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Dut of the physical, is also seen in the diverse application of the Not unto such as could him feast againe, word, fr, as we hare just read of preventive medicine, so in
And double quite for that he on them spent; diritt you may read of "prevenient grace.”
But such as want of harbour did constraine, Ther remarks, illustrations of which occur in what has just
Those, for God's sake, his dewty was to entertaine." preceded, and will cocur in what is about to follow, may serve to
Spenser, "Faèrie Queene," show you that language must be studied genealogically. Indeed, Epi, a prefix of Greek origin, from ezt (ep-i), signifying upon, every word has a history; and in the dictionaries, every account as epidemic, upon or over (widely spread over) a people. En. given of a word onght to be a complete history of the word; a demic declares that a disease is in-born, native to the soil ; history of its origin, uses, and application, the one traced from epidemic that it is very prevalent. Epi is found in epigram (qui the other logically, or according to the laws of thought, and and the Greek ypapua, pronounced gram'-ma, a writing, from the philologically, or agreeably to the laws of language. Very verb ypaow (graph'-o), I write), epilepsy (epi and anula, prodifferent, and very inferior, is the character of most dictionaries. nounced leap'-si-a, a taking), epiphany (epi and Greek para, But to return to the subject of English prefixes.
pronounced phai’-no or fi'-no, I appear), epistle (epi and OTEX, E, of Latin, or rather Greek origin, in the forms e, ef, es, pronounced stel'-lo, to send), etc. etc. denotes out of, as in egress (e and gradior, Lat. I walk), a walking
“He that would write an epitaph for thee, out; excess (ex and cedo, Lat. I go), a going beyond—that is, too
And do it well, must first begin to be far; effect (ef and facio, Lat. I do), a thing made out, produced;
Such as thou wert; for yone can truly know a result.
Thy worth, thy life, but he that hath lived so.”—Donne. E. “All occasions must be taken of sending forth pious heavenly Equi, of Latin origin (æquus, equal), denoting equality, forms ejaculations to God."-Bishop Hall.
part of several words, as equipoise (equi and peser, Fr. to weigh; Ex. "The ecclesiastical courts possessed the power of pronouncing pendere, Lat. to hang), equity; equivocal (equi and vos, Lat. @ ercommunication; and that sentence, besides the spiritual conse
voice). quences supposed to follow from it, was attended with immediate effects of the most important nature. The person excommunicated "Faith! here's an equivocator that could swear in both the scales was shunned by every one as profane and impious; and his whole against either scale; who committed treason enough in God's sake, estate, during his lifetime, and all his movables, for ever were forfeited yet could not equivocate to heaven; oh, come in, equivocator."--Shaketo the crown."—Hume, “ History of England."
speare, “ Macbeth.” Ef. "Two white sparry incrustations, with efflorescences in form of shrubs, formed by the trickling of water."—Woodward, “ on Fossils."
Es, of French origin (Lat. e, ex), is in English found in words
borrowed from the French, as in escalade (es and scala, Lat. a En is a prefix found in the English, the French, and the Greek ladder), a scaling (of a city), escape (Fr. échapper, to get crray), languages. Into the English it appears to have come from the escheat (old Fr. escheoir, to fall due), a forfeit, eschew (old Fr. Latin, through the French. Many words of Latin origin have eschever, to shun), escutcheon (es and scutum, Lat. a shield). passed through the French into the English. En is the form in Greek. In Latin, en becomes in. In French, both en and in
“Hence without blushing (say whate'er we can)
We more regard the escutcheon than the man; are used. The same is the case with the English. Though en
Yet, true to nature and her instincts, prize and in are the same particle, it may be advisable to handle them
The hound or spaniel as his talent lies."-Cawthorn, separately, in order that their respective usages may become apparent.
Eu, of Greek origin (ev, pronounced you), signifying well, En is found in the forms en, em. The prefix signifies in or occurs in euphony (eu and the Greek own, pronounced pho-ne. into, e.g. :
a sound), euthanasia (eu and the Greek Bavaros, pronounced "He Samson) rises and carries away the gates wherein they thought than'-a-tos, death), a happy death; the eu in eunuch is a part of to have encaged him."-Bishop Hall,
the word; eunuch being from the Greek eun, pronounced u'-ne,
a bed, and exw, ek'-o, to have, or have charge of ; eunuchs were So in encamp, encase, enchain, enchant, enclose (or inclose), en. chamberlains. Men were made eunuchs by the jealousy of demic (en and demos, Gr. a people), peculiar to a district." En Eastern despots. They were also made so in order to give them sometimes has an intensive or augmentive effect on the verb of a contralto voice. The latter fact is well alluded to in this which it forms a part; as in encourage, enfeeble, enkindle quotation :(candle), encrease (increase), encumber(incumber, from the
“Our present writers, for the most part, seem to lay the whole French encombre, Lat. cumulus, a heap).
stress in their endeavours upon the harmony of words; but then, like “Encumbered soon with many a painful wound,
eunuchs, they sacrifice their manhood for a voice, and reduce our Tardy and stiff he treads the hostile round;
poetry to be like echo, nothing but a sound."--Lansdown, " Peleus and Gloomy and fierce his eyes the crowd survey,
Ever, of Saxon origin, signifying always, is seen in ererlasting,
evermore; evermore appears in the older writers as evermo. En has also, though seldom, the force of a negative; as in “I shall readily grant that the words for ever and ever-lasting do enemy. Enemy is from the Latin inimicus, where the English not always, in Scripture, signify an endless duration." — Barren, en represents the Latin in. Inimicus is made up of in, not; "Sermons." and amicus, a friend.
Extra, of Latin origin, with the meaning out of, appears in En, for the sake of euphony, becomes em before b and p; em- ectraneous, out of (not belonging to) the subject; extraordinary bittor, emblem, embosom, embroil, emprison (imprison), employ, (extra and ordo, Lat. order), out of the usual order. empoverish (impoverish).
“Some lands, either because they were in the hands of irreligious “At eve within yon studious nook,
and careless owners, or were situate in forests and desert places, or I ope my brass-embosséd book,
for other now unsearchable reasons, were never united to any parish, Pourtrayed with many a holy deed,
and therefore continue to this day extra-parochial."— Blackstong, "Com Of martyrs crowned with heavenly meed."-Warton.
mentaries." There is a tendency to substitute i for e in many words. This For, of Saxon origin, whose original is probably found in the tendency deserves encouragement, if only for the sake of German ver, which denies and reverses the action expressed in uniformity.
the verb, occurs in forbid (not to bid; that is, to bid not). Enter, coming from the Latin (intra, within) through the
“Rather how hast thou yielded to transgress, French (entre, between, among), is found in enterprise (enter and
The strict forbiddance, how to violate Fr. prendre, Lat. prehendere, to take, to take hold of), an under
The sacred fruit forbidd'n."-Milton, " Paradise Lost." taking: siso in enterment (in and terra, Lat. the earth), now amon sa interment. It is found also in entertain (Fr.
For is found also in forbear, not to bear or take; to abstain. Tat. inter and tenere, to hold).
"Phidias, when he had made the statue of Minerra, could not fer
bear to engrave his own name, as author of the piece."-Dryden, oils mastotre etertainment leng out all that came and went,
Fore, a different word from the preceding, of Saxon origin (vor, RECREATIVE NATURAL HISTORY.
Gerin., in advance; vorwarts, Germ., forwards), appears in fore- Then how shall we observe our friend and study his comfort tell, forecast forefathers, forehead.
also ? Get a piece of clean window-glass, and place the snail ''The foreknower is not the cause of all that are foreknown.”- upon it. He will hold firmly to the glass with his broad, Hemmond.
expanded, sucker-like foot. Then, by looking at the gentleman In forgive (Germ. vergeben), the idea seems to be that of note the mode in which such animals walk, mark the wave-like
through the glass, as he moves along, the reader will be able to giving away, giving without a return, giving freely, and hence to motions of the foot on the glass, and remember that all softpardon (Fr. pardonner, in low Lat. perdonare).
bodied animals with a foot like the snail's, are named Gastero. "Not soon provoked, however stung and teased,
pods, a word which means "having the feet and belly joined,” And if perhaps made angry, soon appeased;
and which is derived from the Greek yaotnp (gas-teer'), the She rather waves, than will dispute her right,
belly, and movs (pous), a foot. And injured makes forgiveness her delight.”—Cowper.
Having noticed the sucker-like foot, and tested the force with Hept, of Greek origin (Enta, pronounced hep'-ta, seven), forms which it clings to the glass, let us look at the head of our the first syllable of heptagon (Greek yovia, pronounced gon'-i-a, snail. The first noticeable objects are what children call the at angle), that which has seven angles, and consequently seven horns or feelers. Look closely at them. What is that black sides; and heptarchy (Greek apxn, pronounced arke, government), shining speck on the top of each feeler ? The eye of the snail, & sevenfold government.
according to the judgment of most naturalists. Strange sort of “ Seven independent thrones, the Saxon heptarchy, were founded by wants to take a survey of the world. If we want to obtain a
eye, which can thus be lifted up above the body, when its owner the conquerors,"–Gibbon.
wider view, we get on an elevation ; the snail manages matters
in another manner, he lifts up the eye itself. As the snail conRECREATIVE NATURAL HISTORY.-I.
templates one of us through those black specks, the question
rises, is he not terribly frightened at a being having an eye as THE SNAIL.
large as his whole body? However, unfortunately, in the It is to be feared that there are not many among us who are present state of snail education, it is impossible to impart his disposed to regard the little animals that may be classed among views to us, so we will let that topic pass. the "common objects” of our fields, gardens, and even houses, Touch the tip of his feeler; see how ingeniously he tucks with the same attention and curiosity as we examine the form the whole machine into its case, just as the top of the finger of and inquire into the habits of a lion, elephant, or gorilla, fresh a glove is turned in sometimes, when the glove is drawn off. from the deserts of Africa or the jungles of Asia, or a walrus Now wait awhile; see, the tube is pushed out again, and the lately brought from northern climes. And yet the beasts that eye is slowly rolled out from its remarkable hiding-place. find a hiding-place in our woods and thickets, the birds that fill Have you a pair of scissors in your hand? Would you like to the air with melody at the approach of spring, and the insects cut off those feelers, eyes and all ? No, some will say, respect that often destroy our best and choicest fruits and blossoms, even a snail's feelings. Others may answer yes, cut them off, ar 15 " fearfully and wonderfully made" as the larger animals if we shall get any knowledge by so doing ; we do not believe of foreign lands—ay, even as ourselves, for whose use, or such creatures feel pain. Well, you cannot prove they do not feel pleasure, or perchance correction, they were created. Each has when thus treated, that's certain ; and it shows a better heart to been called into being for some wise end by the Maker of us all
, believe they suffer when injured. Those who believe in Shake. even though our limited knowledge may fail to discover its speare will probably take this view. They will remember his utility, and the purpose which it serves in the economy of remark that a worm when crushed feels as much pain as when Nature. The structure and habits of each beast or bird or a giant dies. However, we will dare to be rather cruel for once insect, however small, however unattractive in appearance, only; we will do violence to our tender feelings, and, earnestly claim oar consideration as much as the graceful figure of the begging the snail's pardon, we cut off both feelers at one snip of antelope or giraffe, or the instinct and docility of the horse or the scissors. Now we have killed the snail, have we not? At dog; and as a lesson may be learnt from each and all, more least we have blinded him for life? Indignant the snail is cerpotent in its teaching than the precepts of the best of all books tainly; see how he goes back into the innermost part of his save one, we invite the attention of our readers to our studies house. He may well retire from a world which treats him thus. in Natural History, which may be termed recreative in two Now what will be the result? If the snail be in good health, Fanues—first, as they will do much to relieve the strain that our and the operation be not performed too late in the year, that lessons in languages, mathematics, and science may exert on poor despicable-looking creature will begin to form a new pair the mind of the student; and secondly, in the first and truest of eyes and feelers in about twenty-five days. This operation meaning of the word, as by a thoughtful inspection of some of was often performed on a great number of snails by Spallanzani, God's lesser works, we may renew from time to time and build a celebrated Italian naturalist of the last century. Such a reup again what we may have lost of our reverential love of Him production of organs proves the possession of singular vital without whom not even a sparrow falls to the ground unnoticed powers in so lowly a creature. But Spallanzani and others az incared for.
have gone beyond this. They repeatedly cut off the heads of In such a spirit, then, we introduce to the notice of our snails, and those heads, with all their organs, have been in a raders the snail
, an animal that finds small favour, generally few months reproduced! That is a power which some men speaking, with those who love their gardens.
might have envied. Even the little finger of a human being when cut off is gone for life; no power of making a fresh one grow on the old place belongs to the greatest philosopher on the earth. Yet here we have a poor despised creature often able to recover its lost head, eyes, feelers, and mouth. The snail beats us all on such a work, beyond doubt.
Let us not forget the mouth of the snail. It is an instrument capable of doing no light work, as those know to whose gardens the animal pays its unwelcome visits. The two lips are formed
of a horny substance, which acts in the manner of a file on We will imagine that while strolling round your garden or in vegetables. The tough leaves of the white lily are often rasped the fields you have just picked up a snail. Hold him tenderly, off in a few nights by this cutting machine. If any one should and not long in your hand, or you may make him very wretched be desirous of examining minutely the structure of the snail's Fox 50? Remember his body is cold, your hand is hot, almost mouth, he will find some fine specimens in the Physiological like a furnace to him, and the temperature must be enough to Gallery of the Hunterian Museum in the College of Surgeons, make him faint. In truth, while on a human hand the snail Lincoln's Inn Fields. mast feel about as comfortable as St. Lawrence on his gridiron. Of the snail's brain we may just make this remark, that the Besides, St. Lawrence gained honour and applause for his complete nervous system of the creature's first cousin, the slug, suffering, but no such reward awaits the snail; so, out of a is to be seen in the same museum, and Professor Owen has kindly feeling, do not keep him long in the hot hand.
given a learned description of the whole. Both snails and
Izi Il-Vere is aze preceded by ai, ei,
Se vocire a sound very different
Sve In the former case,
eins from their peculiar sound. i mi srces are well acquainted.
SE 2 Lastrating the sound by - Denis gra to the letters lli in the
Gise Dagise seis collier, billiard, bril* See say one of these words very
e same be the peculiar sound of the 1.
ise de sucrece Send sound which is Mas
suite word seraglio. => is ang sounds, observe the follow
. :-Dumnes es before 1 and ill as a in the Prep
:-Tee se itse bere si and all as a in the
Si res the following examples of : ves se assez ce ssny of them is scarcely
es se mere si echo of the voice.
To be proud of. 1... TX2 ISDS :-:::
Alarm-clock. fotoj to here for a 12 moins
Furrow. il prut.
Sun. buto; try as far as I TET Se
Tozler. but in trai tr 22Orzeste.
Whirlerind. We must be sitezda so se s iz bos.
Labour. What food torgina tim. Sed the action et pet sche Bus e à sathe recy Efferent and common method of creatura bersamnaes druvsp. w mas maasimang sie bei sed illustrated in the preceding deserp. Bons bury tennitee the access bei is the case with which it may be * helbreed corbera. Bat Dute the prepare 12 e 2. ali
sa bestigatised as absolutely vicious, though P07136 xperien retare deeply into tse aber since ak si joasa o inca, meiegant. fire thun walir of line at the estrasse 80 that the same as empletely blocked up and separated fruse the outside world percas, spoken of. vis.:
DjTRE ESSES ? be used to illustrate the kind of Having performed this building feat the stois good-bye 10
ESGLISH. all care and sorrow, dropping into a comfortabe sieep for ube
Noodle. whole winter. Some of these are indeed rode's roared from Boo
Boiled Beef. slumber by hungry birds, which, disortering the sbe drite Bactele
Bottle. their beaks through the thin walls, and tearing out the in-Biess Cejer
Spoon. enail, devour him before he has time to awake.
Curtant, of food may make wholesome soup of their bodies. Sert 0
Wall at the proposal; one species of snail was eaten in Eng and in Spraking of these different methods of pronouncing the the time of Elizabeth, and “ a snail feast” is said to be stii. link the following opinion is taken from Bolmar's “ Levizac's celebrated on special days by some trades in the North of French Grammar," namely :England. A modern cookery book describes no less than * This last pronunciation being the easiest of the two, has twelve modes of preparing the animals for food. Is any beca adopted by so many people in France, that it is no longer reader anxious to try a dish? Then take our recipe : Get à considered a fanlt, except by grammarians. However, I recom sufficient quantity, according to appetite, of the edile sail mend the former, not only on acooant of its correctness, but (Helix pomatia is the learned name), boil them in spring water, also on acconnt of its being a sound very common to the Spanish is said to have preferred them fried; any reader who pleases does not admit of any variation. It is represented in the Spanish can, of course, try them that way.
by Il, in the Italian by gli, and in the Portuguese by Ih."
that we these articles technical descriptions of species and genera, deep Its correct sound is peculiar, and by no means dificult to
81. GN.—This liquid is much ased in the French language physiological discussion, and anatomical details. Our main attain. It is the sound of the letters on in the English words object is to call attention to the richly varied facts which are to bagrio, mignonette, and vignette. be seen in every field and garden throughout the year. There Pronounce the word mignonetie correctly and carefully, obsertis much to excite wonder, and remind us of our infinite Creator ing, at the same time, the peculiar sound of the letters gr, in the meanest creatures of the waters, land, or air.
which will be the correct sound of this liquid.
Les fleurs sont l'ornement des jar Flowers are the ornament of gardens.
Les fleurs des jardins de ce château. The flowers of the gardens of this
Avez-vous l'intention de visiter la Do you intend visiting France ? Dignitaire Dee-gnee-tair Dignitary.
J'ai l'intention de visiter l'Italie. I intend visiting Italy.
Le Capitaine Dumont est-il ici ? Is Captain Dumont here?
Le Major Guillaume est chez lui. Major Willian is at home.
Voyez-vous Madame votre mère ? Do you see your mother?
Je vois Monsieur votre frère. I sce your brother.
Mon frère n'aime pas les louanges. My brother is not fond of praises.
Framboise, f., raspberry. The exceptions to this method of pronouncing the letters Aimer, 1, to be fond of, Cerise, f., cherry.
Demeur-er, 1, to dwell, Légume, m., vegetable. ja occur only in these words, in which they belong to different Apport-er, 1, to bring. live.
Loin, far. syllables; that is to say, in dividing those words into syllables, Bois, m., wood, forest. Etudi-er, 1, to study. Lundi, m., Monday. is would be found that g belonged to one syllable, and n belonged Capitaine, m., captain. Fleur, f., flower. Pêche, f., peach, to the next succeeding syllable, viz. :
Caporal, m., corporal. Fraise, f., strawberry. Prune, f., plum.
1. Aimez-vous le pain ou la viande ? 2. J'aime le pain, la
viande et le fruit. Avons-nous des pêches dans notre jarIgricole Ig-nee-kol Fire-torshipper.
din ? 4. Nous y avons des pêches, des fraises, des framboises Ignition Ig-nee-seonh Ignition.
et des cerises. 5. Monsieur votre frère aime-t-il les cerises ? Ignivome Ig-nee-vom
6. Il n'aime guère les cerises, il préfère les prunes. 7. AvezIg-nee-vor
Fire-eating. Magnificat Mag-nee-fee-kat Name of a sacred hymn. vous des légumes ? 8. Je n'aime point les légumes. 9. Nous Regnicole Raig-nee-kol A native,
n'avons ni légumes ni fruits. (Sect. VI. 3, 4.) 10. Nous n'aiStagnant Stagnanh Stagnant.
mons ni les légumes ni les fruits. 11. Allez-vous tous les jours Stagnation Stag-nah-seonh Stagnation.
dans le bois de Monsieur votre frère ? 12. Je n'y vais pas tous les To the above may be added a few proper names.
jours. 13. Votre seur apporte-t-elle les fleurs ? 14. Elle les
apporte. 15. Madame votre mère apporte-t-elle des fleurs ? SECTION XXVIII.-USE OF THE ARTICLE (S 77]. 16. Elle en apporte tous les Lundis. 17. Voyez-vous le Général 1. The article le, la, les, as already stated, is used in French Bertrand ? 18. Je ne le vois pas, je vois le Caporal Duchêne. before nouns taken in a general sense.
19. Mesdemoiselles vos seurs sont-elles fatiguées ? 20. Mes
seurs sont fatiguées d'étudier. Les jardins sont les ornements des Gardens are the ornaments of villages Fillages et des campagnes,
EXERCISE 52. and of rural districts. 2. The article is also used in French, as in English, before and my brother is fond of books. 3. Is he wrong to like books?
1. Does your sister like flowers ? 2. My sister likes flowers, souns taken in a particular sense.
4. No, Sir, he is right to like books and flowers. 5. Have you Les jardins de ce village sont su- The gardens of this village are su- many flowers in your garden? 6. We have many flowers and ferbes, perb.
much fruit. 7. Is your cousin fond of raspberries? 8. My 3. It is also used before abstract nouns, before verbs and cousin is fond of raspberries and* strawberries. 9. Is the capadjectives used substantively.
tain fond of praises ? 10. He is not fond of praises. 11. Has paresse est odiense,
12. He has brought me Idleness is odious.
the gardener brought you vegetables ? 1 jeunesse n'est pas toujours Youth is not always tractable.
vegetables and fruit. * 13. Is he ashamed to bring you vegedocile,
tables? 14. He is neither ashamed nor afraid to sell vegetables. Le baire et le manger sont néces. Eating and drinking are necessary to 15. Is your mother tired ? 16. My mother is not tired? 17. wires à la vie, life.
Is your brother at Colonel D.'s ? 18. He lives at Colonel D.'s, 4. The article is used before the names of countries, provinces, but he is not at home at present (à présent). 19. How many rivers, winds, and mountains ($ 77 (3) (4)].
peaches have you ? 20. I have not many peaches, but I have
many plums. 21. Does Captain B. like peaches ? 22. He likes La France est plus grande que France is larger than Italy. l'Italie,
peaches, * plums, raspberries, and strawberries.
23. Are you La Normandie est très-fertile. Normandy is very fertile.
going into (dans) your brother's wood ? 24. I go there every
morning. 25. Is General L. here ? 26. No, Sir, he is not here, 3. The article is used before titles.
he is at your cousin's. La Général Cavaignac,
LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY.-IX. 6. In respectful address or discourse, the words Monsieur,
DISCOVERIES OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. Iciare, Mademoiselle are placed before titles and designations The Russian Admiral Krusenstern, in 1804-5, made an exY nsieur le Président,
ploratory voyage in Oceania, which enlarged our hydrographical (Mr.) President. Vuleme la Comtesse,
knowledge of the Pacific Ocean. In 1819, Bellinghausen (Madam) Countess. Misdemoiselle votre sour, (Miss) your sister.
re-visited a part of Polynesia, and made additions to some of the groups.
About the same period, Freycinet discovered Rose 1. The plural of Monsieur, Madame, and Mademoiselle, is Island, and solved some interesting questions relating to those Ti sicurs, Mesdames, and Mesdemoiselles.
distant seas. In 1823 and 1824, Captain Duperré made some 8. The student should be careful to distinguish a noun taken additional discoveries in Polynesia, and re-explored the Papuan m a general or in a particular sense from one taken in a parti- group and New Zealand. Captain Lütke, of the Imperial
Russian Marine, who navigated the seas of Oceania, discovered GESEBAL OR PARTICULAR. SENSE.
some new islands in the Caroline group, and Olimarau, between Sous aimons les livres, Nous avons des livres,
them and the Ladrone Islands. In 1831-32, Captain Laplace, We have books, i.e., some books,
of the French sloop of war La Favorite, visited the coasts of Vous avez écrit des lettres,
Arabia and other countries washed by the Indian Ocean and You have written letters, i.e., somo
China Sea; while about the same time Captain Du Petit-Thouars, letters,
of the Venus, made surveys along the shores of Kamtchatka, CaliRÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.
fornia, and Australia. The Russian Admiral, Krusenstern, also IA modestie est aimable.
Modesty is amiable. Le courge est indispensable au Courage is indispensable to the * The student must not forget that the article is repeated before gedéral general,
Ls Maréchal Ney,
tire sense ($ 78].
To like books.
have the wokes.
made additions to the geography of the Kurile Isles, the coasts islands, stretching from the island of Saghalien on the north to of Japan, and the Sea of Okhotsk. Captain Maxwell, of the the south-eastern extremity of the peninsula of Corea, that suite of Lord Amherst, our ambassador to China, extended our form the Empire of Japan. Of this island empire, the most knowledge of these Asiatic regions. The squadron under reliable account that we possessed, until Lieutenant Silver's his command made several important discoveries in the Yellow recently published work, was one written by Engelbert Kæmpfer, Sea, particularly Sir James Hall's Islands, This expedition in 1690. Several attempts have been made by the Portuguese ascertained that the western coast of the peninsula of Corea and Dutch, since the commencement of the sixteenth century, had been placed on our maps greatly to the westward of its true to establish commercial relations with Japan; but trade with position; and made known to the world a vast archipelago this country has always been attended with great difficulty and which no European had previously visited. Captain Maxwell danger, owing to the repugnance of the inhabitants to hold also visited the Loo-Choo Islands, where he was only welcomed intercourse with foreigners. In 1853, however, the Japanese by feigning shipwreck, and seeking the assistance of the in- government entered into a commercial treaty with the United habitants.
States, and in the following year another was concluded with The northern coasts of Asia having been previously im. Great Britain. Since that time several ports have been opened perfectly known, M. Gedenchtrom was commissioned to explore to British commerce, while embassies have been sent from Japan them in 1808 ; but his efforts were limited. Lieutenant (after- to visit Europe and America, the Japanese showing a disposition wards Admiral) Wrangell was charged to complete the explora- to abandon many of the customs, and even the costume to which tion of these coasts, and to fill up the blanks which then existed they have adhered without change for many hundreds of years, in the maps of Siberia, by re-visiting the most northern latitudes according to their own account, and to adopt in a great measure of these dreary regions. The object of this expedition was to the usages of the most civilised portions of the world. Much of examine the whole of the coast from Cape Chelagsk to Cape an efficient and thorough survey of the Japanese waters has North, discovered by Cook to the west of Behring Strait, and recently (1865-8) been carried out by Co nder Bullock, of to determine whether there existed in the vicinity of these the Royal navy. capes an isthmus uniting Asia and America. This dangerous Expeditions into the interior of Asia have, from time to time, expedition occupied from 1820 to 1824. Beyond Cape Chelagsk, thrown great light on the geography of this part of the Old he discovered Cape Baranoff, and surveyed the coast from this world. We owe much of our knowledge of China to the Jesuit cape to the mouth of the river Kolyma. He discovered that missionaries who laboured in that country; of the northern the hypothesis of the existence of land in this vicinity was un frontiers of this empire, to Klaproth, Timkowsky, De Humboldt, founded ; and he rectified and completed the geography of this and Pierre de Tohihatcheff; of Thibet, to Turner; of the part of the continent of Asia. In 1843, M. Middendorff suc- Himalaya chain of mountains and the adjacent countries, to cessfully explored, in the midst of innumerable dangers, the Lieutenant Webb, Captain Raper, Moorcraft, Colonel Crawford, coasts of the Frozen Ocean between Turukansk, the sources of M. Frazer, Victor Jacquemont, and Major Rennell. Sir H. the Khatounga, and Cape Taimoura. Traversing Siberia from Pottinger made us acquainted with Beloochistan and Scinde; north-west to south-west, he visited the coasts of the Sea of Elphinstone and Burnes with Afghanistan; Burnes with Bok. Okhotsk, and part of Tartary.
hara; and Mouravief with Turcomania and Khiva. Persia has, In the quarter of a century that has elapsed since this time, at different periods, been visited by a number of able travellers, our knowledge of Central Asia has been greatly extended, by to whom we owe a knowledge of this country; as, Tavernier, the advance of the outposts of the Russian empire towards the Chardin, A. Jubert, Moorcraft, Morier, Frazer, Kerr Porter, south into the heart of Independent Tartary, and to the north Alexander, and Messrs. Costo and Flaudin. Of Arabia, we bank of the River Amur, or Amoor, in the east, which now have gained information from Niebuhr, Burckhardt, and Rüppel; forms the greater part of the northern frontier of Manchooria, but of late years a great deal of additional light has been that part of Central Asia, nominally tributary to China, which thrown on the western districts of this enormous peninsula, lies to the east of the great sandy desert of Gobi. Commencing and the condition of its inhabitants, by Captain Richard F. at the Caspian Sea, on the western side of the continent, the Burton, who visited Mecca and Medina in 1853, and travelled acquisition by Russia of the Kirghiz Steppes, and the great through that part of the country which borders on the Red Sea, plains round the Sea of Aral, that are traversed by the Syr by a route hitherto untrodden by Europeans. A considerable Daria or Jaxartes, and the Amoo Daria or Oxus, has led to the part of Captain Burton's adventurous journey was performed in thorough exploration of these regions, of which comparatively the disguise of a pilgrim to the cities sacred to Mahometans as little or nothing was previously known with any degree of cer- the birth-place and burial-place of Mahomet, the founder of tainty. In 1825 an expedition was sent to the Sea of Aral by their religion, as it would be impossible for a European to pass the Russian Government, under the command of General, now through that country in quest of information, otherwise than Count de Berg, who was commissioned to make an accurate in the garb of the inhabitants of some Mahometan country, exploration of the Russian frontier; and in 1848 an eminent Captain Burton's researches were further supplemented and Russian sailor, Admiral Alexis Boutakoff, cut out and fitted augmented by Mr. William Gifford Palgrave, who travelled from together ships at Orenburg, and carried them in pieces across the Dead Sea to the Persian Gulf, through Central and Eastern the stoppes to the shores of the Sea of Aral, where they were Arabia, in 1862-3. This gentleman also made his way through built and launched. These ships were the pioneers of the the country in disguise, and found, contrary to his own expectaestablishment of regular steam navigation on the Sea of Aral, tion and the general belief, that the interior of Arabia, instead and up the great rivers Oxus and Jaxartes, which discharge of being a trackless waste, resembling the Sahara in its chatheir waters into it on the south and west, establishing along racter, and peopled only by a few wandering Bedonin Arabs, is the coast of the last-named stream a line of water communica- inhabited by tribes who live in towns and villages, ander sheikhs tion through the centre of Turkistan, by which an active com. and native princes, actively engaged in trading with each other merce is and will be carried on between the Celestial Empire and the countries bordering on the coast. Mr. Palgrave's dis. and Russia. For this achievement, the Founder's Gold Medal coveries, indeed, were of so important a nature, as to give quite of the Royal Geographical Society was awarded to Admiral a new character to the map of Arabia, the interior of which, Boutakoff in 1867. Our knowledge of the scenery and the previous to his visit, has been represented as being little better manners and customs of the inhabitants of Khiva, Bokhara, than a sterile uninhabited desert. Thibet, and other parts of West Central Asia, has been increased Of recent discoveries in Asia little remains to be said, but by M. Arminius Vámbéry, an enterprising Hungarian, who has that the acquisition of territory recently made by the French travelled through these regions, visiting many places hitherto in the south of Cambodia and Cochin China, has led to an unseen by Europeans, in the disguise of a dervish, at the risk of extended knowledge of this part of India beyond the Ganges, of his life and liberty.
the Indo-Chinese Peninsula; while our wars with China, and Passing eastward along the line of the Jaxartes, through the the spirit of enterprise shown by such men as the English sandy wastes of the desert of Gobi, down the wooded slopes of Tai-ping,” and other adventurers in the service of the Impethe mountains that divide Manchooria from Mongolia, and over rialists, and the so-called Tai-pings who are seeking to orerthrow the rich plains that aro watered by the Songari and its tribu. the present dynasty in that country, have secured a more taries, we stand at last on the shores of the Japan Sea, and elaborate survey of the Chinese coast, and much inforınation make our way across its waters to the crescent-formed chain of respecting the interior of that wonderful country.