« ZurückWeiter »
LESSONS IN MUSIC.-V.
expression. You, however, are a long way from that position, The learner must be careful not to let his thoughts be confused until you have established in your mind and ear a sense of time.
and should carefully practise yourself with this instrument by the different uses of the word "time" in ordinary musical
It is not an easy thing for an unpractised singer to keep language. You will meet with the phrases “common time,”
an equal rate of movement throughout a tune without aid, but " triple time," etc. The word "time,” then, refers to the he must learn to do it, and we are persuaded that a careful and orderly recurrence of accents—the measure. In the phrases frequent use of the pendulum is the best means hitherto pro"quick time,” “ slow time,” etc., it means rate of movement, the posed for the attainment of this power ; but it is customary to speed with which the accents recur. And when we are re-recommend the practice of " beating time.”. To those who may quested to " keep the time,” it is commonly meant that (though wish to adopt this plan, the diagrams below-explaining the We may have been correct in the rate of movement, and accurate method of “ beating time” for the different measures-may be in the recurrence of accents) we have not given the exact propor- of use. But to many persons this is only a hindrance. Let us tionate length of each note. It is known that the swings of the keep in mind that the object to be gained is—first a mental persame pendulum are of equal length in time, whether they are ception of equal movement, or the regular recurrence of the long or short in respect of the distance traversed ; and that the pulses; and secondly, a mental command, by which the muscles longer the pendulum, the slower its movement; and the shorter of the larynx are made to obey the conceptions of the mind, the pendulum, the quicker its movement. This gives us the Both these may be gained by careful practice, discipline, and means of regulating the “rate of movement” in music as well effort on the part of the pupil. If a regular movement of the as in clockwork. There is an instrument called a “metronome" muscles of the arm is easier to him than a regular movement or measure-ruler, the pendulum of which can be lengthened or of the muscles of the larynx, then let him use the first as a shortened according to a graduated scale, so as to swing any guide to the second—not otherwise. It is, however, frequently required number of times in a minute. Let each swing of the necessary, when many sing together, that the leader of the metronome correspond with an aliquot or pulse of the
band should beat time, either with a wand, or by the movement measure, or in the quick senary measure, with the loud and of his own hands. The senary measure may be beaten in the medium accents. Then, if the number at which the weight is set, on the graduated scale of the metronome, be given in the
same way as the binary. signature or title of the tune, it will indicate to others the rate
THE QUATERNARY at which that tune should be sung. Thus, "M. 66,” placed at the head of a tune, signifies that, while this tune is sung, the metronome should swing at the rate of sixty-six swings a minnte; and that each aliquot of the measure should keep pace with a swing of the metronome. The larger metronome, which is kept in motion by clockwork and “ ticks" to every accent of the measure, costs thirty shillings and upward—that which strikes a bell on the recurrence of each stronger accent being much more expensive. The smaller metronomes, which simply oscillate without noise, are sold at four shillings and upward, and there are
even cheaper instruments than these which are sold at sixpence or eightpence. Each teacher, however, and scholar too may make his string pendulum, which will answer the end very fairly. For this purpose fasten a penny or
Down (!) Up (:) Down (!) Right (:) Down (!) Left (:) Right (;)
“ To enable a number of performers," says Dr. Bryce,“ to rate of 160 swings a minute, and make your pendulum corre- keep time, it is usual for a leader to guide them by a precon
This is called beating time. spond with M. 160. At 65 inches tie a single knot, and that certed movement of his hand. length of pendulum will correspond with M. 138. The double
Though it is most essential that every learner should be knots may mark the distances most used, and the single
knots made to keep time—that is, follow his leader—it is by no means those used occasionally between them. The rest of the pen necessary that he should at first be able to beat time, that is, dulum may be constructed to the following table--S. standing act as leader. It may be said that he requires to keep time for single, and D. for double knot.
when singing alone. This is true. But if his mental conception Ist D. at 4 inches from weight
of time cannot guide him to a correct and regular movement of
M. 160. 1st S. at 6) in.
the muscles of the larynx, neither will it guide him to a correct 2nd D. at 9; in.
On the con= M. 112.
and regular movement of the muscles of the arm. 2nd S. at 1 foot il in.
trary, by making him first to regulate the motion of the arm by 3rd D, at 1 foot 7 in.
his mental feeling of time, and then to regulate the motions of 3rd S, at 2 feet 6 in.
his organ of sound by that of his arm, we give him two things 4th D. at 3 feet 104 in.
to do instead of one, and therefore double the chance of going A silk tape with the metronome figures marked at the proper wrong by the very measures we take to keep him right. There distances would be preferable to the string. A lath of wood can, therefore, be no greater practical blunder in teaching than might be graduated in a similar manner, with holes punctured the premature attempt to teach the beating of time to those who for the points of suspension, but it would require different dis- are yet struggling with the difficulties of the scale ; and, instead tances according to its own weight.
of being any assistance to them in keeping time, it is the most The "string pendulum” which is here recommended for its effective hindrance.” Dr. Burney, in his " Dissertation on the convenience of measurement by a common carpenter's rule, is Music of the Ancients,” prefixed to his "General History of slightly inaccurate, though quite near enough to the truth for Music," seems to have proved satisfactorily that one of the all practical parposes. Some such instrument should be used greatest improvements of modern music is, that we have learned by every pupil. Thongh it need not be always used for the to keep time with less external flourishing and hammering than exercises, it should be constantly referred to as a standard, and was necessary in ruder ages, whose musio was little more than atrict attention should be given to it in the earlier lessons. an exaggerated way of marking the feet of the poetry to which When you have learnt to sing the notes of a tune correctly, then it was sung. He concludes his account of the operations of the get your metronome swinging, and practise singing the tune at ancient Coryphæus, or leader of a choir, in the following words : the proper rate, or “ in the right time.” After considerable “It was not only with the feet that the ancients beat the practice has taught you to keep the accents at regular and time, but with all the fingers of the right hand upon the hollow equal distances, you will only need your pendulum to give you a of the left; and he who marked the time or rhythm in this Correct idea of the "rate of movement,” before you commence manner was called 'Manu-ductor.' For this purpose they used singing & tune. An accomplished solo singer, or instru- oyster-shells and the shells of other fish, as well as the bones of mentalist, need not confine himself to strict clock-time, but animals, in beating time, as we do castanets, tabors, etc. Both should vary the rate of movement according to the emotional Hesychius and the Scholiast of Aristophanes furnish passages
to confirm this assertion. What a noisy and barbarous music; Or thus :all rhythm and no sound ! . . It would afford us no very
| d :-.f | m:d | d : .f | m:d. favourable idea of the abilities of modern musicians if they required so much parade and noise in keeping together. The NOTATION OF SLURS, REPEATS, AND EXPRESSION. more time is beaten,' says M. Rousseau, the less it is kept.' a. When two or. more notes are sung to the same syllable, Rousseau's opinion is, perhaps, too strongly expressed; but we they are said to be slurred. The slur is indicated by a stroke think no person of good taste can doubt that it is, in the main, beneath the notes. well founded. The practice of making a whole class beat time b. In some tunes it is required to repeat certain parts of the while they sing, is a return to barbarism. The proper mode of strain. The manner in which this is done is indicated by the teaching this part of practical music would be to make the following signs :members of the class act as leaders in turn; or, if the class be
D. C. abbreviated from the Italian Da Capo, means “Ro. large, one or two at once might be taken out, placed in front of
turn to the beginning." the others, and employed to beat the time—first with the assist
D. S. abbreviated from Dal Segno, means “ Return, and sing ance of the teacher, and afterwards by themselves. See Dr.
from the sign.” Bryce's “ Rational Introduction to Music.”
s. is used for the sign, and The peculiarities of the old notation on the staff of five lines
F. abbreviated from Fine, shows where such repetitions end. will be explained as we come to them, and at the proper period of his course our pupil will be more systematically introduced
R. placed over a note shows that a repetition of words com
mences there. to them. He is already acquainted with most of the points relating to our “interpreting notation." They are, however,
c. Greater “expression ” is sometimes given to music by repeated below for the sake of distinctness. Observe that the regulating the degree of force with which certain parts of the notation of “ slurs, repeats, and expression,” applies alike to strain are to be delivered. This is done means of the followboth notations.
ing signs placed over the notes :NOTATION OF THE RELATIVE LENGTH OF NOTES.—As the f. abbreviated from forte, signifies loud. accents recur at equal intervals of time throughout a tune, p. from piano, signifies soft. marking aliquot parts of the measure, the relative length of ff. very loud. notes can be clearly indicated by showing what proportion of
pp. very soft. the measure cach note occupies. This is done by first placing the accent marks at equal distances along the page, thus
d. Sometimes it is needful to indicate the manner in which
that force is to be thrown in. For this purpose the following . T
marks are used :Or thus :: | : I ::
<> denotes a swell, the voice commencing softly, becoming Or thus:
louder, and then closing softly.
< denotes increasing force.
> denotes diminishing force. And then observing the following rules :
I or · over a note shows that it should be sung abruptly a. A note placed alone immediately after an accent mark is
and with accent. supposed to occupy the time from that accent to the next. Thus:
e. The same piece of music often requires to be sung with | d :d :d | d :d :d la
different expression, according to the different words with which Or thus :
it may be used. In that case the marks of expression should I d :d
be placed on the words. It is proposed that, b. A stroke indicates the continuance of the previous note
CAPITAL LETTERS, in printing, or double lines under the through another aliquot (or pulse), thus :
word in writing, should distinguish words to be sung di
louder than others ; that Or thus:
Italic letters, in printing, or a single line under the word in :d | d :d :d | d
| d :-:d | d
writing, should indicate softness; that C. A dot divides an aliquot into equal parts, and shows th:
The acute accent' should denote special abruptness and the note before it fills half the time from one accent to the ne: ,,
decision of voice; that leaving only half an aliquot to the note or notes which follow,
A stroke above the words, in printing, a succession of thus :
little strokes over or a stroke through the word in I a : d.d | d did :d.d 1 d :
writing, should show a heary movement; the accents Or :
being dragged along, and the lighter ones little distin| d : m.r | d : s, 1 a : m.r | d | 1, :
guished from the stronger; and that :d
The grave accent 'placed on the words which fall to the | s : m m.r : d.t, 1 d.
strong accent of the music, should indicate a spirited d. The dot after a mark of continuance shows that the pre- movement, with marked attention to accent. vious note is to be continued through half that aliquot, thus :
A slower or quicker movement may be expressed by the words | d.r : m.f | m :d | d :-f , m :d
slowly or quickly. The “heavy movement” mentioned above e. A comma signifies that the note before it fills a quarter of necessarily tends to slacken, as the “spirited movement" does the time from one accent to the next. The last note in an to quicken the pace of the singer. aliquot does not require a mark after it, as the proportion left An analysis of the markings used in the Tonic Sol-fa System to it is sufficiently evident. Thus :
has elicited the following principles, which may be of use to the 1 d : d.dd | d :d
student :--Passages should be marked to be sung softly in which
(1) any peculiarly solemn or awe-inspiring thought is expressed; 1 d : t .der | a :d
(2) a change from praise to reflection, or (3) from reflection to f. The dot and comma together show that the note before prayer. Passages should be marked to be sung loudly which them fills three-quarters of the time from one accent to the next, express (1) joyful praise, (2) strong desire, (3) ardent gratitude
, thus :
(4) high resolve, or (5) some inspiring thought. For a inach | d.,r : m.,f | m.,r :d
fuller development of this subject of expression (verbal and 9. This mark , indicates that the note before it fills one-third musical) see the “Standard Course" of Tonic “Sol-fa Lessons," of the time from one accent to the next, thus :
and the “ Tonic Sol-fa Reporter,” Vol. VIII.
THE STANDARD SCALE.- A certain note "abont midway :d | s:1.8.f | m:r
between the highest and the lowest that can be perceived by k. An aliquot or any part of an aliquot left unfilled indicates the ear" is fixed on by musicians as the standard of PITCH, and a pause of the voice, thus :
the notes arranged upon it, according to the order of the | d:11:m :
:t, 1 d:d :r | m:- common mode” or scale already described, are called the hark! hark!'hark! while infant voices sing. standard scale. This note is called c. The second note of the
scale is called D, the third E, the fourth F, the fifth &, the nasals, and liquids. Analogous English sounds have constituted sixth A, the seventh B, and the replicate or octave c again. the agents of the foregoing illustrations of French sounds. A note something less than half a tone higher than any one Generally, this has had reference to separate words only. But of these notes is said to be that note sharpened, as “Glet it be remembered that, to give the correct sound of a French
sharp.” A note something less than half word as it stands alone, is a very different thing from giving that
a tone lower than any one of these notes same French word its correct sound when it is used with other CT
is said to be that note flattened, as “B flat.” words in the formation of a sentence in reading, or a phrase in B
M. Fetis (a well-known French writer) truly conversation.
concert pitch.” The moderns generally fix I assert a dogma, another denies it, is pronounced as if C the sonnd of c as that which would be pro- printed I assert-ta dogma, another deniez-zit, etc.
duced by 256 vibrations of a sonorous body. These and similar word-connections occur in almost every
The accepted “concert pitch” has been gra- sentence and phrase in the English language, where the condually rising even beyond this standard within the last few tinuity of sound is not broken by punctuation marks, without Fears, so that Handel's music (unless we lower the key) is sung our being sensible of it. It is unavoidable. We are, and have nearly a tone higher than he meant it to be.
been, so constantly used to it, that we notice it only when The pitch of the key-note may be given in the heading or attention is called to it. It will be observed that the foregoing title of a tune, thus “key A," "key G," "key B flat,” etc. In word.connections in the English language occur when a word "pitching a tune” it is usual to take the upper cl of the ending with a consonant is immediately followed by another standard scale from the tuning-fork or the pitch-pipe to descend word commencing with a vowel. And the same exists when, in to the pitch-note required, and then give its sound to the syllable common conversation, the word following the one with a final DOH. Don, thus fixed, establishes the relative position of all consonant begins with a silent h, viz. :the other notes of a tune. Suppose the “pitch-note” required I was out about an hour, is pronounced as if printed I wazis D. Then you would take c from the tuning-fork, and run zout-tabout-tan-nour, etc. down till you come to D, which you would “gwell out" a little, Word-connections in the French language also occur under and then sing the same sound to Doh, taking the “chord” circumstances exactly similar ; i.e., when a word ending with a afterwards. Thus :
consonant immediately precedes another word commencing with 10:-|B: AG: FE :D! | DOH :
a vowel or silent h. 1
This feature, therefore, of the pronunciation of French, both DOH : ME | SOH :
in ordinary reading and common conversation, will present no If you find any difficulty in singing your A B C backwards, great difficulty to the student. The following rules, thoroughly remember that after sounding the c- you have only to spell the understood and committed to memory, will place the student Fords Bag and FED. To pitch B flat, sing the c to the syllable beyond doubt and hesitation concerning these word-connections, 50H, and striking FAH, which will be B flat, call it DOH. The and other matters pertaining to the correct, intelligible use of upper cd is used in pitching because the higher sounds are found the French language, both in reading and conversation. to be more distinctly and correctly appreciable by the ear. I.-Pay no attention whatever to the apostrophe. Tuning-forks can now be obtained for a shilling or eighteen- II.—Pronounce the pronoun elle like the English l. pence. The wholesale price is ten shillings a dozen. We men- III.—The final letters ent of verbs, with which the pronouns tion this to stimulate our friends to the purchase of these useful ils and elles do or can agree, are always silent. instruments. With a small-sized one in his pocket the good IV.-In reading poetry, ia, ie, ie, io, ion, ier, and sometimes sol-faist is ready to take up a tune-book, and make out a tune ien, are pronounced as two syllables. without the need of any other instrument. After a time he will V.-The letters es final are pronounced like the letters ay in become, with a little practice to that end, quite independent the English word day, except when s forms the plural of words Even of the tuning-fork. He will soon learn to recall the pitch ending in e, in which latter case es are not pronounced. Dote c at will. Those who are studying the old notation will VI.—Pronounce cux, e, æu, like e mute or unaccented. hke to see the standard scale represented on the staff. It VII.—Pronounce ch and sch, generally, like the letters sh in stands thus :
the English word fish, except the letters ch in the word yacht.
VIII.--The letters st final, in the words Christ and antichrist, are sounded, but they are silent in Jésus Christ.
IX.--All final consonants after q are silent, except in the
words Mars and ours, a bear. CP 'B A G F E D
X.-In the word Messicurs, the final letters rs are only sounded But a man's voice, taking the c from the tuning fork, would when preceding a word beginning with a vowel. sing the scale an octave lower, thus :
XI.-Whenever a word ending with a consonant immediately precedes a word beginning with a vowel or silent h, the sound of the final consonant of the former word is carried to the first
syllable of the latter, or to the word itself, if it be a monosylCB, A, G,
lable, just as if the latter word commenced with that consonant. F, E, D, C,
This is most particularly the case if the two words are intimately
connected in sense. LESSONS IN FRENCH.--XVIII.
The above rule owes its existence entirely to euphony, to subSECTION 1.-FRENCH PRONUNCIATION (concluded).
serve which almost everything else is sacrificed in the French
language. Still the student must not observe it too rigidly, GENERAL RULES FOR PRONOUNCING AND READING
except in poetry. Neither in prose nor conversation does this FRENCH.
rule hold good in the following cases, viz. :82. The preceding portions of this section on French pronunciation 1. When a harsh sound would be the consequence. have been devoted exclusively to the illustration of every known 2. Whenever any punctuation mark is placed between the two French sound, whether occurring singly, or the result of com- words in question. binations of vowels, consonants, compound vowels, diphthongs, XII.-The letter t, in the words et (a conjunction meaning
and) and cent (meaning a hundred) is never carried to the 6. Connaître means to be acquainted with ; savoir, to know, is following word in pronunciation.
said only of things. XIII.-The letter a in the word Août, the month August (pro-Connaissez-vous ce Français, cet Do you know that Frenchman, that nounced oo, and not ah-oo), is not sounded.
Anglais, cet Allemand, et cet Englishman, that German, and XIV.-In the compound word est-il, and a few others, the t is Espagnol ?
that Spaniard ? carried to the second syllable in pronunciation.
Savez-vous le français, l'anglais, Do you know French, English, Ger. XV.-Whenever a word ending with a silent e is immediately l'allemand et l'espagnol ?
man, and Spanish? followed by another word beginning with a vowel or h mute,
RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. the consonant preceding the silent e of the first word is carried to the next word in pronunciation; as :
Le Capitaine G. sait-il le français ? Does Captain G. know French? La France entière, as if printed la Fran-centière, and pro
Il ne le sait pas, mais il l'apprend. He does not know it, but he is learn
ing it. nounced lah franh-sach-teair.
Connaissez-vous le Docteur L. ? Do you know Dr. L. ? Honnête homme, as if printed honne-tomme, and pronounced Je ne le connais pas, mais je sais I am not acquainted with him, but o-may-tom.
où il demeure.
I know where he lives. XVI.-With the words ah, eh, oh, ouest (one of the points of Ce monsieur est-il peintre ? Is that gentleman a painter ? the compass), ouf, oui, onze, onzième, pho, unième, yacht, yatagan, Non, il est architecte.
No, he is an architect. yole, and yucca, no final consonant of a preceding word is con- Ce monsieur est un architecte dis. That gentleman is a distinguished nected in pronunciation. Neither is any elision of the article
architect. made before any of these words.
Ce Français parle grec et arabe. That Frenchman speaks Greek and XVII.-In the phrase vers les une heure, the s final of the n parle le grec, l'arabe et l'italien. He speaks the Greek, Arabic, and
Arabic. second word, les, is not carried to the following word, une, in
Italian languages. pronunciation.
Avez-vous vu Charles Dix, frère de Have you seen Charles the Tenth, XVIII.—The word cinq is pronounced sanh whenever it comes Louis Dix-huit ?
brother of Louis the Eighteenth? before a consonant or an aspirated h. But before a vowel or h
VOCABULARY. mute it is pronounced sanhk.
XIX.-The letters ue have the sound of u, when they are not Allemand, -e, German. Grec, -que, Greek. Quatorze, fourteen. silent, after g and q.
Ancien, -ne, ancient, Hongrois, -e, Hunga. Quatre, four. xx. -The word dix, ten, before a consonant, is pronounced Bibliothèque, t., book- Langue, ., language.
Anglais, -e, English. rian.
Suédois, -e, Swedish, dee; before a vowel or h mute, deez; and at the end of a clause,
Suede. as deess.
Chinois, -e, Chinese. Polonais, -e, Polish, Tapissier, m., upholXXI.-The word sir, six, before a consonant, is pronounced Danois, -e, Danish,Dane. Pole,
sterer. see; before a vowel or h mute, seez; and at the end of a clause,
EXERCISE 53. XXII.— The word huit, eight, before a consonant, is pro- 1. Connaissez-vous ce monsieur ? 2. Oni, Madame, je le nounced uee, or nearly wee; before a vowel or h mute, as ueet, connais fort bien. 3. Savez-vous de quel pays il est ? 4. Il or nearly weet.
est hongrois. 5. Parle-t-il allemand ? 6. Il parle allemand, XXIII.-The letters er final are usually pronounced like the polonais, russe, suédois et danois. 7. N'est-il pas médecin ? letters ay in the English word day. The following words, how- 8. Non, Monsieur, avant la révolution il était capitaine. 9. ever, constitute an exception to the above rule. In them the Avez-vous envie d'apprendre le russe ? 10. J'ai envie d'apletters er are pronounced like air in English.
prendre le russe et le grec moderne. 11. Connaissez-vous les Alger Cher Fier Hier Magister Sadder messieurs qui parlent à votre smur? 12. Je ne les connais pas. Amer Cuiller Frater Hiver Mer Stathouder 13. Savez-vous où ils demeurent ? 14. Ils demeurent chez le Belvéder Enfer Gaster Jupiter Niger and
tapissier de votre frère. 15. N'avez-vous pas l'histoire de Louis Cancer Fer Gessner Lucifer Pater Ver.
Quatorze dans votre bibliothèque ? 16. Je n'ai ni celle de XXIV.—Divide each word naturally into syllables, as you Louis Quatorze, ni cello de Henri Quatre. 17. Avez-vous tort would in the English language.
d'apprendre le chinois ? 18. Je n'ai pas tort d'apprendre le
chinois. 19. Vos compagnons apprennent-ils les langues anSECTION XXIX.--USE OF THE ARTICLE (continued).
ciennes ? 20. Ils savent plusieurs langues anciennes et modernes. 1. Adjectives of nationality will, according to Rule 4 of the 21. Parlez-vous anglais ? 22. Je sais l'anglais et je le parle. last lesson, be preceded by the article.
23. Connaissez-vous l'Anglais que nous voyons ? 24. Je ne le I apprend le français, l'anglais, He learns French, English, German, connais pas. 25. Il ne me connaît pas et je ne le connais pas. l'allemand et l'italien, and Italian.
EXERCISE 54. 2. After the verb parler, the article may be omitted before an adjective of nationality, taken substantively.
1. Does our physician know French ? 2. He knows French, Votre frère parle espagnol et por- Your brother speaks Spanish and English, and German. 3. Does he know the French physician ? tugais,
4. He knows him very well. 5. Are you acquainted with that 3. The article is not used in French before the number which lady? 6. I am not acquainted with her. 7. Is she a German follows the name of a sovereign. This number (unless it be or a Swede? 8. She is neither a German nor a Swede, she is a first and second), must be the cardinal, and not the ordinal Russian. 9. Do you intend to speak to her ? 10. I intend to [$ 26 (3)].
speak to her in (en) English. 11. Does she know English? Vous avez l'histoire de Henri You have the history of Henry the 12. She knows several languages; she speaks English, Danish, Quatre,
Swedish, and Hungarian. 13. Is your brother a colonel ? 14. 4. A noun placed in apposition with a noun or pronoun is not No, Sir, he is a captain. 15. Is your upholsterer a Dane ? 16. in French preceded by un, une, a or an, unless it be qualified by He is not a Dane, he is a Swede. 17. Are you a Frenchman ? an adjective or determined by the following part of the sentence. 20. I know Chinese, Russian, and modern Greek. 21. Are you
18. No, Sir, I am a Hungarian. 19. Do you know Chinese ? Votre ami est médecin,
Your friend is a physician.
wrong to learn languages ? 22. I am not wrong to learn lanVotre ami est un bon médecin, Your friend is a good physician.
guages. 23. Do you know the Englishman who lives at your Notre frère est un avocat célèbre, Our brother is a celebrated advocate. brother's ? 24. I am acquainted with him. 25. I am not 5. PRESENT OF THE INDICATIVE OF THE IRREGULAR VERBS. of books. 28. Have you a desire to learn Russian ? 29. I
acquainted with him. 26. Do you like books ? 27. I am fond APPRENDRE, to learn. CoxxaiTRE, to know. Savoir, to lenow.
have no desire to learn Russian. 30. Have you no time? 31. J'apprends, I learn, do Je connais, I knov, or Je sais, I know, or do I have but little time. 32. What do you learn ? 33. We learn learn, or am learning. do knore.
Latin, Greek, French, and German. 34. Do you not learn
Spanish? 35. We do not learn it. 36. Have you fine flowers Nous apprenons. Nous connaissons. Nous savons.
in your garden? 37. We have very fine flowers; we are fond Vous apprenez Vous connaissez. Vous savez.
of flowers. 38. Do you give them to him ? 39. I give them to apprennent. Ils connaissent. Ils savent.
you. 40. Give us some? 41. Do not give us any.
LESSONS IN PENMANSHIP.-XVIII. the looped form of termination is useful when the next letter
happens to be e, as by making the finishing-turn larger, we are In the copy-slips that are given on this page, a new elementary the better able to carry it into the fine up-stroke commencing at form is brought under the reader's notice—the first of the four cc, which forms the loop of this letter. In Copy-slip No. 61, as elementary strokes entering into the composition of the seven our readers will perceive, the stroke that we have been describletters of the writing alphabet that yet remain to be considered. ing is given with the top-and-bottom turn, to which elementary This stroke, which is shown separately in Copy-slips Nos. 61 stroke it is added in order to form the letter V, the simplest of and 63, enters into the formation of v, w, and b. When exhi. the three letters into whose composition it enters. In Copy-slip bited by itself, it may be described as a fine bottom-turn or No. 63, the bottom-turn is given, to which, twice repeated, this hooked-stroke, consisting of a hair-line commenced at the line | new elementary form is added to form the letter w, while with
ce, and brought downwards, like the lower half of the ordinary | the modification of the bottom-turn, known as the letter 1, which bottom-turn, as far as the line b b, where it is turned to the right stands third in order in Copy-slip No. 63, it forms the letter b. and carried upwards, with a slight inclination to the left after The three letters v, w, and b, are given separately in Copyit has crossed the line cc, until it reaches the line a a. The slips Nos. 62, 64, and 65. It will be noticed that although in pen is then brought down the line again to a point about mid- exhibiting the stroke by itself it has been commenced at the way between a a and cc, to thicken it, and then turned abruptly line cc, and carried downwards and then upwards with a bottomto the right, making a small curved stroke, which completes the turn, practically it is nothing more than the extension of the elementary form. The short thickened stroke which is made fine up-stroke of the bottom-turn as far as the line a a, where by the downward course of the pen along the hair-line already it is finished in the manner already described. It should be carried up to the line a a, must have its broadest part at this remarked that the letter w is frequently made by adding this line, and taper gradually downwards until the point is reached termination to the fine up-stroke of the bottom-turn of the letter at which the curved line completing the stroke is turned to the n. The form, however, that we would recommend our readers right. Sometimes this stroke is finished with a small loop at the to adopt is given in Copy-slips Nos. 64 and 66, where w is top resembling the loop of the letter e. The method, however, formed by the addition of this termination to the fine up-stroke adopted in our copy-slips is neater and more compact, although of the second bottom-turn of the letter u.