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green hat.


Ils sont quelque part.

They are somewhere.

Ils ne sont nulle part.

They are nowhere.


Est-ce que je demeure chez vous? Do I live at your house ?
Anh-ploah or plah

Est-ce que je mange trop ?

Do I eat too much ?


Temps or Tems


Absent, -e, absent. Concert, m., concert, Noir, -e, Black

Adresse, f., addross. Couper, 1, to cut. Perruquier, m., hair.
Banque, f., bank. Cuir, m., leather.


Banquier, m., banker, Depuis, since.

Point, not.
Beeanh (one syll.)

Billet, m., note.

Ecole, f., school. Poste, f., post-office.

Bois, m., wood.

Ecolier, m., scholar. Rouge, red.

To charm.

Chapeau, m., hat. Eglise, f., church, Village, m., village.

Chapelier, m., hatter.

Marché, m.,

market, Vert, -e, green. Moment Mo-manh

Rendezvous Ranh-day-YOO
Appointed place.



1. Où est-ce que je vais ? 2. Vous allez chez le chapelier. Surprendre Sur-pranhdr

To surprise.

3. Est-ce que je vais à la banque ? 4. Vous allez à la banque


5. Est-ce que je coupe votre bois ? 6. Vous INDICATIVE.

ne coupez ni mon bois ni mon habit. 7. Est-ce que je porte un 1. In the first person singular of the present of the indicative capeau vert? 8. Vous ne portez pas un chapeau vert, vous en of almost all those French verbs which in that person have only portez un noir..... Votre écolier va-t-il quelque part? 10. 11 one syllable, the common interrogative form (Sect. XXII. 9] is perruquier ? 12. Il ne va nulle part. 13. Ne portez-vous point

va à l'église, à l'école et au marché. 11. Ne va-t-il pas chez le not allowed. To render the verb interrogative, the expression des bottes de cuir rouge ? 14. J'en porte de cuir noir. 15. est-ce que is prefixed to the affirmative form ($ 98 (5) (6)].

N'allez-vous pas chez le banquier? 16. Je ne vais pas chez lui; Est-ce que je vends du drap ? Do I sell cloth ?

il est absent depuis hier. 17. Vient-il à la banque ce matin ? Est-ce que je joue souvent ? Do I play often?

18. Il a l'intention d'y venir, s'il a le temps.* 19. A-t-il envie 2. The first person singular of the indicative of avoir, to have; d'aller au concert ? 20. Il a grande envie d'y aller, mais il n'a étre, to be; aller, to go; pouvoir, to be able; devoir, to owe; pas de billet. 21. Demeurez-vous dans ce village ? 22. Oui, savoir, to know, etc., may, however, be conjugated interroga- Monsieur, j'y demeure. 23. Envoyez-vous ce billet à la poste ? tively according to the general rules.

24. Je l'envoie à son adresse.
Ai-je vos mouchoirs ?
Have I your handkerchiefs ?

Combien vous dois-je ?
How much do I owe you ?

1. Do I wear my large black hat? 2. You wear a handsome 3. The form est-ce que is always allowable, and sometimes morning? 4. He goes there this morning. 5. Does he intend

3. Does the banker go to the hairdresser's this preferable, when the first person singular of the present of the to go to the bank this morning ? 6. He does not intend to go indicative of a verb has several syllables ($ 98 (6)].

there, he has no time. 7. Do you send your letters to the postEst-ce que je vous envoie des livres? Do I send you books ?

office? 8. I do not send them, they are not yet written (écrites). Est-ce que je commence à parler ? Do I begin to speak ?

9. Do I send you a note ? 10. You send me a ticket, but I have 4. Est-ce que may, in familiar conversation, be used with all no wish to go to the concert. 11. Does your brother go to the persons of those tenses susceptible of being conjugated in school to-morrow? 12. He goes (there) to-day, and remains at terrogatively :-Qu'est-ce que vous lisez ? may be said, instead home to-morrow. 13. Do I go there? 14. You do not go of, Que lisez-vous ? What do you read ?

anywhere. 15. Where do you go? 16. I am going to your

brother's, is he at home? 17. He is not at home, he is absent 5. INTERROGATIVE FORM OF THE INDICATIVE PRESENT OF

since yesterday. 18. Does your brother live in this village ? ALLER, to go. ENVOYER, to send, VENIR, to come.

19. He does not [Sect. XXIII. 12], he lives at my nephew's. Est-ce que je vais ? do Est-ce que j'envoie ? do Est-ce que je viens ? 20. Are you wrong to go to school ? 21. No, Sir, I am right to

I ge, or am I going ? I send, or am I sending? do I come, or am I go to church and to school. 22. Do you wish to come to my
Envoies-tu ?

Viens-tu ? [coming? house ? 23. I like to go to your house, and to your brother's.
Va-t-il ?
Envoie-t-il ?

Vient-il ?

24. When are you coming to our house ? 25. To-morrow, if I Allons-nous ? Envoyons-nous ?

Venons-nous ?

have time. 26. Does the banker like to come here ? 27. He Allez-vous ? Envoyez-vous ?

Venez-vous ?
Envoient-ils ?


likes to come to your house. 28. Is the hairdresser coming ?

29. He is not yet coming. 30. What are you sending to the 6. The article le, preceded by the preposition à, is contracted scholar? 31. I am sending books, paper, and clothes. 32. into au before a noun masculine commencing with a consonant, Where is he? 33. He is at school. 34. Is the school in the or an h aspirate; and into aux before a plural noun (S 13 (8)]. village ? 35. It is there. Allez-vous au bal ou au marché ? Do you go to the ball or to the market? 7. À l'église means at or to church; à l'école, at or to school.

LESSONS IN BOTANY.-VII. Nous allons à l'église et à l'école, We go to church and to school.

SECTION XI.--REPRESENTATIVES FOR LEAVES IN 8. Quelque part means somewhere, anywhere ; nullo part,


LEAVES, properly so called, only exist on plants which bear Votre deveu où est-il ? Where is your nephew ?

flowers. The reader may test this by his own experience. Did Il est quelque part, He is somewhere.

he ever see a leaf on a mushroom, or a moss, or any other n n'est nulle part, He is nowhere.

cryptogamic plant? Probably he may say, "Yes, I have seen RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

them on ferns, and these are cryptogamic plants.” Well, we Est-ce que je vais à l'école ? Do I go to school ?

have already stated that the leaf-like expansions on ferns are Vous allez à l'église aujourd'hui. You go to church to-day.

not leaves, but fronds, and we have explained the distinction Est-ce que je commence mon tra- Do I begin my work ?

between a leaf and a frond. It only remains to be said, in vail ?

connection with this subject, that the little stem to which these Est-ce que je parle Anglais ? Do I speak English ?

fronds are attached, and which corresponds to a petiole in a real Est-ce que j'envoie ce livre à mon Do I send this book to my brother ? frère ?

leaf, is denominated a stipes, from the Latin stipes, the trunk of Allez-vous au marché demain ? Do you go to market to-morrow ?

a tree. In the next page is a representation of one of the treeJ'y vais après-demain. I go there the day after to-morrow ?

ferns of tropical climates, the trunk of which is denominated a Envoyez-vous vos enfants à l'école? Do you send your children to school ? cauder, from the Latin caudex, a stem. Je les envoie chez le professeur, I send them to the professor's. Je les y envoie cette après-midi. I send them thoro this afternoon. * The i of si is elided before il, ils, but in no other case. This is the Vos habits où sont-ils ? Where are your clothes ?

only instance of the elision of i,

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In past ages these tror jenis must have been smongs the look at and agreeable to sell the botanist is obliged frequently most numerous of vegetatie produtos Caire seed hardly to destros te beore be can sake himself acquainted with the Set, is well know. De un mare see the remains o pecabiscos se tratze: she is to say, he is obliged to vegetabit substants. so img bored and Best pressure in the cas ce passar diges cases fro their attachments ; this eartt that shey have changes z sie

se were st pestice is termed seie Presently, then, we shall have present finĉ tham ana se sisene asisty, yet to dissect a fora silesc s razioes parts. As a preliminary on many cases the rigat siape of the regate basst sie to siis enaminatie bereit be necessary that the learner

one siteration Se Lepe sa sorted should make me sisted with some general terms emBommt es readis z mies: res se spese peoped in this desertas de Botasy. men of cosmder omadesse has been formed

First of the the masse in which flowers are arranged Althout brmis se se senteres i les res is less sai see sy plast stered se iz Sorescence of that plant. By Beveransier te piestas setertheless these coussire te tere botaris destas sot merely the flower itself, but But the mirese susitas: bes tive genel cerity of varioas species the fore; in short, the term inflorescence opingamr pinta site messeoque matze these sessi sad has a very piecestice The CompTSETET Smuted soustande - Trace sbe regetatue de dessible to state schwesering


ATTACHED. Then I seis ce papers in these, which so many tribes ca fiovernig plate is er notice

The stisknet i Soras to the parent stem usually takes

place throagh the interestice of a little branch-like appendage, SECTIO I-OS THE EIN309SCTIVE ODGASS OF PASZS TEE TIVE AND IIS APPENDAGES

to which the ter= seduncie, ce cocasionally pedicel, is applied.

The reader I hard resebez that a peduncle or pedicel Esra A vit 3808ssary or the settire stands to store the ssee relation as a petiole to a leaf. It

is also called the primary axis of in Sorescence, and the flower-stalks'

hich spring from it are called word be ices, indeed to describe

the secondary, tertiery, etc., axes. 1. IT siis meses biore,

These pedicels or flower-stalks are DE proses to what a sova

arranged on various plants in dif. * designed a the access cé tega

ferent ways, and thus give rise to arisi - கான்

varioes terms indicative of the naEu gosderstaan. Weet lovers

ture of inflorescence. The word here eorud de 39 S without

pedunce is derived from the low Latin patunculus, a little foot, while palce is derived from the Latin

pedizins, which has the same meanmissäed The resses the ice

ing. Both words are diminutives denominating Soves the recrodas

of the Latin pes, a foot.

The inflorescence, or mode of sest Isette tiesist the fores

Bovering, is said to be definite or e sine reçeodactive partices a

terminal when the primary axis is pet is Tery easy. To deace

terminated by a flower. When the etteste. howere. the elaborate meses

original stem goes on growing in 67 was the feetres reçaodas

s straight line, giving off as it prosee seoseiseged is very scelt.

ceeds little flower-shoots or secondSized she isos afectethe sto

szy ares of various degrees on spürstis sisals ad regetables

either side, but does not terminate

in a flowez, then the term indefinite that many of the terms espioped

is foresence is applied; the prothis department of Botasy sze

priety of which term will be obberrowed tre the sister stošes of

rioes. The term axillary is somesaimai sustomy sed physiolog;

timas given to this condition of sad witbost some peetissybos

inforescence. If the reader glance ledge these sciences it would be

for an instant at Fig. 60 in the

opposite page, he will be at Desde cerpeekend the intriescies regetable reproductions | 30 loss to comprehend that is meant by indefinite or

We stare shall not sttempt to deal with these intricacies, ency inforeseedee. The reader will here please to ob. Les sta.eestest oseres by saying that a pisats most preserve the little lesi-site things from the azillæ (or junctions babes.certeridensiSorening ce pezougassos plants with the primary suis) of which the flower-peduncles spring possess sexss, and these seres semily the same plant, in in this example Sach leaf-like appendages are frequently the same fore of the pisat Oecsics. borere, the two to be seen attached to the peduncles of many flowers. They seses se Saens isces sad sectimes se ferent are called trucos, from the Latin bractes, a thin plate of metal, pisats. We mar, there are poesis ssp. test the greater and a though their usual appearance is green like a leaf, yet they aber civescents ita rencisi ses; bat oes sometimes miezgo rery strange modifications. Thus, the pinesicas, e some pisssa tie geener And išes bare fowers appe, which reisevreed long ago to be no fruit, is, in reality, esc sa se si design sie gesteen Dono nothing more than a sembisge of fileshy bracts, and the scale pobie sie fra de sissesses a the flowers of the firwone is notàing more than bari leathery bracts. In e sine stier Weise is a stwo sets of Bowers proportion ss besets are dereioped Dearer to a flower, so does en one pisxs fieis ist so be wat ns from two their natural green colour gire place to the colour of the Gases is 2015 mai sunt s sed aucs pronounced sower itef. Deessionally the lower actually springs from se sig en besie pises, we seepose, being the upper suriace of a bract, as in the case of the linden segsede #shore, si te is sschaabes in the same. Fig. 61). Waalre the missed Sorens of cne plant. Sometimes besets unite at the base of each group of flowers, sul site femes a seis o sotie, then suck pants and ca tàe same piane, ss for example, we find it in the esat so be sens, "

Thesed the reason of which carrot. This association of braets gives rise to what botanists et de cons

- term their sa Latin wert, which is derived from volvo, Ser: "IL-ATTOOCAL STANISATION OF A FLOWER.

to wrap e mil, and obseà mesus anything that serves to wrap

or corre Pensag sojecte contempleta s fresses, beautiful to : Cader the classigation in definite infiorescence are compre

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CITATION (continued).

* Het she s sest rhich differs from a comma in its is e se vie, and being used for a different

spise shoes that some letter or letters are left

Sufix frongh, lov'd for loved. ostsime tevise used in grammar to designate e se s John's book.


Os met rits of four commas placed above the

: ; ad turs at the end of a word, sentence, - The se rich are placed at the beginning

Se ses since at the word or sentence was meme usted from some other author.


sir periods placed over a vowel : Tess soms is the letter over which it is

I s I encei sepezstely; as, Creätor, Zoönomia, sets wmpies the stadent will recognise each of

semel mis sed read them accordingly.


et les oelers se let look sweetly out from yon

Jeshi * Bome' is besished, but set free from daily ** f ue sings I lostbe? Tried sed convicted traitor"*w says s? Who'l prove it, st his peril, on my head ? Desi'-I thank you for 't. It trests my chain ! I held me iš svegiance till this hour-bat Dow Sy sworử's my own. Yur consuľs mereiful. For this all thanks He dares not touch

bir u Canline. “Traitor!" I go — but I return. This * me Here I devote your senate! I've had reegs to stir a fever the biood of age.

This day is the birth of sorrows. The spe could at once command a long-stretching rista, seemingly Les sy be diese and shut up at both extremities by the cošlescing cliffs.

It seemed like Laocoon struggling ineffectually the hideous coils of the monster Python.

In those mournful months, when vegetables and animals are

slike coërced by cold, man is tributary to the howling storm and kres were of the the sullen sky; and is, in the pathetic phruse of Johnson, a "slave to uw wild sentially gloom." Melaka, is blf terms the laws of man and the justice of Heaven in abolishing this “cursed

I would call upon all the true sons of humanity to cooperate with 2 based gay dawa inarbe We each of the traffic. fowe 52 the ondary

Come, faith, and people these deserts! Come and reānimate these who lexemary before regions of forgetfulness. w Water for the rest. The

I am a professed lucubrator; and who so well qualified to delineate Hleb ik eras in the the sable hours, as wa bei ar send me (Fig.

“A meagre, muse-rid mope, adjust and thin ?"

He forsook, therefore, the bustling tents of his father, the pleasant A me j'ults Round ), u bilo bi " YUN" 7):

"south country" and the "well Labai-roi ;" he went out and pennhwat slow you the then presotis or, sively meditated at the eventide (see Genesis xxiv. 62.

The Grecian and Roman philosophers firmly believed that "the - A whead to towers are dend of midnight is the noon of thought."

Young observes, with much energy, that "an underout astronomer 1. LAT. then on hak, a little bundle is an

is mad." Alle hoiua certooth lygth and an Young Blount his armour did unlace, and, gazing on his ghastly

face, said—"By Saint George, he's gone! that spear-wound has our het bell Bolivia pup the characters of master sped; and see the deep cut on his head ! Good night to mlada u lumbawan

in the vivedl nettle Marmion !" "Unnurtured Blount! thy brawling cease ; he opes his wa uboutin watter the phareal into eyes," said Eustace,“ peace !”

A celebrated modern writer says, " Take care of the minutes, and wa luulo In the allow

gemont (plu the groundsel
mum thu would utwee is a

• In this lesson, as well as in some of the preceding lessons, there in bald we are mereulous are several sentences of poetry, which are not divided into poetical Tim balas de mand which the division, was to prevent the student from falling into that “ sing song".

lines. The object of printing these lines without regard to this both pain mobiel mi itself is utteranee, into which he is too apt to fall in reading verse.

im baba la Hulubes, trquently remains to be observed here, that abbreviations and contractions, Haltul wwwbivad umbel of such as occur in poetical sentences in this lesson and others, which

appear in the form of prose, are not allowable in prose itself.

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the hours will take care of themselves.” This is an admirable It was a cave, a huge recess, that keeps till June December's snow; remark, and might be very seasonably recollected when we begin to a lofty precipice in front, a silent tarn T below. be" weary in well-doing," from the thought of having much to do.

C-e-o-u-s, I've seen the moon gild the mountain's brow ; I've watched the

C-i-o-u-s, mnist o'er the river stealing ; but ne'er did I feel in my breast, till now,


are pronounced like shús. 80 deep, so calm, and so holy a feeling ; 'tis soft as the thrill which

T-i.o.u-s, memory throws athwart the soul in the hour of repose.

Blest be the day I 'scaped the wrangling crew from Pyrrho's maze See where the rector's ** splendid mansion stands, embossèd deep and Epicurus' sty; and held high converse with the godlike few, who in new enclosed lands, – lands wrested from the indigent and poor, to th' enraptured heart, and ear, and eye, teach beauty, virtue, truth, because, forsooth, he holds the village and love, and melody.

When the young blood danced jocund through his veins, 'tis said But thou, who Henren's just vengeance dar'st defy, this deed, with his sacred stole If received some stains. fruitless tears, shalt soon deplore.

Their wants are promised Bridewell, $$ or the stocks. O Winter! ruler of the inverted year! thy scatter'd hair with slectlike ashes fill'd, thy breath congeal'd upon thy lips, thy cheeks fring'd with a beard made white with other snows than those of age, thy

MECHANICS.—VI. forehead wrapt in clouds, a leafless branch thy sceptre, and thy throne i sliding car, indebted to no wheels, but urg'd by storms along its

FINDING CENTRES OF GRAVITY. slipp'ry way, I love thee, all unlovely as thou seem'st, and dreaded as

In the last lesson it was shown that every mass of matter has a thou art!

For as I passed by, and beheld your devotions, I found an altar centre of gravity, but we did not inquire how such centres are with this inscription, "TO THE UNKNOWN GOD." Whom therefore ye found in bodies of known shapes. To that part of our subject ignorantly worship, him declare I unto you.

we now proceed.

As a general rule, the problem requires high mathematics for XIV. THE ASTERISK, OBELISK, DOUBLE OBELISK, SECTION, its solution; but there are some cases in which the centre can be

PARALLEL, PARAGRAPH, INDEX, CARET, BREVE, AND discovered without much difficulty. I take, first, the practical BRACE.

method by suspension, which gives it exactly whenever the body The student should take particular notice of the following is of a uniform thickness, such as a deal board, or card, or piece marks, so that he may call them by name, and discover their of paper. The two opposite faces should be equal and alike, use in the following examples :-

the edges being either perpendicular or square to them, or * An Asterisk, or Star.

[ A Paragraph.

running off at the same slope. In all such cases it is evident † An Obelisk, or Dagger.

S A Section.

that the centre of gravity is within the substance of the board I A Double Obelisk.

|| A Parallel.

half-way across between the faces. If, therefore, we can find

the point on either face under which it lies, by boring straight 78. The Asterisk, Obelisk, Double Obelisk, Paragraph, Section, in half-way at that point, the required centre is reached. Parallels, and sometimes figures or letters, are used to show that But how find the outside point? Let the board be of any there is a note at the bottom of the page. When many notes occur irregular shape, as at a (Fig. 27), and bore two holes through it on a page, these marks are sometimes doubled,

perpendicularly at any two points, near its edge, o and Q. Put 79. The Paragraph was formerly used to show the beginning a straight iron rod now through o, and on the rod, by a small of a new subject in a chapter.

ring, hang a plumb-line, o A, close to the board. Put rod, line, 80. The Section is generally used to sub-divide chapters into and board now across two supports, so arranged that the rod lesser parts.

may be horizontal. The board having settled to rest, the centre 81. The Index or Hand points to something which of gravity will, as I showed in last lesson, be somewhere behind requires particular attention.

the plumb-line. Chalk now, or mark with a pencil, the course, 82. The Breve is placed over a letter to show that it has 0 A, of this line on the board. Perform the same operation with a short sound; as, Hělěna.

the hole Q, pencilling in like manner the line Q B. What now 83. The Brace ra is used to unite several lines of poetry; have we? Two lines, behind both which the centre of gravity or, in prose, to connect a number of words with one common term. lies; whence we infer that their intersection, G, is the point

84. The Caret ^ is never used in printed books ; but in required. writing it shows that something has accidentally been left But the method in part applies to bodies which have not

parallel faces like boards, or are not cut perpendicularly, or at recited

the same slope across at their edges; but in such cases the George has his lesson,

sought centre is not midway across. All that is necessary is OBS.—When several asterisks or stars are placed together, at 6 (Fig. 27). You can still determine the point a, behind

that there should be one flat face on it, as in that represented they represent an ellipsis.

which the centre of gravity lies, by boring two passages at o Examples.'

and q, perpendicularly to the face, into its substance, suspending Many persons pronounce the word Helēna* incorrectly. They call and marking the lines o A, Q B, as before. The centre of it Heléna; and the words acceptable, rec'ognise, Epicure'an, and gravity will still be behind the point G; but where, or how far European, are sometimes incorrectly called ac'ceptable, recogʻnise, in, is another question, the answer to which depends on the Epicu'rean, and Euro'pean. The leprosy, therefore, of Naäman shall cleave unto thee. shape of the body. And he went out from his presence a lèper as white as

If the board which above first occupied our attention be sup

posed to become very thin--to be cardboard, or even paper-the The Cougart is the largest animal of the cat kind, found in North body becomes almost all surface, and the point G and the centre America ; and has occasionally received the name of the American of gravity nearly coincide. Practically, they become identical ; Lion, from the similarity of its proportions and colour to those of the and the operation is sometimes spoken of as “the finding of the Hon of the old world.

The keeper of the elephant gave him a gallon of arrack, I which centre of gravity of an area or surface.” In strictness, a surface rendered the animal very furious.

cannot have a centre of gravity, for (see Lesson I. on Geometry) I fell upon my knees on the bank, with my two servants, and the it has no thickness, and therefore can have no weight, no force, dragoman of the mỏnăstěry.

no centre of force. But, for all that, the inquiry is useful. The history of Joseph is exceedingly interesting and full of We may agree, for mechanical purposes, that a surface should instruction. 1)

have such a centre; and the best course for that purpose is to

give it a thickness the smallest we can conceive, namely, that of * This with the St. before it, is the name of a small island situated one particle or atom. Imagine, then, a triangle, or polygon, or on the west of Africa, noted for the exile of Napoleon I.

circle, one atom thick; and let us agree that, when we find its † Pronounced Cos'-gar. The name given to this animal by the Americans generally is painter, evidently a corruption of panther.

Tarn is a small lake, high up in the mountains. Arruck is a very strong spirituous liquor.

** A clergyman. $ Dragoman means an interpreter.

# Cure.-The office of a clergyman. | The whole history of Joseph will be found in the Bible; from the 11 Stole.-A long robe worn by the clergy of England. 7th chapter to the end of the book of Genesis.

$$ Bridevell.-A house of correction.

out; as,

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