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Si ad longitudes of This vowel is sometimes under a grave accent, thus-à là,

He constructed voilà ; but its sound is not materially affected thereby. a ne projection of the

33. Â, â.—Under the circumflex accent, this vowel has the más president of the long sound represented by a in the English word mark, and is 31.127 store Hipparchus, named ah. It has, besides, a little more than the sound just < "merce of the Red spoken of, for the sound must be prolonged, and to do this con

a. He was the first veniently, the mouth must be opened a little wider than in utter..zans; he mentions

ing its short sound, represented by a in the English word fat. L cege of Egypt on the

Be careful, however, not to pronounce A â like the sound of * * vsaking them, and the the English word awe, but give it the sound of ah prolonged, in már 2015. of the tools of copper the following examples, namely

* wen used by the native Sist pantry by the Persians.

FRENCH. PROX. ENGLISH, FRENCH. PRON. ENGLISI.

Ah-zh

Age - zied new information to

Age.

Cápre Kah-pro Caper.
Ame Ah-m Soul.

Grâce Grah-s Favour.
on ne East. He visited Egypt

Bâche Bah-sh Auning.

Måle Mah-1 Male. arca 2000 130 B.C.; and besides

Bạfre Bah-fr Gormandising. Masse Mah-s Stake(in betting). Letzwards accomplished the Båt Bah Pack-saddle. Pale Pah-1 Pale.

wontenent. Strabo, who gives : Tres, attempts repeatedly to

34. E, e.-Name, ay; sound, like the letters ay in the

English word day. is statements ; but they have

Pronounce aloud the word day until you have a distinct idea of the single sound of the combination of the letters ay; and

then pronounce the word without the d, namely:FRENCH.III.

day,

ay, and thus you have the sound of the vowel e, which deserves the 2003CSCIATION (continued).

greatest attention, because of its importance in the French lanDEND OF THE VOWELS.

guage. It is used more than any other letter, namely:-in five eni, ie the letter a in the English different ways, and hence it has five different names, namely:

e silent, e mute or unaccented, é acute, è grave, é circumflex. -- vori mark aloud several times, with

35. E, e, SILENT.—When final, and unaccented in words of ceu of the French letter a, until you more than one syllable, e is silent, as in the following words :3 seret sound.

FRENCH. PRON. ENGLISH. FRENCH. PRON. ENGLISI. Rivays belongs to the French letter

Abaque A-bak Abacus. Domestique Do-mes-teek Domestic. 25 s, whenever the French alphabet is

Abatage A-ba-tazh Killing. Passage Par-sazh Passage. se inst letter the sound of a in the English Algarado Al-ga-rad Insult. Possible Po-see-bl' Possible.

Approche A-prosh Approach. Spectacle Spek-ta-kl' Sight. wes not always and invariably have this Article A-teekl Thing. Terrible Ter-reebl' Awful.

erever it is used in a French word. Ballotte Ba-lot Ballot. Véritable Vay-ri-tabl' Genuine.
- Dua its position in a word, and upon the In the following words the e is silent :-
- paced, either by itself, as constituting

Celui pronounced Suh-lwee.
On a word of one or more syllables.

Cela

Suh-lah. as. Ir, another sound, which we illustrate by

Prierai

Pree-ray. ter s in the English word fat. Pronounce

Again, in the following words, the e in the middle of each soud several times, with strict reference word is silent :e reaca letter a, until you are sure of having

Autremont, Entrevoir, Paiement, etc.

In the word contenance both e's are silent; ordinarily, the e c) las therefore, two distinct sounds, viz. :

before a and o is silent, as in Jean and Georges.
les the English word fat.
'It the English word mark.

SECTION VI.-IDIOMATIC USES OF “AVOIR.”
hu Auglish lotter a will be used to illustrate
the reach vowel a; and ah will be used to 1. The verb avoir is used idiomatically in French, with the
wund of the French vowel a.

words quelque chose, chaud, froid, faim, honte, peur, raison, - Atb wd representod by a in the English word tort, soif, sommeil. Kan by swell, and generally when it begins or

J'ai quelque chose,

Something is the matter with me. Il a chaud,

He is warm. n. Hoved. There are exooptions to this rule; but

Elle a faim,

She is hungry. wally noboed by the reader in tho spelling by

Nous avons honte,

We are ashamed. voor, dualnod to illustrato the pronunciation

Vous avez peur,

You are afraid.
Ils ont tort,

They are wrong. na svang wund represented by a in the English word

Avez-vous raison ?

Are you right?
I pogonneell as the first lottor of the French

J'ai sommeil,

I am sleepy. on ihm under the viroumflex accent, which will

2. A noun, whether taken in a general or in a particular sense,

is in French commonly preceded by the article le in its different Cod pom the short sound of the French vowel forms [$ 77 (1) (2)]. I'ronounce avory F'ronoh word in

Le pain est nécessaire, Broad is necessary. ...selalu ulaw, and, when powable, always study your

Il a le pain,

He has the bread, 3. A noun, preceded by the article le, retains that article after Kenan TRON ENOLISTI

ni, nor, neither; but a noun taken in a partitive sense (Sect. IV. MM Manila henni (Fonan K TOMS Endearmont.

Married woman.

1), takes after ni neither article nor preposition. Mawyuo Mk Manke, Jo n'ai ni l'arbre ni le jardin, I have neither the tree nor the garden.

We have neither tree nor garden. luxe umplen we introduced to illontrato tho short Nous n'avons ni arbre ni jardin,

4. A noun, taken in a partitive sense, and preceded by an Wanda wawe In the firat word (abaca), bo

aybaya, Initive ench a in onoh adjective, takes merely the preposition de ($ 78 (3)].

Inglish word jul, in the next 5. The following adjectives generally precede the noun :-
Wernher to kive the sound of a in

Benu, hand- Cher, dear.

Jeune, young.

Petit, small. in the last syllable of the word

Grand, great, Joli, pretty. Vieux, old. 16 final of this word (alarme) in Bon, good. large.

Mauvais, bad.

Vilain, ugly. Bravo, worthy. Gros, large. Meilleur, better.

99

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some.

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

3. The possessive adjectives mon, m., ma, f., my; ton, m., ta, A rez-vous quelque chose ?

Is anything the matter with you ! f., thy; son, m., sa, f., his, her, agree in gender with the object Je n'ai rien (literally, I have nothing). Nothing is the matter with me. possessed, that is, with the noun following them ($ 21 (1) (2)]. Votre frère a-t-il chaud ?

Is your brother warm ?
Il n'a ni froid ni chaud.
Ho is neither cold nor warm.

Mon pupitre, m.,

My desk. Votre sæur a-t-elle faim on soif ? Is your sister hungry or thirsty ?

Avez-vous ma lettre? f., Have you my letter ? Elle n'a pas faim, mais honte.

Il a son fusil, m.,

He has his gun.
She is not hungry, but ashamed.

Il a sa cravate, f.,

Ho has his cravat. Votre ami a-t-il sommeil ?

Is your friend sleepy ? Mon ami n'a ni sommeil ni peur. My friend is neither sleepy nor afraid. 4. Before a feminino noun in the singular, commencing with Avez-vous raison ou tort? Are you right or wrong?

a vowel or an h mute, the masculine form, mon, ton, son, is used Avez-vous du lait ou du vin ? Have you milk or wine!

[S 21 (3)]. Je n'ai ni lait ni vin. (R. 3.) I have neither milk nor wine.

J'ai mon épée, f.,

I have my sword.
Årez-vous le lait ou le vin ? Have you the milk or the wine !
Je n'ai ni le lait ni le vin.

It is his or her habit.
(R. 3). I have neither the milk nor the wine.

C'est son habitude, f., Arez-vous de beau drap et de bon Have you handsome cloth and good

Le général à son armée, f., The general has his army. café ? coffee?

5. The adjectives notre, our; votre, your; leur, their, are used VOCABULARY.

without variation before a noun of either gender in the singular An contraire, on the Fusil, m., gun. Peur, f., fear, afraid.

[S 21 (1)]. contrary. Froid, m., cold. Poivre, m., pepper.

Notre argent, m.,

Our silver. Bouton, m., button. Gros, large.

Quel, what, which.

Votre canne, f.,

Your cane. Capitaine, captain. Honte, f., shame, Raison, f., reason, right.

Leur terre, f.,

Their land. Cousin, m., cousin. ashamed.

Rien, nothing.

6. The possessive pronouns le mien, m., la mienne, f., mine; Chand, m., heat, warm. Mais, but.

Sel, m., salt. Faim, f., hunger, hun- Marteau, m., hammer. Sommeil, m.,

le tien, m., la tienne, f., thine; le sien, m., la sienne, f., his or

sloep, Menuisier, m., joiner. sleepy.

hers, can never be prefixed to nouns. The article preceding Ferblantier, m., tinman. | Petit, small, little. Tort, m., wrong.

these pronouns, and forming an indispensable part of them, EXERCISE 9.

takes the gender of the object possessed ; mien, tien, sien, vary 1. Qui a sommeil ? 2. Mon frère a faim, mais il n'a pas som

for the feminine-nôtre and votre used as pronouns have the meil. 3. Avez-vous raison ou tort? 4. J'ai raison, je n'ai pas

circumflex accent. tort. 5. Avez-vous le bon fusil de mon frère ? 6. Je n'ai pas

J'ai votre livre et le mien,

I have your book and mine. Elle a sa robe et la mienne,

She has her dress and mine. le fasil. 7. Avez-vous froid aujourd'hui ? 8. Je n'ai pas froid;

Vous avez votre plume et la nôtre, You have your pen and ours. au contraire, j'ai chaud. 9. Avez-vous de bon pain? 10. Je n'ai pas de pain. 11. N'avez-vous pas faim ? 12. Je n'ai ni

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. faim ni soif. 13. Avez-vous honte ? 14. Je n'ai ni honte ni Votre ami a-t-il le marteau ? Has your friend the hammer?

He has it, she has it. peur. 15. Avons-nous du poivre ou du sel ? 16. Vous n'avez Il l'a, elle l'a.

He has it not. ni poivre ni sel. 17. Quel livre avez-vous ? 18. J'ai le livre de Il ne l'a pas. mon cousin. 19. Avez-vous le marteau de fer ou le marteau N'avez-vous pas l'encrier d'argent? Have you not the silver inkstand ?

Nous ne l'avons pas.

We have it not. d'argent ? 20. Je n'ai ni lo marteau de fer ni le marteau Avez-vous votre fusil ou le mien ? Have you your gun or mine? d'argent, j'ai le marteau de bois du ferblantier. 21. Avez-vous Je n'ai ni le vôtre ni le mien. I have neither yours nor mine. quelque chose ? 22. Je n'ai rien. 23. Avez-vous le gros livre son épouse a-t-elle sa robe ou la Has his wife her dress or yours ? du libraire ? 24. Je n'ai ni le gros livre du libraire, ni le petit vôtre ? livre du menuisier ; j'ai le bon livre du capitaine.

Elle n'a ni la sienne ni la vôtre. She has neither hors nor yours. EXERCISE 10.

Ne l'avez-vous pas ?

Have you it not?
Votre frère ne l'a-t-il pas ?

Has not your brother it?
1. Are you sleepy, Sir ? 2. No, Sir, I am not sleepy, but I
an hungry. 3. Have you pepper or salt? 4. I have neither

VOCABULARY. pepper nor salt; I have cheese. 5. Is your brother thirsty or Assiette, f., plate. Crayon, m., pencil. Tarent, m., relation. hangry? 6. brother is neither thirsty nor hungry. 7. Is Biscuit, m., biscuit. Cuisinier, m., cook. 1, m., dish,

Bauf, m., beef. your sister right or wrong? 8. She is not wrong, she is right.

Fourchette, f., fork. Poisson, m., fish. 9. Is the good joiner afraid? 10. He is not afraid, but ashamed. Commode, t., chest of Mouton, m., mutton, Sofa, m., soja.

butcher. Boucher, m.,

Matelot, m., sailor. Porcelaine, f., china. 11. Have you milk or cheese ? 12. I have neither milk nor

drawers.

sheep.

Tout, all, cheese; I have butter. 13. Have you the fine cloth or the Couteau, m., knife. Miroir, m., looking-glass Veau, m., voal, calf. good tea ? 14. I have neither the fine cloth nor the good tea.

EXERCISE 11. 15. Is anything the matter with you, my good friend ? 16. Nothing is the matter with me, my good Sir. 17. Have you

1. Avez-vous la fourchette d'argent ? 2. Oui, Monsieur, jo Do bread ? 18. Yes, Madam, I have good bread, good butter, l'ai. 3. Le cuisinier a-t-il le bæuf ? 4. Non, Monsieur, il ne and good cheese. 19. Is the carpenter sleepy ? 20. The car

5. Quel mouton avez-vous ? 6. J'ai le bon mouton et penter is not sleepy, but the tinman is hungry. 21. Have you le bon veau de boucher. 7. Votre parent a-t-il la commode ? the tinman's wooden hammer? 22. I have not his wooden 8. Non, Monsieur, il ne l'a pas. 9. A-t-il mon poisson ? 10. hammer. 23. Which hammer have you ? 24. I have the steel Qui a tout le biscuit du boulanger ? 11. Le matelot n’a ni son hunmer. 25. Have you a good cloth coat? 26. No, Sir, but pain ni son biscuit. 12. A-t-il son couteau et sa fourchette ? I have a silk dress. 27. Has the tailor the good gold button ? 13. Il n'a ni son couteau ni sa fourchette, il a son assiette. (R. 28. Yes, Sir, he has the good gold button.

4.) 14. Quel plat a-t-il ? 15. Il a le joli plat de porcelaine.

16. Avez-vous le mien ou le sien ? 17. Je n'ai ni le vôtre ni lo SECTION VII.-PRONOUNS AND PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. sien, j'ai le nôtre. 18. Avez-vous peur, Monsieur ? 19. Non,

1. The pronouns le, him, it; la, her, it, are, in French, placed Madame, je n'ai pas peur, j'ai faim. 20. Quelqu'un a-t-il ma before the verb.* These pronouns assume the gender of the montre d'or? 21. Non, Monsieur, personne ne l'a. 22. Qu'aveznoun which they represent.

vous, Monsieur ? 23. Je n'ai rien. Voyez-vous le couteau ? m., Do you see the knife?

EXERCISE 12.
Je le vois,

I see it.
Voyons-nous la fourchette ? f., Do we see the fork ?

1. Have you the silver pencil-case ? 2. No, Sir, I have it not. Nous la voyons,

We see it.

3. Have you my brother's plate ? 4. Yes, Madam, I have it. 2. The vowel of the pronouns le and la is elided before a verb 5. Has the butcher the good biscuit ? 6. He has it not; he commencing with a vowel or an h mute ($ 146).

has the good beef, the good mutton, and the good veal. 7. Avez-vous le båton ? m.,

Have you my knife and my fork p* 8. I have neither your Have you the stick ?

knife nor your fork. 9. Who has the good sailor's biscuit ? Je l'ai,

I have it. Arons-nous la canne ? f.,

Have we the cane ?

10. The baker has it, and I have mine. 11. Have you mine Nous l'avons,

We have it.

also ? 12. I have neither yours nor his. 13. Are you hungry? Except in the second person singular, and in the first and second * The possessive adjective must in French be repeated before every persons plural of the imperative, used affirmatively.

noun ($ 21 (4)].

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ratlamy I fez yon about to copy is composed ; and he must also be exact in detersamed. but I am cui mining the relative position of the points in which these lines

Er istio saat meet or intersect. When to these directions we have added the

aisee mie? En. He following—namely, that the learner must also carefully observe the inte; ie 129 your the lengths of the lines which form the angles, we have given stre semi-ezzet_ *. So in very few words the instructions that he chiefly requires to lucis cons 23. Fave you enable him to draw forms, such as ornamental scrolls, flowers,

leaves, single figures, etc., in delineating which he can have no assistance whatever from the rules of linear perspective. Knowing from practical experience the necessity of repeating instructions whilst personally engaged in teaching, we trust the papil will

consider our repeating in various ways the more important and stions in Fig. 20, 21, essential regulations which guide the mind, and consequently the pupil: these the the hand, as intended to convey a deep impression of their

points marked in the importance. in prest care that Before commencing a drawing it should invariably be the es sich regard to, each ! practice of the pupil, when he has placed his copy before him,

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warranty arranged before e ilne la drawn s let the whether it be a drawing or the object itself, to look carefully

i in order of warrancament Par exemplo, over it for a few minutes, and examine its contours—that is,

www.woon a sud i (fie 36), taking care they the bondings of the curves, and the forms which a combination Mi diced, and that mad dava respectively of these curves present. By this close examination of the sub

Womed andre 4 and I In drawing the line joot his mind will receive such an impression of it that, as he wel wat woonwy be placed, and so comes to understand its form, first as a whole, and the details

was dit / mat he placed no se to afterwards, the hand, which is only an instrument, will readily

line to war woont them to pass through execute tho suggestions which the mind has received. There

WWW WW 81 In this, 29, are many who make the great mistake of supposing that the www www way we do View of four stapa: hand in to receive all the attention in training; on the contrary, We want the top andy, the dotted let the mind fully understand the subject, and then the hand will

mou to win the Fomainder of nood long practice in order to fulfil its requirements. In short, wa wa wanained the examplon given educate the mind, and the education of the hand will follow.

Fig. 24, a purse, is almost entirely an example of curved lines, that the larger le mot camino like the vino leaf (Figs. 18, 19), but in this there is more uniwater and watent of the anges w formity that is, the opposite sides have a reversed resemblance to tur internation of any of the linen, to wach other. Tho pupil must notice the position of a and

Mwach wie weuple that he tal, and d, also a and c, b and d, and so on, with every other

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langle or remarkable change which a line takes in its curva- | direct lines and curves, advising the pupil not to shade his tare. Perhaps after this remark it will be better to leave the drawings for the present, until he has gained sufficient conpupil to himself whilst copying this subject, as by this time fidence in outline. he must be, we hope, able to anticipate much that would be only The value and importance of a correct and ready method of a repetition of the principles already laid down.

drawing the simple forms of objects cannot be over-estimated. We have given a vine leaf as a further illustration of this He who is master of this enviable power can apply it to any method of arranging a drawing—that is, marking in its charac- branch of art he pleases. The greatest impediment to the teristic points and angles. (See Figs. 18 and 19). Fig. 18 is the progress of many a pupil is most likely to arise from his imfirst part of the work, which must be carried out as follows :- patient desire to arrive, without a moment's delay, at the power Commence at some important and leading feature of the object, of making a drawing. Irregular and misdirected efforts in say the centre, at a; mark in b; observe the inclination of copying drawings of cottages and stumps of trees appear to be a to b; join a b; mark in c; also observe the distance of c a much more pleasant task than the performance of exercises from b; join a c. The line a de will be found not a direct so arranged as to lead the student from the knowledge of one line, d is the point where it varies ; mark d first and e next; principle to an acquaintance with another ; nevertheless, the join a d and d e; a f g is a similar line; also a hi. These are latter is essential to him who wishes to bo master of drawing. the great and leading characteristic lines and points, which The training of the hand and the eye which such exercises are it would be advisable to mark in the order we have written calculated to impart, will make the copying of a large number

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them. The secondary parts are i k c, i mn, op g. The of simple figures as easy as it is to mako alphabetical characters points q and s, t and u, must be arranged with an eye to c, by the conjunction of " straight strokes, pot-hooks, and hangers.” b, and e. These are the minor divisions, all of which must be The simple figures we are setting before the learner in these respectively joined together by straight lines, or in some special early lessons constitute in fact the alphabet of drawing, and cases by a curve, as from r to t, or v to e. Partially rub out the with these, if he would make himself a sound draughtsman, arrangement—that is, “ faint it,” and then draw the finished he must become well acquainted; for just as the combination outline as in Fig. 19, which may be, in the detail, further of letters, syllables, and words, forms in the printer's hands “marked in," as the points 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, etc. Let the student either a poem or an auctioneer's catalogue, so does the applicompare both figures as he proceeds.

cation of the elements of linear drawing constitute, in the As the above instructions apply to all flat objects, whether com- hands of the artist, an historical picture, a portrait, a landscape, posed of straight or curved lines, we again urge most earnestly a design for an ornamental framework, or the plan and elevation the strict observance of this practice, as so much depends upon of a building. it for the understanding and successfully carrying out of all that Unacquainted with these elements, how much industry, and we shall have to advance hereafter in these lessons.

even talent, has many a youth thrown away! Let us take an We have added in Figs. 16 and 17, and some smaller copies instance of such a youth. He makes his earliest essays, it in outline (which are without numbers, as there is no necessity be, at copying some finished production, or some elah to make any special reference to them in our remarks), a few engraving. He tries his best to produce a neat and examples for practice, of subjects in the flat, composed of copy, and he endeavours to give the details of his

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