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7. It may be remarked that, instead of adding 1 to the next
OUR HOLIDAY.-II. figure of the lower number in & case where a figure is larger than the one standing above it, it would be the same thing to
GYMNASTICS.-I. THE BAG AND THE RING EXERCISES. subtract 1 from the next figure of the upper number.
It is an old and undisputed truth, though one which has frequently The truth of this will appear from exhibiting the process of been lost sight of, that no system of education is complete unless subtracting 4789 from 5231, as follows :
it provides for the development and strengthening of the bodily 5231 = 5 x 1000 + 2 x 100 + 3 × 10 + 1
powers as well as the mental faculties. Physical training is, in 4789 = 4 x 1000 + 7 x 100 + 8 X 10 + 9
fact, of as much importance as intellectual culture ; and, for the The difference of these will be the same as the difference of real welfare of the individual, the two should go hand in hand.
Knowing this, the Greek sought strength as ardently as he 4 X 1000 + 11 X 100 + 12 x 10 + 11
strove for wisdom, and the Roman expressed his idea of human and 4 x 1000 + 7 X 100 + 8 X 10 + 9 It is evidently
perfection in the phrase mens sana in corpore sano—"a sound
mind in a sound body.” It is our design, in our papers on 4 X 100 + 4 X 10 + 2, or 442.
Gymnastics, to give the student some assistance in the practice Here we have not added anything to either number, but have of physical training, not only as a relief and diversion from his only arranged the upper one in a different form.
studies, but also as a means of acquiring vigour to pursue them The process given in the first rule is the most convenient in with success. For the influence of the condition of the body practice.
upon the powers of the mind is well known, and it will The learner is recommended to analyse the process he uses in frequently be found that one hour's physical effort in a right the first few examples which he attempts.
direction will do much to assist the scholar in his progress with 8. Tests of Correctness.-(1.) Add the remainder to the smaller his books. number; if the result so obtained be equal to the larger number, Gymnastic training is designed to secure health and strength the work may be presumed to be correct; for it is evident that by the equal development and exercise of the limbs and muscles the smaller number and the remainder are the two parts into of the body. Some exercises are better adapted to this purpose which the larger number is divided.
than others, the best being those which bring the greater (2.) Subtract the remainder from the greater of the two number of organs into play simultaneously; and the student non bers; if the difference is equal to the less number, the should select for himself, or under the advice of an experienced working may be considered to be correct.
friend, those which are best suited to his constitution and EXERCISE 5.
degree of physical strength. As in the present paper we shall 1. From 5843 subtract 2731
describe only some of the simpler forms of gymnastics, we shall 8. From 96531768 sub. 873625
not have occasion now to mention any that may not be prac9. From 89879 sub. 78654
9. From 10000000 sub. 999999 3. From 54903670 sub. 504089 10. From 99999999 sub, 100000
tised with advantage by all beginners; but the case may be 4. From 9876102 sub. 1050671 11. From 83567000 sub. 438567
otherwise with the more advanced exercises to be mentioned 3. From 4006723 subtract 5001 12. From 34200591 sub. 8888888
hereafter. 6. From 3601900 sub. 1000000 13. From 95246300 sub. 9438675 One never-failing principle to be observed in all these 7. From 2035024 sub, 27040 14. From 76854313 sub. 59798109 pursuits, if real advantage is sought to be gained by them, 15. From 123456789 subtract 12345678
is that a violent or undue strain upon any portion of the 16. From 2468759768 subtract 1123344567
body should always be avoided. The exercises should partake 17. From 1000000000 subtract 123456789
of the character of natural and graceful movements; they 18. From 142857142857 subtract 42857142858
should proceed by easy gradations from the less to the more 19. From 6764 + 3764 take 6500 + 2430
difficult; and when the gymnast is really fatigued they should 20. From 2890 + 8407 take 4251 + 3042
cease at once. These principles we cannot too emphatically 21. From 8564 - 2573 take 4431 - 1735
impress upon our readers. They should remember that more 22. From 7561 2846 take 1734 + 2056 23. From 9687 3401 take 3021 + 1754
benefit is derived from moderate exertion than by excessive
effort. The modern system of gymnastio training, which has 24. What number is that to which 3425 being added, the done and is doing so much to make physical education popular sum will be 175250 ?
and useful, is one of light gymnastics chiefly. Some of these 25. A man having 55000 pounds, paid 7520 pounds for a exercises we proceed now to describe. We commence with that honze, 3260 pounds for furniture, 2375 pounds for a library. class of exercises which may be practised without implements How much had he left?
or training of any kind. For these as well as for the higher 26. A man worth 163250 pounds bequeathed 15200 pounds gymnastics the best form of dress is a pair of loosely-fitting apiece to his two sons, 16500 pounds to his daughter, to his trousers or knickerbockers, fastened round the loins by a belt, wife as much as to his three children, and the remainder to an and a flannel shirt. It is an advantage for the trousers as hospital. How much did his wife and how much did the well as the shirt to be of flannel. hospital receive ?
1. The first thing to be done is to acquire the habit of stand27. A man bought three farms : for the first he paid 5260 ing in an erect position. Place the legs close together, the pounds, for the second 3585, and for the third as much as for heels touching, and the toes turned out at right angles. Hold the first two; he afterwards sold them all for 15280 pounds. the head well up, with the eyes looking straight in front; How much did he gain or lose ?
throw the shoulders back, and the chest well forward. Let the 28. A jockey gave 150 crowns for a horse, and meeting an arms hang down the sides, the elbows and the little fingers acquaintance, changed horses with him, giving 37 crowns to touching the body, and the palms open to the front. Practise boot; meeting another he changed again, receiving 28 crowns to this position until it becomes easy and natural. boot; he finally changed again, giving 78 crowns to boot, and 2. Next, from this position, bring the arms gradually forward, then sold his last horse for 140 crowns. What did he lose ? without bending the elbows, until they are level with the chest,
29. Find the difference between every two successive numbers and the points of the fingers meet. Then raise the extended in the squares contained in Ex. 3 on Addition (page 23), taking arms above the head as far as you can in the form of a semicare always to place the larger number uppermost—that is, for circle, bending the elbows as little as possible in the movement. the minuend.
Reverse these actions, bringing the arms back to the body as 30. Find the difference between a million and a thousand before.
3. Raise the arms until they are level with the shoulders ; 31. From 4850902 subtract 98998; from the remainder sub- then bring them forward until the thumbs meet, and extend tract the same number; and from every successivo remainder them somewhat rapidly back as far as possible, still without subtract the same number, until a remainder at last be obtained bending the elbows. The constant practice of this simple from which it cannot be subtracted; and then, tell how many exercise will do much to expand the chest. times the subtraction has been performed.
4. Practise the same movement, making the palms of the 32. What is the difference between a hundred thousand and hands meet behind the back each time. ten millions one thousand, and a hundred millions ten thousand 5. Starting from the erect position, bring the arms together and one?
with the fingers pointing to the ground; thon, keeping the arms
and legs perfectly straight, bend the body forward, with the through which the bags may be thrown. This, however, is not head towards the ground, and touch the feet with the points of necessary, although it tends to increase the interest of the the fingers. When this can be done with ease, touch the floor players in the exercise. in the same position. This will be difficult at first, but it will The design of the exercise is to give freedom to the muscles soon be accomplished with a little practice.
of the chest and arms, and promote a healthy movement of the 6. Place the arms akimbo;" that is, with the elbows out body gonerally. For this purpose the bags are thrown from and the hands resting on the hips. Sink down to the floor one player to the other, in a until you sit upon your heels, and then rise to the erect position. variety of positions, which Repeat this several times in succession.
may be left in some measure 7. Bring the right arm level with the shoulder; then throw to their own taste and init back, and whirl it round at full length from the body. Exercise clination, provided it be rethe left arm and shoulder in the same way. Then begin by membered, as a rule, to keep throwing the arm forward, and whirl it as before. Practise the the legs perfectly straight, the same movements with both arms simultaneously.
body upright, and the chest 8. With the hands on the hips, raise each knee as high as well thrown forward. This you can, keeping the other leg perfectly straight. Then extend position is exemplified in Fig. each leg sideways as far as possible, remaining a few seconds in i. Standing thus, the bag may that position.
be thrown first with the right 9. Hop on one foot several times successively, then on the arm, then with the left, then other, keeping the body erect.
with left and right alternately; These exercises will do much for the beginner in gymnastics, now, with both hands brought and will also suggest others of a similar description which he back behind the neck, throw may practise with advantage.
the bag over the head; or, We would remark here that the importance of regular walking with the bag in the right hand, exercise as a means of strengthening the frame and keeping the throw it from behind round system in health must not be lost sight of, in the attention given the left arm, which is kept to purely gymnastic pursuits. No exercise is more salutary in straight to the body; throw
Fig. 3. its effects, and it has with the left hand in the the additional recom- same manner; and so on. Fig. 2 represents a more difficult mendation of taking position, from which the bag is thrown over the head. This the pedestrian into will come easy to the learner with a little practice. the fresh air, which We pass on now to the Ring Exercises, which have received is as necessary to the very high eulogium, and prove highly amusing as well as bene. preservation of life ficial to the players. The ring is made of wood, usually cherry, and health as a pro- and is one inch in thickness and six inches in diameter. This per supply of food. is sufficient to enable two persons to grasp it and use it with
freedom. All the ring exercises are for two players, who should We now come to be of equal or nearly equal strength. Two rings are required the various kinds of in the course of the exercises, each player grasping one in gymnastic exercises either hand. The rings should be well polished. They are which are practised inexpensive articles, being sold occasionally as low as one shil. with the aid of appa- ling per pair; and any wood-turner will supply them at a little ratus, and will men. more than this sum. tion first those which We give two figures as examples of the exercises that may be require only the sim- practised with either one or both hands. In the first, the players, plest appliances, but standing in the position shown in Fig. 3, both pull hard with are still of high utility. the right hand, and draw the right arm from right to left and
For the introduc. from left to right; afterwards performing the same movements
tion of two of these with the ring held in their left hands. Remember to keep the Fig. 1.
Fig. 2. we are indebted to an head well up and the shoulders
American physician, back, with the feet placed at Dr. Dio Lewis, who has bestowed great attention on gymnastics right angles, in all these movefrom a physiological point of view, and whose teaching and ments. In the second example, principles are being widely adopted in Europe as well as in the players first stand back to America. These are the Bag and the Ring exercises, which we back, with the rings held down. shall now describe.
wards; then each lunges forThe Bag Exercises, which may be used in families with great ward with the right leg, and the benefit, are practised simply with bags filled with beans, the hands are raised over the head, directions for making which are given as follows by Dr. Lewis :- as shown in Fig. 4. They reThe material is a strong bed-ticking. Bags for young children turn to the back-to-back posishould be, before sewing, seven inches square ; for ladies, nine tion, and step forward with the inches; for ladies and gentlemen exercising together, ten inches; left leg in the same manner. for gentlemen alone, twelve inches. Sew them with strong linen Among other ring exercises or silk thread, doubled, nearly three-quarters of an inch from may be mentioned the following: the edge, leaving a small opening at one corner to pour in the The players, standing face to beans. Fill the bags three-quarters full, and they are ready for face, and with one foot well ad. use. If used daily, once in two weeks they should be emptied vanced, the other thrown back, and washed. To allow them to be played with after they are both pull with one hand and soiled is pretty sure to furnish much dust for the lungs of the push with the other, alternately; players, beside soiling the hands and clothes. There cannot be one arm thus being extended to
Fig. 4. too much care exercised in regard to this point of cleanliness, its full length, and the other Before the beans are used the first time they should be rinsed drawn back as far as possible, at each movement. Then, stand. with water until it runs from them quite clean, when they must ing in the same way, draw back with both arms, your partner be dried; and every month or two afterwards this cleansing pushing his as far forward as he can, and each doing this altershould be repeated.
nately. Standing in an erect position, each raise one hand and The Bag Exercises should be performed by two persons prac- lower the other as far as possible, being careful not to bend the together; and it is an advantage, when the practice is elbows. Raise and lower the arms alternately from the position
to have suspended from the ceiling a hoop or rings, represented in Fig. 4.
that the problem of how to make a serviceable eye is a diffi.
cult one. THE EYE.
The analogy of the mirror, however, must not load the reader
to suppose that a plane surface, sensitive to light, would be conThe eye is the instrument by which the mind becomes ac- scious of distinct images, or that it would see objects as we, quainted with external and distant objects by means of the light, by the aid of the eye, see them reflected on its surface. For which is one of the most subtle and delicate forces in nature, distinct vision, it is necessary that many divergent rays proceedand needs a correspondingly delicate and complicated organ to ing from each point in an object should be collected together appreciate its effects.
again in a point, and that point must lie exactly on the retina, Without inquiring into the nature of light, it is sufficient for or sentient mirror. Thus, the instrument known as a camera, our subject that we know
which has a lens set into the some of its constant qualities,
side of a box, and a surface at or laws, as they have been
the other side to receive the called.
image, is a more perfect simile In its simplest condition
for an eye. light travels in straight lines
Wo will now describe the in all directions, from its
structure of one of the most source; hence, when we Bee
perfect instruments for taking a luminous body, we know the
note of the impression prodirection in which it lies, be
duced by light with which we cause it must lie in the line of
are acquainted the human the ray which reaches us.
eye. When & ray of light thus
The human eye is globular; travelling in a straight line
differing, however, from a perstrikes opon the surface of any
feot sphere in some slight but object, it is affected in some
important particulars. The of the following ways accord.
thick, tough capsule, which ing to the nature of the object
maintains the shape of the eye, and of its surface :
and contains all the other parts 1st. It may be destroyed, as
necessary to perfect vision, is far as visual effects are con
about one inch from front to cerned, partially or wholly.
back, and a little more from 2nd. It may penetrate the
side to side and from top to substance of the body, being
bottom. This is called tho more or less bent as it traverses
sclerotic, or hard coat of the the surface. This occurs when
eye. This hard coat, which the body is transparent.
forms the eyeball, differs from 3rd. It may glance off and
a true sphero also, in that its parsue a different direction
1. VERTICAL SECTION OF THE HUMAN EYE IN ITS SOCKET. front part, occupying about outside the object upon which
one-sixth of its circumference it strikes.
Q, sclerotie or hard coat of the eye; b, choroid ; c, retina or nervous (in section), bulges forward far The first effect is called ab. mirror; d, membrane holding the vitreous humour; e, vitreous more than it would do if it sorption; the second, refrac- humour ; , cornea; 9, aqueous chamber and humour ; h, crystalline were only a part of the largor tion; and the third, reflection.
lens; i i, iris; k k, ligament to hold lens; l, meibomian glands; m m, globe ; and this part differs Reflected light concerns us muscles to wield the eye; n, muscle to lift the eye-lid.
from the other in texture also, most. The eye occupies itself
fo: while it is equally strong with reflected rays. If light were incapable of being reflected, and tough, and even harder, it is purely transparent, while the the gan would appear as a sharply-defined dazzling erb in a rest of the eyeball is opaque and white. This front clear porpitch-dark universe, and eyes would be of no use ; for though tion, which is let into the hinder part as a bay-window is put poets tell us so, not even the eagle spends its time in so profit into the wall of a room, or as an old-fashioned watch-glass is less and injurious an
set into the rim of employment as gaz
the watch-case, is ing on the sun.
called the cornea, or Now, as reflected
horny structure. Its light travels in
greater projection or straight lines from
convexity is not a the object upon
matter of accident, which it is reflected,
but highly importit is to the eye, in
ant, for if it were all respects, the
not so, no near ob. same as though that
ject could be seen 2. DIAGRAM SHOWING HOW OBJECTS ARE IMPRINTED ON THE RETINA. sbject were itself
distinctly. kiminoas. As light
Lining tho inner proceeds from all parts of an object, and travels in straight surface of the sclerotic is a thin membrane, which supports lines, we have only to let the rays fall upon some surface which in its outer layers the larger arteries and veins which carry shall receive them without derangement, to get an image which the blood to and from the front and inner parts of the eye, will give the colour, form, and, by a little inferential reasoning, while it has on its inner surface a very thin pavement of the size and distance of the object.
flat, six-sided cells; each cell filled with black grains. The The first requisite in an eye, then, is a sentient mirror, which grains, and even the cells which contain them, are so small and shall receive the images of objects and feel them.
so closely set as to form what appears to any but a high mag. This mirror must be of moderate and portable size, and well nifying power, a continuous thin black sheet, perfectly opaque. ander control, so that it can be turned about.
This membrane papers the inside of the eye as far forward as All mirrors are perishable and delicate articles, liable to frac- the place where the sclerotic joins the cornea, and is there contare; but when we conceive of a mirror whose surface and nected firmly with this outer jacket by a strong ligament and backing, and even its very frame, must be made not of hard muscle. Before it reaches this point, however, it is puckered glass, imperishable quicksilver, and durable wood, but of soft into somewhat irregular fore-and-aft folds. Beyond this pro renewable tissues, and think how indispensable it is that it the choroid, as this membrane is called, is continued as a should be protected and kept in a state of repair, we must admit | hanging curtain, shaped like a quoit, that is, round and VOL. L
vita 2 hole in the middle of it, which is opposite the middle of too little, distinct images of near objects are impossible. If e corner, ce wiadow of the eye.
the crystalline lens is too dry, or too moist, it becomes clouded From the same circle of attachment, but internal to the with hard or soft cataract. If the pigment be not of sufficient purtain before-named, is suspended, or rather held, by a liga- quantity in the choroid, vision is interfered with ; and from this ment, a perfectly transparent body shaped like a lentil, that is, cause albinos, or persons whose hair and skin are deficient in with two convex but flattened surfaces. The quoit-like curtain colouring matter, are dazzled in ordinary daylight. is called the iris, and the disc the crystalline lens. The lens is Further, if the retina, or part of it fail, as it sometimes does, islang at some little distance from the cornea, leaving a chamber, from some cause too subtle to be found out, the object is seen which is filled with watery fluid, which bathes both sides of the only in part; thus, some persons have this peculiar affection of iris. Behind the lens, and occupying the larger part of the hollow half the retina, so that when they look directly at an object, of the eye, is a denser liquid, contained in a thin, perfectly. they only see the half of it. transparent membrane, which not only encircles it, but sends in The retina, perfect in all its other functions, may not dispartitions from its outer wall to divide the liquid into compart-criminate colour. The writer once played a game at croquet ments, so that when the eye is cut into, the humour does not with a gentleman, who disclosed his infirmity thus: Two balls run out, but seems to be of the consistence of clear jelly. Both were lying together-one red, and the other green. He asked the liquid and capsule are so transparent that they are called which was his, and being told the red one, asked which red the hyaloid membrane and vitreous humour, or the glassy mem- one ? On another occasion the writer was looking at a brightlybrane and humour.
coloured geological map. A stranger who looked with him soon All the main parts of the eye have now been described except showed that he was quite unaware that it was other than the the essential one for which all the others are made, namely, ordinary ordnance map. the retina : that wonderful stratum of nervous matter which These defects of vision call marked attention to the perfecreceives and transmits to the brain all luminous impressions, tion of the instrument of vision, when perfect, as it is in the glories of colour, the splendid imagery of the earth, and the most cases. soft radiance of the sky.
It would be difficult to determine whether the eye were made The retina lies between the choroid and vitreous humour. for light, or light for the eye; but that the Creator of the one It lines the choroid as closely as that membrane lines the was cognisant of all the wonderful qualities of the other, sclerotic, and so covers the whole back part of the eye.
admits of no doubt; and this goes far to prove that the Creator The retina (or sentient mirror), thin as it is, has been found of the one must have been the designer of the other. under the microscope to consist of many layers of diverse structure. Not to descend into great minuteness, it may be said to consist of an outer layer of cylindrical bodies, called, from their
LESSONS IN ENGLISH.-II. shape, rods and cones, which run perpendicularly to the surface
SIMPLE PROPOSITIONS. of jonction between retina and choroid. These bodies are the instruments by which the rays are noted. It would seem that
Alfred reads. curb FA or cone conveys but one impression, so that while the THESE two words form what is called a proposition; they form image d an external object may be made very small on the a simple proposition. Proposition is a word of Latin origin, retóns, and get distinctly seen, because of the minuteness of signifying something that is put before you. As being sometabases, yet the image must cover a certain number of them thing that is put before you, it is a statement; it is a statement tot so image at all. In other words, if it only covered one, of a fact or a thought; a statement of something in the mind, tarorson would be that of a single point of light.
or something out of the mind. Here the statement is that Neat me the granular layer, the office of which is no further Alfred reads. Such a statement is also termed a sentence. krenos tons that similar structures are found wherever impres- Sentence is also from the Latin, and signifies a form of words ir rated by the senses are modified. The innermost layer comprising a thought or sentiment. These words, then-namely, unusta o serve-fibres, which convey the impressions in some sentence, proposition, and statement, have the same significaet ma as the telegraph wires convey their messages. These tion; and they each denote an utterance, the utterance of a fact, 2. rests one point in the back part of the eyeball, a little on an idea, an emotion. Observe that both words are essential to fra manter or sobe side of the axis, and there pass through the the proposition. Take away Alfred, you then have reads; but sergrad zad selerotic, which are pierced by a great many holes, reads is no proposition, for nothing is stated. Take away reads, wat w mited behind into the optic nerve, and this runs to the you leave Alfred; but Alfred by itself says nothing, makes no om lezte, however, being joined by its fellow from the other statement, and therefore forms no proposition or sentence. The ***, as the separating from it again, having received some of two words must concur to make a proposition. If so, less than Enos, demands of this nervous cord, and given up some of its own two words do not make a proposition; and a proposition or
sentence may consist of not more than two words. Let us now trace the course of a number of rays reflected from In these simple statements you have in the germ the sub* sugie groint in an object, before they reach the retina (see Fig. stance of the doctrine of sentences. If you understand what I 2. These rays as they come from a single point are, of course, have now said, you have laid the foundation for a thorough disaging. They strike, therefore, all over the surface of the acquaintance with language in general, and with the English wyrusze, and as they pass through it are gathered somewhat language in particular ; for to a form of words similar in simangeluer. They then pass the aqueous humour with a slightly plicity to that which stands at the head of this lesson is all te mod course. The outer ones are cut off by the opaque iris, speech reducible; and that model presents the germ out of which ve the central ones pass through the lens, which rapidly gathers are evolved the long and involved sentences of our old English
a twgether, and they are then transmitted through the divines, and the full and lofty eloquence of Milton's immortal Srsons humour, all the time converging until they meet at a essay on behalf of the liberty of the press. Just exactly in or on the retina.
The sentence as it stands is what is called an affirmative As maying that they meet exactly on the retina, it is meant proposition ; that is, it affirms or declares something—it affirms Sensuey will do so if the adjustment is perfect. If it be im- or declaros that Alfred reads. The term affirmative is used in Sebast, so that the age unite in a point either before the retina, opposition to the term negative. Negative propositions are we would suite bekind it #f the could traverse the choroid, the those in which something is denied. An affirmative may become is tiuram and stint
a negative proposition by the introduction of the adverb not; mollis of low to get a distinct image, of course, is thus, Alfred reads not. In English it is more common to employ ht, when the points from which the light proceeds also the emphatic does, as Alfred does not read. You thus see Tas, fem suy deject of appreciable form. To ob- that the words does (do, or dost, as may be required) and not le sales o fee come, the hind and front face of convert an affirmative into a negative proposition. Sentences due fase at the retins, bust all be of definite and in which a question is asked we term interrogative; as, does
ortas Spare wonld be distorted. If the cornea Alfred read ? Here by the help of the emphatic form does, and mudhe sheet can only be seen at a short dis- the inversion of the terms does and Alfred, wo make an affirmative u fe this como persong have to lay their into an interrogative sentence. It into this last sentence we
po u boime fas can read print. If it bulges introduce the negative not, we have an interrogative negative
sentence, as Does not Alfred read? We put these four forms of other qualifications might be stated; but here, at least, instead s proposition together.
of entering into them, it will be better to put the statement FORMS OF A PROPOSITION.
in its most general form, & form in which it will embrace all 1. Afirmative. Alfred reads.
particular cases, and render qualification unnecessary. I say, 2. Negative. Alfred does not read.
then, that in every sentence there must be a subject and a verb. 3. Interrogative. Does Alfred read?
I have thus set before you a new term. That term I must 4. Interrogative Negative. Does not Alfred read ?
explain. Subject is a Latin word, and denotes that which You thas see an example of the ease and extent with which receives, that which lies under, is liable or exposed to; from the original form may be changed and multiplied. The pro- sub, under, and jacio, I throw, I place; in the passive, I lie. position, Alfred reads, is a simple proposition. Propositions are Accordingly, the subject of a proposition is that to which the either simple or compound. Compound propositions are made action declared in the verb is ascribed. Hence, the subject of a up of two or more simple propositions. Of compound propo- proposition is the agent, the actor, the doer. The subject of a sitions I shall speak in detail hereafter. Here only a few words proposition answers to the question who ? or what ? as, who may be allowed, in order to illustrate what is meant by a simple reads ? Answer: Alfred reads. The term subject is used with proposition. If I were to say, When Alfred reads, he is listened special reference to the corresponding term, predicate. The to, I should employ a compound proposition. In these words predicate of a proposition is that which is attributed to the there are two statements, and consequently two sentences. subject. What is attributed in our model sentence? This, These two statements are, Alfred reads, and Alfred is listened to. namely, that Alfred reads. “Reads," then, is here the prediThe two statements, united by the term when, constitute a com. cate, or that which is ascribed to, or asserted of Alfred. Hence pound sentence. In one form, at least, a compound proposition you see the propriety of the term subject, since Alfred is subject may easily be mistaken for a simple proposition ; namely, in to the averment that he reads. Now, in the grammatical con. this - Alfred reads and writes. Here, in reality, we have a com- struction of the sentence, it matters not whether you say Alfred pound sentence, for, when analysed, these words are equivalent reads, or he reads. In both cases you have a subject and verb, to these two statements--Alfred reads, and Alfred writes. There or predicate; and consequently you have a complete enunciation being in the sentence these two statements, the proposition is of thought, or a perfect sentence. compound.
The sentence thus analysed and explained may be set forth. Let us now consider the two words in their own individual in this form : character-- Alfred reads. The first obviously represents a person,
Predicate. the second as clearly represents an act. Now, in grammar,
reads. words which represent persons and things are called nouns ;
reads. and words which represent acts are called verbs. Noun is a As the subject undergoes a change by passing, when necesLatin term, and signifies name; hence you see the noun is the sary, into he, so may the predicate be modified. Instead of a name of any person or thing; and were we as wise as were the predicate in one word, you may have a predicate in two words, Latins, we should not employ a foreign word, but call nouns or by substitute a verb and an adjective; as simply names. Thus Alfred is the name of a person. Book,
Alfred is good. also, is a name; so is house; so is pen, so is paper; these are each the name or vocal sign by which Englishmen distinguish the
meaning of adjective ? Adjective in Latin signifies that
Another new term demands another explanation. What is and agree to call these objects severally. Nor is there any which is added to, or thrown to (ad, to; and jacio, I throw). To mystery in the term verb. Here, too, we have a Latin term which signifies simply word. With the Latins the verb was the what are adjectives thrown or added ? To nouns, as in this Ford; that is, the chief word in a sentence. By us the verb stand alone. They perform their office in being added to or
instance. Adjectives, therefore, in their very nature, cannot might be termed the word. Had English grammarians employed connected
with nouns. They are connected with nouns in order as their scientific terms words of Saxon origin, the study of to qualify the meaning of those nonns, and to answer to the English grammar would have been very easy. We shall en. deavour to simplify it by translating the Latin terms, unhappily he is a good boy.” An adjective, then, is an epithet (a Greek
question of what kind. What kind of a boy is Alfred ? Answer, now become indispensable, into their English equivalents. That the verb is the word, the chief word of a sentence, you may word, which denotes that which is attributed to a noun or a barn by reflecting on the proposition, Alfred reads. It is reads, and hard are epithets, or adjectives, inasmuch as they assign the
person); e.g., green fields, tall men, hard rocks, where green, tall, you see, that forms the very essence of the statement. Reads, too, distinguishes this statement from other statements, as Alfred quality of their several subjects. Now, what we call qualities
we call also attributes. The attributes of a body are its qualities. Turus, Alfred sings. Now let the reader look back on the several instances of pro- attributed or ascribed to an object. Adjectives, therefore,
Attribute is a word from the Latin, denoting that which is positions I have given, and endeavour to ascertain what is the describe the qualities or attributes of the persons or things they quality in which they all agree. They have a common quality. That quality is averment. They all aver or declare something. are.connected with. In the instance given above, good is the This they do by means of their verbs. Accordingly, averment
attribute of the proposition ; thus,
Attribute. is the essential quality of the verb. Every verb is a word which
good. makes an averment. Here, then, we learn that the noun names, and the verb avers. By these tokens may all nouns and all But this explanation leaves is unexplained. The word is on verbs be known. Whatever names is a noun; whatever avers is reflection you will recognise as & verb, seeing that it avers ; a verb. Chair is a noun, because it is the name of an object; for it avers or declares that Alfred is good. By comparing stands is a verb, because it avers or declares something of chair; together the two formsand the union of the noun and the verb, as chair stands, forms a
reads, Sentences, then, in their simplest form consist of a noun and
is good, à rerb. A nown and a verb are indispensable. Whatever more you observe that reads and is good hold the same place and yon may have, you cannot have anything less than a noun and perform the same function in the two propositions. They in a verb in a sentence or proposition. As a substitute for the each case form the predicate of the sentence. The predicate is noun you may have a pronoun. Pronoun, again, is a word of that which is predicated, declared, or averred of the subject of Latin origin, signifying a word which stands instead of a noun. a proposition. In the former instance, reads is that which is Thus we may put the pronoun he instead of Alfred ; e.g. (these averred; in the latter, is good is that which is averred. Mark are the initials of two Latin words, meaning exempli gratia, for that neither is nor good alone forms the predicate, for what is ezample):
asserted is not that Alfred is—that is, exists--but that he is good. Alfred reads,
Accordingly, the predicate here consists of two words—namely, reads,
is good; but in the former example it consists of merely where he holds the place of Alfred. We must accordingly word—that is, reads. Of these two words, good, we have so qualify our statement, and say that sentences, in their simplest the attribute. It remains to state that the word is form form, consist of a verb and a noun or pronoun. One or two is called the copula, a Latin term which may here be r