre, m., copper, Vif-argent, m., quicksilver.

Monsieur, elle n'en a qu’une. 5. Avez-vous l'intention de lire Etsin, mn., tin, Vermeil, m., silver-gilt.

ce journal ? 6. Oui, Madame, j'ai l'intention de le lire. 7. Ter, n., iron. Zinc, m., zino.

Avez-vous raison d'acheter un habit de velours ? 8. J'ai raison

d'en acheter un. 9. Votre petite fille a-t-elle besoin de dormir ? 19. PIERRES PRÉCIEUSES.-PRECIOUS STONES.

10. Oui, Monsieur, elle a besoin de dormir, elle est fatiguée. 11. Agate, f., agale. Jaspe, m., jasper.

Avez-vous peur de tomber? 12. Je n'ai pas peur de tomber. Améthyste, f., amethyst. Onyx, m., onyx.

13. Le jardinier a-t-il le temps de travailler dans les champs ? Comil, m., coral. Perle, f., pearl.

14. Il n'a pas envie de travailler dans les champs. 15. Vos Cormaline, ., cornelian, Rubis, m., ruby.

champs sont-ils aussi grands que les miens ? 16. Ils sont plus Diamant, m., diamond. Sanguine, f., bloodstone.

grands que les vôtres. 17. Avez-vous honte de marcher ? 18. Emeraude, f., emerald. Saphir, m., sapphire.

Je n'ai pas honte de marcher, mais j'ai honte de danser. 19. Escarboncle, f., carbuncle. Topaze, f., topaz.

Quel âge a votre fils ? 20. Il a seize ans. 21. Avons-nous le Grenat, m., garnet. Turquoise, f., turquoise.

deux Mars ou le cinq Juin ? 22. Nous avons le vingt-huit

Juillet. 23. Est-il midi ? 24. Non, Monsieur, il n'est pas SECTION XX.-THE FOUR CONJUGATIONS OF VERBS.

encore midi, il n'est que onze heures et demie. 25. Il est encore 1. The four classes, or conjugations, into which the French de bonne heure. Terbs are divided, are distinguished by the endings of the

EXERCISE 36. present of the infinitive [S 44]. The first conjugation ends in er, as chanter, to sing; donner, to give; parler, to speak; cher- to write. 3. Does he want to work? 4. Yes, Sir, he wants to

1. What has your brother-in-law to do? 2. He has letters cher, to seek. The second conjugation ends in ir, as chérir, to cherish; punir, work. 5. Does he intend to read my book ? 6. He does not to punish; munir, to provide with; finir, to finish.

intend to read your book, he has no time. 7. Is your sister The termination of the infinitive of the regular verbs of the ashamed to walk? 8. My sister is not ashamed to walk, but third conjugation is evoir, as, devoir, to owe; recevoir, to receive; to say? 10. My cousin has nothing to say, she is afraid to

my brother is ashamed to dance. 9. Has your cousin anything that of the irregular verb is oir, as, valoir, to be worth.

The fourth conjugation ends in re, as rendre, to render; fendre, speak. 11. Is it late? 12. No, Madam, it is not late, it is to split; tendre, to stretch; vendre, to sell.

carly. 13. Have you a wish to read my sister's letter (f.)? 14. avoir and être), or by a preposition (other than en), is put in dress (f.)? 17. Yes, Sir, she is right to buy one. 2. A verb preceded by another verb (other than the auxiliaries Have you the courage to go to the war? 15. I have not the

16. Is your sister right to buy a silk

18. Does that the present of the infinitive :

child want to sleep? 19. No, Sir, that child does not want to Il va travailler ou lire,

He is going to work or to read. sleep, he is not tired. 20. Has your brother's gardener a wish to 3. In French, verbs are often connected with others by pre- mine. 22. How old is that child ? 23. That child is ten years

work in my garden ? 21. He has a wish to work in (dans) positions not answering literally to those which accompany the same verbs in English. They also often come together without old. 24. What is the day of the month ? 25. It is the ninth of prepositions. The student will find, in $ 129, and the following walk, but I am tired. 28. Have you time to read my brother's

March. 26. Are you afraid to walk? 27. I am not afraid to Bections of Part II. of these Lessons, lists of verbs, with the book'? 29. I have time to read his book. 30. Has the joiner a prepositions which they require after them.

4. The following idioms are followed by the preposition de wish to speak?. 31. He has a wish to work and to read. 32. when they come before a verb [$ 132] :

Is your son afraid of falling ? 33. He is not afraid of falling,

but he is afraid of working. 34. What o'clock is it ? 35. It Aroir besoin, to want.

Avoir le temps, to have time, or is twelve.
Avoir coutume, to be accustomed. leisure.
Avoir dessein, to intend, to design. Avoir peur, to be afraid.
Avoir envie, to have a wish, a desire. Avoir raison, to be right,

OUR HOLIDAY.
Aroir honte, to be ashamed. Avoir regret, to regret.

IV.-GYMNASTICS.
Avoir intention, or l'intention, to Avoir tort, to be wrong.
Avoir sujet, to have reason.

HORIZONTAL BAR.
Avoir le courage, to hate courage. Avoir soin, to take care.

This contrivance, which is also called the “Rack," is one of the 5. The following are examples of the use of the preposition most useful within the range of gymnastic appliances. It is after the above idioms :

also one of the most simple in its character, consisting of two Cet enfant a besoin de dormir,

stout upright posts, firmly embedded in the ground, and crossed That child wants to sleep. Vous avez honte de courir,

by a movable round bar, about two inches in diameter. The You are ashamed of running.

posts should be about seven feet high, and drilled with holes RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

commencing at a distance of three feet from the ground, and Avez-vous quelque chose à dire ? Have you anything to say?

continuing to the top. These holes are for the ready insertion Je n'ai rien à dire. I have nothing to say.

of the bar at any desired height from the ground. For security Votre seur n'a-t-elle rien à écrire? Has your sister nothing to write ?

in its position, each end of the bar should be provided with a Elle a deus lettres à écrire. She has two letters to write.

cap, screwed on or otherwise fixed after it is placed in the A-t-elle le temps de les écrire ? Has she time to write them?

uprights. Elle n'a pas dessein de les écrire. She does not design to write them. 1. The exercises upon the bar are commenced from the position Elle n'a pas l'intention de les écrire. She does not intend to write them. shown in our illustration (Fig. 13). From this position a variety Elle n'a pas envie de les écrire. She has no desire to write them. Arez-vous peur de danser ?

of simple movements may be practised, all tending to assist Are you afraid to dance Je n'ai pas honte de danser. I am not ashamed to dance.

the development of the muscular powers. Thus, the body Votre cousin a raison de sortir. Your cousin is right to go out.

may first be gently swung to and fro; then the hands may N stez-vous pas soin d'écrire ? Do you not take care to write 1

be used in travelling from end to end of the bar; and next the Arez-vous le courage d'aller à la Have you the courage to go to the body may be raised by the arms until the bar is below the guerre?

level of the head. Free movements of the legs are also de

intand.

THE

war ?

sirable—kicking forwards, backwards, or in a straddling posi- and the knee between the hands. This is a convenient position tion; raising the knees and then extending the legs down. for a variety of movements—swinging, twirling, etc. ward, and so on. The position of the hands may be changed, 7. From the position just described release the left hand, the bar being held with the grasp reversed, or the arms holding firmly on with right arm and leg, and pass the left leg crossed while the same movements are practised. And the over; then bring up the left hand. The position will then be learner should include the hanging by either hand alternately sideways, both hands and both legs over the bar, and the knees among these elementary exercises, to which it is necessary between the hands. From this you may easily rise to the sitting to be perfectly accustomed before attempting the higher rack position on the bar, sinking again and again, until you have movements.

practised the movement sufficiently. The position taken by the body in Fig. 13 is called hanging 8. From the sitting posture, perform twirls both backward sideways. To hang crossways the gymnast must, in start and forward; for the backward twirl grasping the bar in the ing, turn his back to one of the supports, and grasp the bar ordinary manner, with the knuckles forward; and for the for. either hand over hand, or one hand before the other, while he ward twirl, holding it with the grasp reversed. has the length of the bar in front of him. This distinction 9. When both legs are over the bar, as described in No. 7, between sideways and crossways it will be necessary to bear release the hold of the hands, first one and then the other, in mind. While hanging crossways, practise such of the and hang by the hocks, with the head downwards. Recover movements previously mentioned as are suited to the altered from this position by a swing to and fro, to give an position.

impetus, grasping the bar as the body 2. When familiar with the preliminary

rises. This exercise should only be at exercises, the learner will proceed to the

tempted by the learner who has attained more difficult, commencing with the rising

some degree of proficiency in the foreand sinking movement, and practi it

going movements, and has become familiar until he is sufficiently expert to be able

with this form of “practice at the bar" to bring the body above the bar, and to

generally. rest upon the hands while the bar is level

10. The lever exercises upon the bar are with the thighs. This is called rising into

accomplished in the following manner :the rest, or resting position. A jerk and

Grasping the bar firmly, with the hands in a spring of the legs will at first be re

the position known as the drop-rest, and quired in the progress upward, and it will

throwing all the weight upon the arms, be facilitated by pausing in an intermediato

gradually raise the body until it extends position, known as the drop rest. This is

in an horizontal position above the bar. reached when the bar is level with the pit

You may then move the body from side of the stomach, the arms being bent upward,

to side, as upon a pivot, but being careready for the completion of the rise. Or

ful to keep the legs close together and fully the rest may be attained by the help of a

extended. swinging movement, first backwards and

11. After the learner can perform the last forwards two or three times, and then taking

exerciso, resting upon both arms, he may advantage of the next backward motion to

attempt it with one arm only, the other being spring upwards towards the resting posi

stretched forward on the same level as the tion. The rise may also be practised with

rest of the body. These exercises will try the bar behind the gymnast, but this is &

the wrists, but may be safely attempted by more difficult feat.

Fig. 13,

the learner who has gone through the pre3. Circling the bar skould be performed

liminary movements. with the bar at the height of the chest or

12. It is an easy matter to descend from shoulders. It consists, as will probably be

the positions last described to that known understood from the name, in turning a sum

as lying upon the bar. In this the stomach mersault completely over the bar, and is not

alone must rest upon the bar, the body being difficult when the swinging and rising move

properly balanced and fully extended, some ments have been well practised. Grasping

what as if in the act of swimming. But the bar firmly, the gymnast starts from the

lying with the back upon the bar is much ground with a spring, throws the legs up

more difficult, and it is well not to attempt wards, and, bending the arms, turns over

this feat unless, as in a properly-conducted by the impetus which the spring and the

gymnasium, some one or two persons are by throw give to the body. He may next turn

to prevent your falling in case of failure. from the swinging position, without touching

But, with caution, there is very little hazard the ground, and should practise both the

Fig. 14,

of injury, and in practising movements of forward and the backward circle.

this kind for the first time it is well 4. The circling movement is defined by the dotted line in to have the bar fixed at a moderate height only from the our next illustration (Fig. 14), which also shows one method of ground. practising the next series of exercises, namely, hanging by the Very expert gymnasts—more expert than our readers are arms. The gymnast may hang either by the armpits, as in the likely to desire to be, or, perhaps, than it is advisable they cut, or by the elbow joints; but in the latter case he will lack the should become-are able, from the last-named positions, to necessary purchase for the performance of such feats as the twirl a summersault, alighting easily upon the feet. But no izsecircle. He should, however, practise each method, in order to ful end can be served by the practice of hazardons experiments strengthen all the muscles of the arm alike.

of this kind, and therefore we wish to be understood as in no 5. At present, in holding the bar we have exercised the arms way recommending them to our readers, although we include exclusively. But the legs also may be employed for this pur- them in the list of feats, the accomplishment of which may pose. Commence by hanging crossways with the hands, then occasionally be witnessed. swing one leg over the bar, so that it is held firmly in the hock. We have now described the principal varieties of the exercises If it is intended to place the right leg over the bar, the right on the horizontal bar; but, to the learner who is partial to hand should be held foremost, and vice versa. After one leg has practice with this contrivance-and it is a general favouritebeen hooked on, the hands may be brought nearer together, and many other movements will suggest themselves. the other leg placed over the bar. Travel, then, along the bar are simple in character are frequently the

best, for, in increasing from end to end.

the difficulty of performance, there is not necessarily a propor6. Hang crossways with the right hand in front, and bring tionate advantage in physical development and the accession over the right leg; then advance the left hand nearer to the of bodily strength. right, and remove the right hand to the other side of the leg. We come 'next to the Parallel Bars, reserying these exercises The position is then sideways to the bar, with one leg over it, I for another paper.

Those which

HISTORIC SKETCHES.- VI.

were made to silence him, but he spoke on and spoke out,

and, strong in the protection of John of Gaunt, the Duke of WILLIAM SAUTRÉ, HERETIC.

Lancaster, brother to the Black Prince, and uncle to King NEARLY five hundred years have elapsed since the subject of Richard II., managed to weather the several storms which his the following sketch presented itself, but the interest which it opinions brought upon him. He was arraigned more than once excited, and the principles which it brought into notice, can before spiritual tribunals, and many of his opinions were denever die. We are all interested very deeply in the matter of clared to be erroneous, and many more were condemned as freedom of conscience, freedom to worship God in the way heretical, by an assembly of Church magnates. Ecclesiastical suggested by the light He has given us; and we can never afford censures, however, were the only weapons with which the to lose sight of the principle then vindicated, even to the death, spiritual courts could enforce their decrees, and Wycliffe was that it is not competent to a ruler to visit with the punishment suffered to die a natural death at his rectory of Lutterworth, of a crime, a man whose sole offence consists in differing from in Leicestershire, whither he retired after a life of unceasing his brethren on points of spiritual belief. The first occasion on toil and labour in aid of what he deemed to be the truth.

[graphic][merged small][merged small]

Which this principle was vindicated in England was in 1401, After the death of Wycliffe, the spirit which had animated and the man who was the first martyr to the cause of free con- him passed into the breasts of his disciples, "the poor science in England was William Santré, a harmless, inoffensive preachers,” who went about with the English Bible (a new and man, the rector or curate of St. Osith's Church, London. forbidden article) in their hands, and preached so convincingly

William Sautré was one of a numerous body who had been and cheeringly that, as was seen in the ministry of our Lord, stirred to the very bottom of their hearts by the teaching “ the common people heard them gladly.” The attention of the of John Wycliffe, or Wickliffe, and his followers. Wycliffe had Church authorities was soon drawn to them, and letters called tanght with as much boldness as ability —his enemies said with bulls (on account of the bullæ, or lead seals, which were attached more—that certain doctrines inculcated by the clergy of the to them) were sent from the Court of Rome, addressed to the day were erroneons, and contrary to the teac gs of our Lord Archbishop of Canterbury and the Engl bishops, to the and his apostles; he tanght that the Bible was the only University of Oxford, and to the king, commanding them each standard by which men might measure the truth or falsity of and all to help in suppressing the heretics, and in uprooting their creeds; and he denounced in emphatic and somewhat the tares (the Latin word for tare is lolium, from which the rough language, the vices and corruptions which had infected nickname " Lollard” was afterwards derived and affixed to the the dergy, especially the clergy in monasteries. Upon these reformers), which, while men slept, the enemy had sown in the topics Wycliffe preached with considerable effect at Oxford, garden of the Lord. where he was a professor, and in many other places. Attempts Edward III., who died in 1377, was not the king to busy

12

VOL. I.

himself overmuch in such matters, unless the reformers in at the danger of standing firm that they recanted and renounced religion proved themselves to be reformers in the State also ; their belief rather than go to the stake. Let no man mock but to Richard, his grandson, these exhortations of the Pope them for their weakness, but rather pity them, as men who appeared in the light of a duty. Richard agreed to a law which might excusably fear lest they should be doing wrong in departwas passed through a Parliament of which the Upper Chamber ing from the faith as delivered to them and as taught by the was at that time far more powerful than the Lower, and was existing Church, which was presumed to have the Holy Ghost composed of more spiritual than lay peers, by which it was for its guide, and as men-many of them fathers and husbands ordered that preachers of heresy should be apprehended and —who feared to wrench asunder the ties which bound them to imprisoned“ till they will justify them according to the law and this world, who looked in their children's faces, and who listened reason of Holy Church." No other punishment of a penal to the entreaty of their wives, and then failed to pronounce the nature was permitted during this reign (1377-1399); but when words which would make the children fatherless and the wires Henry IV. in 1399 usurped the throne, and wanted the support widows. Others there were, cast in another mould, who be of the clergy to back his bad title, he consented, as the price of their nature could not accept life as the price of their creed, their assistance, to a law called the Statute of Heresy, which was who looked upon the offer with scorn, and asked if that were intended to crush out effectually the troublesome Wycliffites, all they were to have in exchange for their souls. Equally who had increased in numbers and audacity during the late enthusiastic with their persecutors, though in another direction, king's reign, and were leading many out of the fold of the they made this matter “very stuff o' the conscience,” and resoCatholic Church. The Wycliffites no more wanted to go lutely refused to abjure. Not among the physically strong only out of the Catholic Church than John Wesley wanted to go were those men found; indeed, the delicate and sensitive, and out of the Church of England; but the Catholic Church said the men with highly strung nerves, were the boldest and most to them as the Church of England in effect said to him, courageous professors of their faith. Such esteemed the claims “ Holding opinions such as these, you are not of us, and we of wife and child, of kindred and friends, as merely so maus will have nothing to do with you while you continue to hold temptations, strong temptations no doubt, which must be overthem."

come, and they pointed for their justification to the words of Had the Catholic Church stopped there, no one could have the Saviour, where He declared that the man who loved wife and complained. Perfect liberty of conscience requires that men children and friends more than Him, was not worthy of Him, shall be free to choose what tenets they will embrace and and they clung exultingly to the assurance, “ There is no man what reject, but it forbids them to go further and say to those that hath left house, or parents, or brethren, or wife, or children, who differ from them: “ Think and believe as we do, for if you for the kingdom of God's sake, who shall not receive manifold will not we will burn and hang you.” The Church of the day more in this present time, and in the world to come life ever. would not act upon the advice given by Gamaliel to the Jews, lasting." who wished to persecute the apostles: it could not bear the Of this class was William Sautré, priest of St. Osith's. It is idea that any one should presume to differ from what almost all not told us if he was a married man (the rule by which celibacy Christendom accepted as true. Believing firmly that acceptance was the appointed lot of the clergy was not yet of universs! of all that the Church taught, and in the system of government application) --indeed, the chroniclers of the time speak very little which the Church had established, was the only way to salva- about him and his case, one of them, Thomas Walsingham, tion, she was grieved beyond measure at the sight of her chil- monk of St. Alban's, merely mentioning that “a certain false dren going astray, and deemed any means, however violent, to priest was burnt in Smithfield in the sight of many people.” be more than justified by the laudable end of bringing back the But married or not, he seems to have been a very good and wanderers. She hoped to make such an example as would honest man, bold to speak and preach the truth, according to deter fresh truants, and she hoped even for the offenders that his vision of it, in his parish church of St. Osith, Wood Street, God would accept the sufferings she inflicted upon them as an in the City of London. His character, as far as we know it, cu atonement for the sins they had committed against Him, sup can judge of it from his behaviour before his judges and at his posing Him to be represented by the Pope and the Roman execution, would seem to have been not unlike that of the poor Church.

parson of a town," of whom Chaucer wrote in 1380. How easily does fanaticism of any kind cheat itself into

“To draw folk to heaven by fairnesse, the belief that its cause is God's cause, and that to perse

By good ensample was his business. cute its own opponents is to do God service. The Church accordingly procured from the king in the year 1400 his assent

A better priest I trow there nowhere none is. to a law passed by a Parliament constituted as above described,

He waited after no pomp ne reverence, by which persons who refused to renounce their so-called errors,

Ne maked him a spiced conscience, or relapsing after they had so renounced them, were to be given

But Christ's lore and His aposties twelve over by the spiritual authorities to the sheriff, who " the same

He taught, and first he followed it himself." persons after such sentence promulgate shall receive, and them His opinions, however, openly expressed, were in direct oppobefore the people in an high place see to be burned, that such sition to what the Church authorities permitted, and were in punishment might strike fear into the minds of others, whereby strict accordance with the teaching of Wycliffe. He was cited no such wicked doctrine, and heretical and erroneous opinions, to appear before his bishop, the Bishop of London, and was nor their authors, nor fautors (an old English word meaning ordered to renounce his error; but this proceeding provin, favourers) in this realm and dominions against the Catholic ineffectual, and his preaching continuing to attract many, he faith, Christ's law, and determination of Holy Church be sus- was summoned before the Convocation of the province of Cantained or in any wise suffered."

terbury, and put upon his trial for heresy, as in a court of This infamous and dreadful law was the price paid by Henry justice. for the support of the clergy, and the clergy, as has been sug. Earnestly the charge was pressed, and boldly was it met, till gested, believed they were only doing a meritorious thing when argument for the defence

was answered with invective by the they procured the king's signature to the act. For awhile the prosecution, and the prisoner stood loaded with obloquy. This new power remained like a sword in its sheath ; the clergy were however, was not hard for a man like Sautré to bear; the most almost afraid to handle the new weapon, till taking it out and difficult and trying part for him, the real temptation, lay in the looking at it with curious and admiring eyes, they perceived entreaties

of his friends-and they were many and the friendly that they themselves were not called upon to do any of the prayers even of his judges, that he would be converted and live. dirty work. They were merely to find guilty or not guilty; upon But even against such mighty levers the man's mind was proof

. the sheriff devolved the invidious task of execution. So they " Whether it be right in the sight of God to hearken unto you grow bolder, and the year following that in which the act was more than unto God, judge ye,” was the answer he gave baek, passed, the Convocation of the province of Canterbury-an and nothing could persuade him but that he spoke by the inspiassembly of which all the bishops and abbots were members, ration of God. and in which the inferior clergy appeared by their representa- Faithful as his friends called him, obstinate heretic as his tives— determined to draw the sword against those who dis- enemies called him, William Sautré was ready to die, if need sented from their religious opinions.

were, for his religion. Horrible to relate, that sacrifice was Some persons who were brought before them were so terrified / required of him. The men who were supposed to represent to

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