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nigen?

Wer hat meinen Stoc? 6. Herr S. hat ihn. 7. Hat meine Schwester 2. Welcher (relative) usually adopts the genitive of the sub. Ihren Regenschirm? 8. Nein, sie hat den ihrigen. 9. Sat ter Schlosser stantive pronoun der ($ 65. 1. 2.). meinen Schlüssel? 10. Nein, er hat den seinigen. 11. Hat die Wasch, The genitive of Welcher is only used interrogatively in the frau die Hemden meines Bruders und meiner Freunde? 12. Sie hat masculine and neuter singular, and is Wessen, whose, of whom, sowohl die seinigen, als die ihrigen. 13. Alle Menschen haben ihre Fehler or which. und Eigenheiten—ich habe die meinigen, Sie haben die Ihrigen und er hat

DECLENSION OF THE RELATIVE welcher. die seinigen 14. Gott ist allmächtig; die Schidsale des Menschen sind in

Singular.

Plural. seiner Hand, auch das meinige und das beinige. 15. Das Weltmeer ist

Masc.
Fem. Neut.

Al genders. zwischen mir und den Meinigen. 16. Hat Herr A. Ihr Papier oder das meinige? 17. Er hat das seinige. 18. Mein Pruter hat mein Buch und

N. Welcher,

welche, welches, welche, who, which, that. ich habe das seinige. 19. Hat er Ihre Oblaten und Stempel oder die sei

G. Dessen, deren, tessen, , teren, whose, of whom, etc. 20. Er hat die meinigen. 21. Wessen Wagen hat Ihr guter

D. Welchem, welcher, welchem, welchen, to whom, etc. Freund, Herr V.? 22. Er hat den seines Oheims. 23. Und wessen Pferde A. Welchen, welche, welches, welche, whom, which, that. hat er? 24. Er hat die meinigen. 25. Wessen Kutscher hat er? 26. Er Examples of welcher (interrogative and relative) and rerjenige. hat den seinigen. 27. Wessen Schafe sind diese auf der Wiese ? 28. Sic sind die unsrigen.

Which man is sick ? 29. Haben diese Deutschen ihre Pferde und ihre Wagen, welcher Mann ist frant ? oder die unsrigen? 30. Sie haben sie unsrigen. 31. Welsen Bücher haben Derjenige, welcher im Hause ist. The one who is in the house. riese Schüler ? 32. Sie haben die ihrigen. 33. Nehmen Sie immer das Welche Feder haben Sie ?

Which pen have you ? Ihrige? 34. Ja, Jedermann nimmt das Seine. 35. Wann haben Sie Ich habe diejenige, welche Sie gehabt I have the one that you have

baben.

had. tie Zhrigen gesehen? 36. Ich habe sie vorgestern gesehen. 37. Haben

Whose book have you ? Sie mich und die Meinigen gestern Abend in dem Concert gesehen? Defsen Buch haben Sie ? 38. Ja, ich ḥabe Sie und die Ihrigen geschen. 39. Der Feltherr lobte die Ich babe bas des Mannes, dessen I have that of the man whose

Stod Sie haben. Seinigen.

stick you have. EXERCISE 30.

Welchen Knaben haben Sie das Geld To which boys have you given gegeben ?

the money ? 1. The coachman of [des] Count (Grafen] B. has my spectacles, Ich habe es denjenigen gegeben, I have given it to those to whom but not yours. 2.' The daughters (Töchter] of the infirm (tranfen)

welchen Sie Brod gaben.

you have given bread. general are more proud [stolzer) than mine. 3. I have lost (verloren] my letter-stamp (Brief-Stempel], but here is yours and his.

3. For both derjenige and the relative welcher the pronoun 4. To whom [wem] belong [gehören] these beautiful meadows ? ber may be substituted, as :--Der Mann der trant ist; the man Are they yours ? 5. No, they are not (the) mine ; they are the that (who) is sick. Welches Buch haben Sie? which book have [tag] property [Gigenthum) of my friend, the coachman. 6. Have you ? Ich habe dag (basjenige), dao (welches) Sie gehabt haben ; I yon his key or mine ? 7. I have neither his nor my own, but have that (the one) that (which) you have had. that of [denjenigen] my wife. 8. They discovered [entdecten] the Der, when substituted for derjenige, is in the genitive plural thief (Dieb] by [an] the [bem] shirt which (welches) he wore (trug), derer (instead of beren), as :-Hart ist das Schicksal derer (terjeni. and which was not his own. 9. When [wann) did you see your gen), die sich nicht ernähren können ; hard is the fate of those who friends ? 10. I have not seen them since last (seit jüngstem) sum. cannot support themselves. mer. 11. He loves too (3u] much (sehr] his (property). 12. The use of derjenige often corresponds to that of our perHave you seen me and mine, and Henry and his, last night sonal pronoun, as well in the singular as in the plural, as :[gestern Abend] between seven and eight o'clock (Uhr), in the [ber] Derjenige, den Sie suchen, ist nicht hier ; he that (whom) you seek is avenue [Adlce] ?

not here. Diejenigen, die Sie suchen, sind nicht hier ; they (those) SECTION XXI.--RELATIVE PRONOUNS.

whom you seek are not here.

VOCABULARY. In compound sentences, connected by a relative, the verb stands at the end of the last clause, as well when the relative is Amtmann, m. magis- Hülflos, helpless. Scheune, f. shed, barn. in the nominative, as when in an oblique case, as :- Das Buche Arbeiter

, m. labourer, Kaufen, to buy. trate.

· Rapel'le, f. chapel. Stirn, f. forehead. welches ich habe ; the book which I have. Das Buch welches hier ist ;

Verlassen, forsaken, the book that here is (is here). In componnd tenses the main Gin'fietler, m. hermit. Leßt, last.

workman.

Las'terhaft, vicious. left. verb immediately precedes the auxiliary, as :--Das Buch welches

Weinberg,* mn. vine

yard. ich gehabt habe; the book that I had have (have had). Das Buch Friede, m. peace, tran- lohn, m. reward.

quillity. welches ich haben werbe; the book that I have shall (shall have).

Narbe, f. scar.

Wohnhaus, n. dwell. The same position of the verb is required when the second of

Herz, n. heart. Dheim, uncle.

ing. two connected clauses is introduced by a conjunction or an adverb,

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. as :-Ich kaufte es, weil es wohlfeil ist; I bought it, because it is Wir lieben Dicʻjenigen, die (welche) We love those, who (that) love cheap. Er wohnt noch, wo er gewohnt hat; he still resides where he

uns lieben. has resided. Gr fommt, wenn er nicht frank ist ; he will come, if he Ich habe ten Hut, ten ich gestern I have the hat, that I (have) is not sick (he comes, if he is not sick).

gehabt habe.

had yesterday. 1. Derjenige (that or the one) always points to something Sie haben die Aepfel, die reif sind, You have the apples that are specified by a relative in a succeeding clause. It is compounded und ich habe die'jenigen, die grûn ripe, and I have those that of the substantive pronoun der, die, daß, and jener with change find.

are green. of termination. It is frequently used instead of der, die, or tag Der'jenige, den ich suche, ist nicht hier. He whom I seek is not here. for the sake of greater emphasis, as :-Gr liebt nur tasjenige Der'jenige, dessen Stöd ich habe, ist He whose stick I have is sick. (instead of bad), was (Sect. LXIX. 2) er achtet ; he loves only that frank. which he esteems.

Die'jenige, zu ter rie Mutter geht, She to whom the mother is Derjenige is inflected like der meinige (Sect. XX.), that is, ift franf.

going is sick. its first component is declined like the definite article, and its Die-jenigen, tie stolz sind, find auch They (or those) that are proud, last like an adjective of the new declension.

närrisch

are likewise foolish. DECLENSION OF berjenige, SINGULAR AND PLURAL.

EXERCISE 31.
Singular.

1. Welthet kind liebt der Oheim? 2. fr liebt taljenige, weldd et Masculine. Feminine. Neuter.

lobt. 3. Welches Kind liebt ten Oheim ? 4. Dasjenige, welches et liebt,

liebt ihn. 5. Welchen Hut haben Sie? N. Derjenige,

6. Ich habe denjenigen, welchen diejenige, daøienige, that (the one).

3hr Herr (Sect. XVI. 5) Vruter gehabt hat. 7. Welchen Anaben licht 8. Desjenigen, terjenigen, tesjenigen, of that.

der Vater ? 8. Er liebt denjenigen, welchen die Mutter lobt. 9. Welcher D. Demjenigen, terjenigen, temjenigen, to that.

Knabe liebt tie Mutter ? 10. Derjenige, welchen ter Vater lobt. 11. A. Denjenigen, diejenige,

tasjenige, that. Plural, all genders.

Literally, “Wine-mountain ;" so called because most vineyards N. Diejenigen, those.

D. Tenjenigen, to those. in Germany are upon hills or smaller monntains; the sunny sides of O. Derjenigen, of those.

A Diejenigen, those. these being much more favourable to the growth of the vine.

us.

Weloei Pferd hat Ihr Bruder gekauft? 12. Er hat dasjenige gekauft, [wessen] key have you? 3. I have that of the woman whose talhes Sie gestern gehabt haben (Sect. XVII. 8). 13. Welchen Mann (Deren) daughter you know (tennen). 4. I shall give [geben] this Isben Sic? 14. Ich lobe denjenigen, dessen Sohn Sie lieben. 15. Welche [dieses] book to that (man) who will be first [zuerst] here. 5. Bücher haben Sie gekauft? 16. Ich habe diejenigen gekauft, welche mein Have you soen my book ? 6. No, I have not seen the one which Bruder in ten (Sect. XVI. 3) Händen gehabt hat. 17. Weisen Bücher you mention Cerwähnen]. 7. The joy (Freude] which I shall have. Haben Sie? 18. Id habe die Bücher derjenigen Knaben, deren Hüte Sie | 8. I came, because I had promised [versprochen] it to him. haben. 19. Diejenigen, welche lafterhaft sind, haben keinen Frieden bes' (Translate in the following order :-" Because I it to him proHerzens. 20. Derjenige, welcher die Narbe an der Stirne hat, ist der alte mised had.") 9. Where (wo) do you live (wohnen] ? 10. I live Amtmann. 21. Dasjenige ist gut, was ($ 65. 5.) nüßlich ist. 22. Dicle in the same house in which I lived when you called [befuchten] Männer sind dieselben, deren Scheunen, Ställe und Wohnhäuser Sie gestern upon me. 11. Which of these ladies [Damen] is your wife ? geichen baben. 23. Der Arbeiter in dem Weinberge degjenigen, welcher den 12. The one who is talking [spricht] with the old gentleman leßten lohn gibt, sind wenige. 24. Der Einsiedler jener Kapelle ist ein (Herrn). 13. The friend whom I have lost was very dear [theuer] Freund derer (Sect. XXI. 3), die hülflos und verlassen sind. 25. Der to me. 14. I have bought (gekauft] that coat [Rod] which you (Sect. XXI. 3) ist wcise, ter tugendhaft ift.

saw [sahen] in the window (Fenster] of my tailor (Schneiters]. 15. EXERCISE 32.

Remember me (Empfehlen Sie] to that gentleman who is so very 1. The friend whom I have is faithful (treu]. 2. Whose polite [höflich].

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LESSONS IN PENMANSHIP.-XII.

reader's notice. In our copy-slips up to the present lesson,

letters commencing with the top-turn have always been begun IN Copy-slip No. 40 the learner will see how the letter o is from the central line that, in all cases when we have found it joined to any letter that follows it, namely, by carrying a hair- necessary to designate it by letters, has been marked c c, but stroke to the right from the point a little above the central line, when they follow the letter o it is manifestly impracticable to in which point the letter is completed, and a junction effected commence them at or on this line, and the connecting hair-stroke between the hair-strokes with which the letter is commenced must be carried to the right and turned with a graceful curvo and ended. The position of this point is shown in Copy-slip into the hair-stroke of the top-turn about midway between cc No. 35 by the letter 2, a little above the line c c, to the right of and the line immediately above it, which we have always marked the letter o. There are different modes of beginning the hair- a a in copy-slips to which small italic letters have been appended stroke by which the letter o is joined to the letter that comes for the sake of explanation. This will be found to be the caso after it. Sometimes a dot like a period or full-stop is made whenever letters beginning with the top-turn are joined to letters at that part of the right side of the letter from which the such as b, f, o, r, s, w, and v, which do not end in a bottomhair-stroke turns off towards the next letter; sometimes the turn or top-and-bottom-turn, or anything resembling in formapen is turned round to form a small curved line, open in tion the lower portions of these turns. the centre, like the line which is called the circumference of The learner may now begin to test his recollection of the a circle, or resembling in general appearance the outline of a forms of the letters he has hitherto been copying from our comma placed thus, e; while in some cases the hair-line is copy-slips, by selecting words from the POPULAR EDUCATOR, carried on from the letter o without any dot or curved line into whose composition those letters only enter with which he whatever.

has already been made acquainted. There are some that he The hair-stroke that is used to connect the letter o with any may select even from the lesson that is now before him, such as letter that follows it, influences in some measure the commencé top, not, that, dot, and, etc.; although they are not many ment of the formation of letters that begin with the top-turn in number, they are amply sufficient to test his skill in copying or top-and-bottom-turn, such as m and n, and some other words in type, without having the writing alphabet before letters as V and y, which have not yet been brought under the his eyes.

V.-COMPOUND VOWELS.

Shall say.

man.

LESSONS IN FRENCH.-XII.

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

Avez-vous besoin d'argent ? Do you want money? SECTION I.-FRENCH PRONUNCIATION (continued).

J'ai besoin d'argent.

I want money.
Je n'en ai pas besoin. (R. 3.)

I do not want any.
En avez-vous besoin ?

Do you want any ? 67. THERE are seven compound vowels, whose different sounds we

J'en ai besoin, et mon frère en a I want some, and my brother wants now proceed to illustrate, viz. :-ai, au, eau, ei, eu, oi, ou.

besoin aussi.

some too. AI.-Name, ay; sound, like the letters ay in the English Avez-vous besoin de votre frère. Do you want your brother. word day.

J'ai besoin de lui.*

I want him.
FRENCH. PROXUN.
LISX. FRENCH. ProxUX. ENGLISH. De quoi avez-vous besoin ?

What do you want ?
Ai
Ay

Have. Connais Ko-nay Knov. J'ai besoin d'un dictionnaire. I want a dictionary.
Aimer Ay-may To love. Dirai De-ray

Avez-vous soin de votre livre ? Do you take care of your book ? Aurait O-ray Would have. Fait Fay Fact. J'en ai soin.

I take care of it.

Avez-vous soin de votre père ? Do you take care of your father ? When the last letter i of the compound vowel ai is under the J'ai soin de lui

I take care of him. circumflex accent, thus, ai, the character of its sound is not Votre frère est-il fâché contre moi? Is your brother angry with me ? materially changed from that illustrated above; it is merely 11 est faché contre votre seur. He is angry with your sister, prolonged.

Avez-vous peur de ce chien ? Are you afraid of this dog ? AU.-Name, o; sound, like the letter o in the English J'en ai peur.

I am afraid of him. word no.

De qui avez-vous honte ?

Of whom are you ashamed ? Je n'ai honte de personne.

I am ashamed of nobody. FRENCH. PRONUN. ENGLISH, FRENCH. PRONUN. ENGLISH

Avez-vous besoin de quelque chose? Do you want anything? Auprès O-proi Near, Gauche Gosho Left hand. Je n'ai besoin de rien.

I want nothing. Aussi O-see

Also.

Pauvre Povr' (long o). Poer. Faute Fote Fault. Rauque Roke

Hoarse.

VOCABULARY. Fraude Frode Fraud,

| Sant So

Jump.

Besoin, m., want, need. Faché, -e, sorry, angry. Lire, to read, EAU.-Name, 0; sound, like the letter o in the English Conduite, t., conduct. Fatigué, -e,

weary, Parler, to speak. word no.

Domestique,m.,servant. tired.

Reposer, to rest. FRENCH, PRONUX. ENGLISH. FRENCH. PRONUN. ENGLISH. Effets, m. pl., things, Garçon, boy.

Soin, m., care. Bateau Ba-to Boat, Gateau Gah-to Cake.

clothes.

Jeune homme, young Travailler, to work. Chapeau Shap-po Hat, Nouveau Noo-vo Nem. Etonné, -e, astonished. I

Vieux, old. Beau Bo

Fino. Organeau Or-gan-no Iron ring.
Cadeau Kad do Gift. Troupeau Troo-po Herd.

EXERCISE 37.
Eau
0
Wator.

1. Qui a besoin de pain? 2. Personne n'en a besoin. 3. EI.-Name, ay; sound, like the letters ay in the English N'avez-vous pas besoin de votre domestique ? 4. Oni, Monsieur, word day.

j'ai besoin de lui.* 5. Votre jardinier a-t-il soin de votre jardin? FRENCH. PRONUN. ENGLISX. FRENCH. PRONUN. ENGLISH

6. Oui, Madame, il en a soin. 7. A-t-il bien soin de son vieux Cheik Shayk Sheik, Reine Rayn Queen.

père ? 8. Oui, Monsieur, il a bien soin de lui. 9. Votre garçon Eider Ay-dair Eider duck. Seine Sayn Drag-net. a-t-il honte de sa conduite ? 10. Oui, Monsieur, il en a honte. Meistre Maystr Mainmast, Sereine S'rayn Placid.

11. Avez-vous peur de ce cheval-ci ou de celui-là ? 12. Je n'ai Neige Nayzh Snowo. Treize Trayz Thirteen.

peur ni de celui-ci ni de celui-là. 13. Notre domestique a-t-il Peine Payn Pain.

Veine Vayn

Vein of marble. soin de vos effets 14. Il en a bien soin. 15. Avez-vous peur When e and i stand together, and the e is accented thus, ti, de parler ou de lire ? 16. Je n'ai peur ni de parler ni de lire. they are no longer a compound vowel, but each letter has its 17. Êtes-vous étonné de cette affaire ? 18. Je n'en suis pas own distinct vowel sound.

étonné. 19. En êtes-vous fåché? 20. Oui, Monsieur, j'en suis bien fåché. 21. Avez-vous besoin de ce garçon ?

22. Oui, SECTION XXI.-IDIOMS FOLLOWED BY THE PREPOSITION Madame, j'ai besoin de lui. 23. N'avez-vous pas besoin de son DE.

livre ? 1. The expressions avoir besoin, to want; avoir soin, to take travailler on de lire ? 26. Je n'ai envie ni de travailler ni de

24. Je n'en ai pas besoin. 25. Avez-vous envie de care; avoir honte, to be ashamed; avoir peur, to be afraid, re

lire, j'ai envie de me reposer, car je suis fatigué.
quire also the preposition de before a noun. These idioms
mean literally to have need, to have care, etc. :-

EXERCISE 38.
Avez-vous besoin de votre frère ? Do you want your brother ?
J'ai soin de mes effets,
I take care of my things.

1. Do you want your servant? 2. Yes, Sir, I want him. 3. Il a honte de sa conduite, He is ashamed of his conduct.

Does your brother-in-law want you ? 4. He wants me and my Elle a peur du chien, She is afraid of the dog.

brother. 5. Does he not want money? 6. He does not want 2. As these expressions require the preposition de before their money, he has enough. 7. Is your brother sorry for his conduct? object, they will, of course, require the same preposition before 9. Does he take good (bien) care of his books? 10. He takes

8. He is very sorry for his conduct, and very angry with you. the pronoun representing that object :

good care of them. 11. How many volumes has he? 12. Ho J'ai besoin de vous, I want you.

has more than you, he has more than twenty. 13. What does J'ai soin de lui, I take care of him.

the young man want? 14. He wants his clothes. 15. Do you De qui avez-vous besoin ? Whom do you want ?

want to rest (vous reposer)? 16. Is not your brother astonished De quoi a-t-elle besoin ? What does she want?

at this ? 17. He is astonished at it. 18. Have you a wish to 3. When the object is not a person, and has been mentioned read your brother's books ? 19. I have a wish to read them, before, the pronoun en takes the place of the preposition de, and but I have no time. 20. Have you time to work? 21. I have that of the pronoun representing the object :

time to work, but I have no time to read. 22. Does the younger Avez-vous besoin de votre cheval? Do you want your horse ?

brother take care of his things ? 23. He takes good care of J'en ai besoin, I want it.

them. 24. Is that little boy afraid of the dog? 25. He is not 4. The expressions être fâché, to be sorry; être étonné, to be afraid of the dog, he is afraid of the horse. 26. Do you want astonished; être content, to be satisfied, require the preposition bread? 27. I do not want any. 28. Are you pleased with de before a noun or pronoun (S 88] :

your brother's conduct ? 29. I am pleased with it. 30. Has Je suis faché de son malheur, I am sorry for his misfortune.

your brother a wish to read my book? 31. He has no desire to Je suis étonné de sa conduite. I am astonished at his conduct.

read your book, he is weary. 32. Is that young man angry Je suis content de lui, I am pleased with him.

with you or with his friends ? 33. He is angry neither with me 5. Être fâché, in the sense of to be angry, requires the pre- nor with his friends. 34. Do you want my dictionary ? 35. I position contre :

want your dictionary and your brother's. Vous êtes faché contre moi, You are angry with me.

The word en should be avoided as much as possible in relation to 6. For rules on the government of adjectives, soe § 87, and persons. following sections.

| Repeat the preposition de.

-8.

-es

aperç -ois

-e

perç -oit

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conc-evons

port

-ez

owe

un

SECTION XXII.-STEMS AND TERMINATIONS OF THE N'aimez-vous pas les enfans atten. Do you not like attentive children? REGULAR VERBS.-PRESENT INDICATIVE.

tifs ? 1. If the ending or distinguishing characteristic of the conju. Ne recevez-vous pas beaucoup de Do you not receive many letters ?

Je les aime beaucoup.

I like them much. gation of a verb, in the present of the infinitive, be removed, the

lettres ? part remaining will be the stem of the verb:

Nous en recevons beaucoup. We receive many letters.
Chant-er Fin-ir
Rec-evoir Rend-re.

Vendez-vous beaucoup de marchan- 'Do you sell many goods ?

dises ? 2. To that stem are added, in the different simple tenses of a

Nous en vendons beaucoup.

We sell many. regular verb, the terminations proper to the conjugation to

Votre frère aime le beuf et le Your brother likes beof and mutton. which it belongs (S 60).

mouton, 3. PARTICIPLE PRESENT.

VOCABULARY. Chant-ant Fin-issant Rec-evant Rend-ant.

OBS.-We shall hereafter put a hyphen between the stem and the terminaSinging Finishing Receiving Rondering.

tion of the verbs placed in the vocabularies. The number indicates the 4. PARTICIPLE PAST.

conjugation. Chant-é Fin-i

Non
Rec-11
Rend-u.
Aim-er, 1, to love, to Donn-er, 1, to give.

seulement, not Singing Finished Received Rendered,

like, to be fond of. Fin-ir, 2, to finish. only. Autre, other.

Fourn-ir, 2, to furnish. Lecture, f., reading. 5. TERMINATION OF THE PRESENT OF THE INDICATIVE.

Assez, enough.

Gard-er, 1, to keep. Paille, f., strau. SINGULAR,

Chapeau, m., hat. Guère, but little. Perd-re, 4, to lose. 1. Je chant -e

fin -is
rec -ois rend

Chér-ir, 2, to cherish. Habits, m. pl., clothes, Port-er, l, to carry,
sing
finish
receive
Tender, Cherch-er, 1, to seek, to garments.

urear.
Tu
parl
chér .is

vend -S.
look for.
Mais, but.

Rec-evoir, 3, to receive. speakest cherishest perceivest sellest. Compagnon, m., com- Maison, f., house. Souvent, often. 3. 11 doan fourn -it

tend
panion.

Marchand, m., mer. Toujours, always.
gives
furnishes gathers

tends.
Dame, f., lady.

chant, [goods. Travail, m., labour.

De bonne heure, early. Marchandises, f. pl., Trouv-er, 1, to find. PLURAL.

De-voir, 3, to ouo. Neveu, m., nepher. Vend-re, 4, to soll. 1 Xous cherch-ons pun .issons

entend-ons.
seek
punish
conceive

EXERCISE 39.

hear. Tous

sais -issez d

-evez perd -ez. 1. Votre mère aime-t-elle la lecture? (Sect. XXII. 11.) 2. carry seizo

lose,

Oui, Mademoiselle, elle l'aime beaucoup plus que sa sœur. 3. Ns aim -ent issent déç -oivent

mord -ent. Quel chapeau votre neveu porte-t-il ? 4. Il porte un chapeau loce, like unite deceive bite,

de soie, et je porte un chapeau de paille. 5. Cette dame aime-t6. The present of the indicative has but one form in French, elle ses enfants ? 6. Oui, Monsieur, elle les chérit. 7. Fourtherefore je chante may be rendered in English by I sing, I do nissez-vous des marchandises à ces marchands ? 8. Je fournis sing, or I am singing.

des marchandises à ces marchands, et ils me donnent de l'argent. 7. The plural of the present of the indicative may be formed 9. Vos compagnons aiment-ils les beaux habits ? (Sect. XXII. from the participle present by changing ant into ons, ez, en. 11.) 10. Nos compagnons aiment les beaux habits et les bons Ex: Chantant, nous chantons; finissant, nous finissons ; rece- livres. 11. Cherchez-vous mon frère ? 12. Oui, Monsieur, je tant, nous recevons; rendant, nous rendons.

le cherche, mais je ne le trouve pas. 13. Votre frère perd-il son 8. This rule holds good not only in all the regular, but in temps. 14. Il perd son temps et son argent. 15. Perdons-nous almost all the irregular verbs.

toujours notre temps ? 16. Nous le perdons très souvent. 17. 9. Verbs may be conjugated interrogatively in French (except Devez-vous beaucoup d'argent ? 18. J'en dois assez, mais je in the first person singular of the present of the indicative)[$ 98 | n'en dois pas beaucoup. 19. Vendez-vous vos deux maisons à (1) (5)], by placing the pronoun after the verb in all the simple notre médecin ? 20. Je n'en vends qu'une, je garde l'autre tenses, and between the auxiliary and the participle in the com- pour ma belle-sœur. 21. Recevez-vous de l'argent aujourd'hui ? pound tenses.

22. Nous n'en recevons guère. 23. Votre menuisier finit-il son Chantez-vous bien ? Do you sing well ?

travail de bonne heure ? 24. Il le finit tard. 25. A quelle Avez-vous bien chanté ? Have you sung well ?

heure le finit-il ? 26. Il le finit à midi et demi. 27. Nous J'avez-vous pas bien chanté ? Have you not sung well ?

finissons le nôtre à dix heures moins vingt minutes, (Sect. V. 2.)

EXERCISE 40.
Se chantez-vous pas bien ?

Do you not sing well.
Votre père parle-t-il bien ? (Sect. Does your father speak well ?

1. Does your companion like reading ? 2. My companion II. 6, Sect. IV. 4.

does not like reading. 3. Does your father like good books ? 10. The verb porter means to carry. It means also to wear, 5. Do you owe more than twenty dollars ? 6. I only owe ten,

(Sect. XXII. 11.) 4. He likes good books and good clothes.* in speaking of garments. Apporter means to bring, and emporter but my brother owes more than fifteen. 7. Are you wrong to to carry away; aimer means to love, to like, to be fond of, and finish your work early? 8. I am right to finish mine early, and takes the preposition d before another verb.

you are wrong not to (de ne pas) finish yours. 9. Do you Quel habit portez-vous ? What coat do you weær ?

receive much money to-day? 10. I receive but little. 11. Do Je porte un habit de drap r. I wear a coat of black cloth.

we give our best books to that little child ? 12. We do not Votre frère qu'apporte-t-il ? (Sect. What does your brother bring ?

give them, we keep them because (parceque) we want them. Il apporte de l'argent à son ami. He brings money to his friend.

13. Do you sell your two horses ? 14. We do not sell our two

horses, we keep one of them. 15. Do you finish your work this 11. A noun used in a general sense [8 77 (1)] takes the article morning (matin)? 16. Yes, Sir, I finish it this morning early. le, la, l', or les.

17. Does your brother-in-law like fine clothes ? 18. Yes, Madam, Aimez-vous le boeuf ou le mouton ? Do you like beef or mutton ?

he likes fine clothes. 19. Do you seek my nephew ? 20. Yes, Je n'aime ni le bæuf ni le mouton. I liko neither beef nor mutton. Sir, we seek him. 21. Does he lose his time? 22. He loses RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

not only his time, but he loses his money. 23. How much

money has he lost to-day? 24. He has lost more than ten Chantez-vous une chanson ita- Do you sing an Italian song ?

dollars. 25. Does your joiner finish your house ? 26. He lienne ?

finishes my house and my brother's. 27. Do you sell good Nous chantons des chantons alle. We sing German songs. inandes.

hats ? 28. We sell silk hats, and silk hats are good. (Sect. Partez-vous ce livre à l'homme ?

XXII. 11.) 29. How old is your companion ? 30. He is twelve Do you carry this book to the man ? Non, je le porte à mon frère. No, I carry it to my brother.

years old, and his sister is fifteen. 31. Does your brother Emportez-vous tont votre argent? Do you carry away all your money ?

II. 6.)

like meat ? 32. He likes meat and bread. 33. Do you receive J'en emporto seulement une partie. I carry away only a part of it.

your goods at two o'clock ? 34. We receive them at half after L'inissez-vous votre leçon aujour. Do you finish your lesson to-day?

twelve. 35. We receive them ten minutes before one. Tous la finiasons ce matin, We finish it this morning.

* Repeat the article.

dhai?

LESSONS IN BOTANY.-VI.

Botanists denominate an enlarged and flattened petiole of SECTION IX.-ORGANS WHICH LOOK LIKE LEAVES, BUT

this kind by the term phyllodium, a word derived from the Greek

qualov (pronounced ful-lon), a leaf, and eidos (i-dos), form, and WHICH ARE NOT LEAVES.

which therefore means having the form or semblance of a leaf. We already discovered, at a very early period in our investiga- One example more of a portion of a plant resembling a leaf, tions, that Nature plays some strange tricks in the construction but which is not a leaf, and we have done. It might have been of plants, causing one thing to look like another, as though for mentioned whilst we were treating of the cactus, to the condition the express purpose of deceiving us. We discovered that of which the phenomenon about to be mentioned is similar. neither pine-apples, nor strawberries, nor figs, were fruit. We Perhaps the student has occasionally seen growing in the hedges shall now discover that certain things which appear like leaves the shrub called the butcher's-broom, ruscus aculeatus. Like are not leaves.

the cactus, this plant seems to present the curious appearance What would the reader think as regards many of the cactus of flowers springing from the surface of a leaf. Flowers, howtribe? Would he not think these curious plants were all leaves? | ever, never grow in that position. The part resembling a leaf

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The fact is, they are totally without leaves, the leaf-like portions is no leaf at all, but only a fattened stem. The accompanying being merely flattened stems. What would he think, again, of diagram (Fig. 53) represents a sprig of butcher's-broom, in those two little leaf-like expansions recognisable in the pansy, of which this peculiar conformation is very evident. which we give a drawing (Fig. 52)? These are not leaves, but SECTION X-METAMORPHOSES OR CHANGES TO WHICH certain leaf-like appendages which botanists denominate stipules.

LEAVES ARE SUBJECT. Hence the real leaf of the pansy is said to be stipulate or stipu. Just as certain parts of vegetables not leaves may assume the lated; and the reason why we did not represent the pansy leaf general appearance of leaves, so, on the other hand, leaves occaamongst the other leaves a short time back was, because the sionally lose their own specific appearance, and look like things term stipulate had not been explained. The word stipule is they are not. derived from the Latin stipula, the husk round straw, because For example, who at first glance would think that the prickles the stipules stand out from the stem of the real leaf in much on common furze were leaves ? Nevertheless, they are; the the same manner as the leaves of wheat or barley spring from ordinary flat leaf-like appearance being lost. the stalk at intervals in pairs.

Again, many of those tendrils which shoot from slender plants, Occasionally the petiole, or leaf-stalk, itself becomes expanded enabling them to lay hold of neighbouring objects and derive into a loaf-like form, and the real leaves are stunted. This support, are nothing more than modified leaves. This is the peculiarity characterises many of the acacias which grow in case with the plant sathyrus aphaca, a representation of which Australia. The appended diagram (Fig. 54) will render the we give above (Fig. 55). peculiar condition more evident.

The student is not, however, to imagine that all tendrils are

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