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THE BLOODY ASSIZE.

HISTORIC SKETCHES.-IX.

fled before the fight was done, and galloped off in hope of ulti. mately reaching the Hampshire coast, but after skulking about

for several days in various disguises, they were captured, and THERE are some historical events of which we gladly cherish Monmouth, who had been already condemned by Act of Parliathe memory, because of the lustre they spread around our ment, was brought to London and executed. national character, or because of the intrinsic worth of the Perhaps it cannot be said, on a calm review of the facts, that events themselves. Such are the great victories of the nation, the Duke of Monmouth received anything but what he deserved.

abroad and at home, the enforcers of our foreign and colonial He was “the head and front of the offending,” and in his person · policy against external foes, the winners of steps onward in the it might be said that the law fairly claimed its due. Not much

path of constitutional freedom, in opposition to the tactics of could have been said on the score of strict justice if the other absolutists and tyrants. Other events there are over which we leaders in the rebellion had shared his fate, but the proceedings would gladly draw a veil, if it were permitted us to do so, events of Judge Jeffreys on the circuit, well called the “Bloody so sad and disgraceful, not only to our national character, but Assize,” were of such a kind as to make one doubt whether to humanity itself, that.we would fain not look at them. But even the guilty were not unwarrantably condemned. Immewe cannot afford to lose sight of them, much as the contem- diately after the battle of Sedgemoor thirteen of the prisoners plation may disgust us; we are bound in our own interests, and were hanged without trial, by order of Colonel Kirk, a brutal in the interests of those who are to come after us, not to "let commander of brutal soldiers, who were called by the satirical oblivion damn” the record in which these ugly histories are nickname of "Kirk's Lambs.” Further military executions written. There is, seemingly, a natural tendency in politics to would, no doubt, have taken place; but the king decided to repeat themselves, and in principles to re-assert themselves : and have the rebels tried according to the law of the land, : if, according to this rule, we may look for a re-appearance of decision which would have been recorded to his advantage, had past glories, so we must look also for a fresh advent of past he not chosen the man he did choose to put the law in motion. evils. They may not come in the same shape-indeed, the The prisons in the western counties, except Cornwall, which chances are strongly against their doing so—but come they had remained loyal, were crowded with prisoners. On account will, and it behoves us to watch very diligently against the evils of the disturbed state of the country there had not been any lest they take us by surprise, and furnish for posterity a chapter summer assize on the western circuit, so that the ordinary of horrors, a counterpart of those old chapters which we are prisoners remained for trial, but the people who crowded te bound freshly to remember. To use the emphatic language of gaols to overflowing were the captives taken at and after SedgeLord Erskine, with reference to some irregular proceedings in moor. For the trial of these a special commission was issued, the law courts, presided over by the subject of this sketch with Jeffreys, Lord Chief Justice of England, at its head. A (Judge Jeffreys), which were taken off the file and burnt, "to second commission was given to Jeffreys alone, appointing him the intent that the same might no longer be visible to after temporarily commander-in-chief of the troops in the west, with ages :"-"It was a sin against posterity; it was a treason the rank of lieutenant-general. against society; for, instead of being burnt, they should have Now Jeffreys was a man who had risen at the bar by brute been directed to be blazoned in large letters upon the walls of force exhibited through his mind. Was there any dirty, disgust. our courts of justice, that, like the characters deciphered by the ing case to be taken in hand, any utter scoundrel to be defended, prophet of God to the Eastern tyrant, they might enlarge and any honest man to be hunted down, Jeffreys was the counsel blacken in your sight to terrify you from acts of injustice." employed. His knowledge of law was small, but the amount of

It is a sketch of one of those subjects which, for the above his brazen hardihood was enormous, and by dint of this ques. reason, should never be forgotten, that it is proposed now to tionable quality he acquired a large practice of the baser sort. bring under the notice of our readers.

When the Crown, during the life of Charles II., wanted such The Duke of Monmouth, the illegitimate son of Charles II. talents for the purpose of prosecuting its enemies to death, and Lucy Waters, having been engaged in many intrigues to Jeffreys came forthwith to the front. He was rapidly promoted procure his own elevation to the throne instead of the Duke of to the highest official dignity at the bar, and when Lord William York (James II.), had got into trouble during his father's life- Russell and Colonel Algernon Sydney were to be tried for comtime; but when Charles died in 1685, and his brother, James II., plicity in the Rye House Plot-a plot to waylay and assassinate succeeded him, the Duke of Monmouth renewed more energeti. the king and Duke of York on their return from Newmarketcally his intrigues, and succeeded in fastening to his cause a with which neither of the accused had any real connection, it very considerable following. There were said to exist proofs of was recognised as a necessity that Jeffreys should be promoted Charles II. having been married to Lucy Waters, and though to the office of their judge. The selection was thoroughly justithey did not actually exist, many believed they did, and on that fied by the result. In defiance of the rules of evidence, eren ground alone, apart from their dislike to James, regarded him as such as they were in those days, with brutal browbeating and their lawful king. Finding his party, as he fancied, sufficiently cross-examining of witnesses from the bench, the prisoners all strong, he determined, in the spring of 1685, a few weeks after the while being undefended by counsel, Jeffreys, the judge, the king's accession, to try his hand at an invasion. With a helped the Crown lawyers to procure a verdict of guilty; and slender force he landed on the 11th of June, at Lyme, in Dorset- having succeeded, he had the indecency to mock the prisoners shire, where many of the country people joined him. Shortly after having sentenced them to death. afterwards he proclaimed himself king, denounced James as a The public of that day, not over-squeamish, were scandalised usurper, and all his adherents as traitors. In a lengthy decla- at his proceedings, and many about the court made no secret of ration, Monmouth asserted the reasons why James ought to be their disgust for him ; but the man was necessary to such a deposed, and stated the measures which he intended to introduce government as then existed, and the king distinguished him if the people would put him in possession of the throne. with favour. When James II. succeeded his brother, the chief

Four days after landing he left Lyme at the head of over justice found favour in the sight of the new king, to whom he 3,000 men, raw levies for the most part, badly officered, and was as necessary as he had been to Charles. When Monmouth's without the countenance or help of any of the country gentlemen. rebellion had filled the West-country gaols with prisoners, there At Taunton, where the Duke was received with open arms, some was no fitter man than Jeffreys to clear them in the only way addition was made to the number, but hardly to the quality of the Crown meant them to be cleared. his army. At Bridport, where a detachment of his men first With an escort of soldiers Jeffreys opened his commission at came in contact with the royal forces, he experienced a check, Winchester, when the only trial connected with Monmouth's and nowhere did he gain anything by force of arms. Wells, rebellion was that of Alice, Lady Lisle, the widow of one of the Bridgewater, and Exeter received him; but Bath and Bristol judges of Charles I. This lady had given shelter to two refugees shat their gates on him, and refused him supplies. At Sedge- from the rebel army after the battle of Sedgemoor, and had denied moor, about five miles to the south-east of Bridgewater, in them, when Colonel Penruddock, one of the king's officers, came Somersetshire, he was compelled to fight on the 6th of July, by to search her house. The men were found concealed on the the king's general, Lord Feversham; and after a combat of some premises (the event furnishes a subject for one of the beautiful hours' duration, in which the royal troops lost about 300 men, frescoes on the walls of the entrance to the House of Commons); and the rebels 800, besides three times that number of prisoners, she was arrested for having harboured known traitors, and was he was completely defeated. The duke, wit'ı two companions, indicted as a participator in their gnilt. Her case was, that she did not know the men had been concerned in the rebellion; that sickening iteration, and then Jeffreys went on to Bristol, she understood one of them, a minister, was merely persecuted where, however, he had but three victims. Two men of the for non-conformity; and she made this capital point herself— same family having been convicted in Somersetshire, one of for no legal assistance was in those days allowed to prisoners on them was condemned to death, and the other procured a pardon; trial for treason—that it was unreasonable to try her for com- but before his release, the other man escaping, Jeffreys ordered plicity in treason, when the person implicated as the traitor had execution to be done on the pardoned one, because “ his family not been proved one, seeing that he had not been tried at all, owed a life!” and that “peradventure ho might afterwards be acquitted as A large sum of money was made by the judge in the sale of innocent after she had been condemned for harbouring him." pardons, notwithstanding the quantity of blood actually shed. This very reasonable objection was overruled by the judge, who As much as £15,000 was given in one case, £3,000 was refused himself examined adversely to the prisoner the witnesses for the in another, and by the time the circuit was over, Lord Jeffreys prosecution, and then summed up in violent language against found himself rich enough to support the dignity of lord-chanher. Some accounts, written at the time, report that the jury cellor, a post which was the reward of his zealous services in three times refused to find a verdict, and that it was only in the west. consequence of the threats of the judge that they at length Neither king nor judge profited in the end. The former lost found her guilty. It is but right to say that the account given his throne, which has been ever since barred against the return in the State Trials says nothing about this, though it gives of any of his dynasty, and the spirits disembodied on the Bloody enough to show the disgraceful bias of the judge against the Assize sat heavily on the soul of the judge, and pressed it down prisoner, and the unjudicial part, and that a violent one, which to death. As soon as it was found that King James had fled he played. He expressed the greatest surprise that the jury on the approach of the Prince of Orange, in 1688, the people should have hesitated so long about their verdict, adding, “If I demanded with lond voices that his ill advisers should not had been among you, and she had been my own mother, I should escape. The chief one for whose punishment they thirsted have found her guilty.” He then passed sentence, the sentence was Jeffreys, and search was made high and low for him. of the law be it observed, not of the judge, “That you be con- Almost he escaped. Steps to ensure his departure from Eng. veyed hence to the place from whence you came, and from thence land had been "secretly taken, and, disguised as a seaman, his you are to be drawn on a hurdle to the place of execution, where eyebrows shaven off, the better to conceal his features, he had your body is to be burnt alive till you be dead. And the Lord arrived on board the collier which was to take him to Hamburg, have mercy on your soul."

when he took it into his head to go on shore. At an alehouse This horrible sentence to death by fire was changed by the in Wapping he was recognised by one to whom he had, as judge, royal clemency-save the mark—to death by beheading, the behaved brutally; a mob surrounded the house, and would have utmost King James could be induced to grant to a woman. torn the fugitive to pieces, had not some soldiers rescued him When James himself was sent into exile, an Act of Parlia- and taken him to the Lord Mayor. By order of the temporary ment reversed the attainder of Lady Lisle, on the ground that Government he was sent to the Tower, where he died miserably, "the verdict was injuriously extorted by the menaces and before he could be brought to trial on a charge of high treason.” violence, and other illegal practices of George, Lord Jeffreys, In the West of England the man's memory is still preserved Baron of Wem, the Lord Chief Justice of the King's Bench." as that of an incarnate fiend, the true representative of perfect

At Salisbury, the next town on the circuit, various punish- injustice, the fit sign of brutal cruelty and oppression. Proments, including flogging and imprisonment, were passed on rebel bably some inventions to his disadvantage have been made by sympathisers who had wished "the cause" good speed; but there the fertile brains of angry foes, and possibly some traits of were not any actual rebels for trial till the judge came to Dor goodness may have been forgotten amidst the universal execrachester, where the real campaign began. He charged the grand tion which has been his historical epitaph ; but there are few jury to the effect, that he would punish with the extreme rigour even now-a-days who think the epithet "bloody," which is of the law, not only principals, but all aiders and abettors, all usually prefixed to Jeffreys' name, too strong for the man who who had encouraged traitors, whether by word or deed, and all presided over the special commission after Monmouth's rebellion, who had helped any of them to escape. Several hundreds of and who, in his capacity of judge, "played such fantastic tricks true bills" were found, when the meshes of the net were before high Heaven, as made the angels weep." declared to be so ample, and Jeffreys, alarmed for his own convenience if so many prisoners were tried singly, announced SYNOPSIS OF THE LIFE AND REIGN OF JAMES II. that those who would plead guilty “should find him to be a James II. was the third son of Charles I. by his Queen, merciful judge; but that those who put themselves on their trial, Henrietta Maria of France. He was the twenty-seventh soveif found guilty, would have very little time to live ; and, there- reign of England after the Norman Conquest, and the fourth of fore, that such as were conscious they had no defence, had better the Stuart dynasty. spare him the trouble of trying them.” To show that he was in

Born at St. James's, Oct. 14, 1633 Test Act Suspended

1696 earnest, he ordered thirteen out of twenty-nine of those first Began to reign Feb. 6, 1685 The King goes to Mass 1686 convicted to be hanged in thirty-six hours after sentence, and Rising in Scotland in favour The Universities compelled the remainder the next morning. To one man who objected to of the Duke of Monmouth 1685 to admit Papists

1687 the competency of a witness, he exclaimed, “Villain! rebel! Monmouth lands at Lyme, Trial of the Seven Bishops, methinks I see thee already with a halter about thy neck;" and

June 11, 1685

June 29, 1688 this poor man he ordered specially to be hanged first. Two Battle of Sedgemoor, July 6, 1085 Birth of the “old Preten

Execution Monmouth, dundred and ninety-two were condemned to death at this town,

June 10, 1688

July 15, 1685 William of Orange lands at and seventy-four of them were actually hanged; the others were

The "Bloody Assize"

Torbay .

Nov. 5, 1688 sold as slaves, and sent to the plantations in the West Indies.

Revocation of the Edict of Abdication of James, Dec. 11, 1688 Cruel floggings took place, in addition to these severities, on Nantes, in France, Oct. 12, 1685' Died at St. Germains, Aug. 6, 1701 those who had taken smaller part in the rebellion; one poor

SOVEREIGNS CONTEMPORARY WITH JAMES II. wretch was sentenced to be whipped through every market town

Denmark, King of. Portugal, King of. in the county for seven years, that is to say, once a fortnight for Christian v. . .

Turkey, Sultans of.

Peter II. (previseven years.

Mahomet IV.

France, King of. ously Regent), 1683 At Exeter, the first man convicted was sent to instant execu

Solyman III.

Louis XIV. 1613 tion. Thirty-seven more suffered death at the same place, and Germany, Emperor of.

Rome, Pope of.
Innocent XI.

1676

United Provinces of the 206 were condemned to whipping, slavery in the West Indies, Leopold I.

Russia, Czars of. Netherlands, Stadtor imprisonment. At Taunton 500 prisoners awaited their trial, Poland, King of.

IV.

holders of. and Jeffreys observed, in his address to the grand jury, that "it John Sobieski 1674

Peter I. (the would not be his fault if he did not purify the place.” One

(This monarch was

William Henry the

Great)

last independent hundred and forty-three were ordered for execution, 284 were to king of Poland.

(afterwards jointly. 1682

William III. be sent to the plantations, and, in order that the rebellious county defeated the Turks in Spain, King of. of England) 1672 might be duly warned for the future, Jeffreys ordered some of

many battles, and com. Charles II.

[This prince married the condemned men to be executed in the surrounding villages. pelled them to raise the Sweden, King of. Mary, the daughter of At Wells, the scenes enacted at Taunton were repeated with siege of Vienna, in 1683. Charles XI.

Jamos II.]

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LESSONS IN BOTANY.-IX.

[hu-po-kra-teer), a saucer, from to under, and kpatnp a cap), or

saucer-shaped (Fig. 97); campanulate (Italian, campana, a bell), SECTION XVII.-ON THE COROLLA, ITS PARTS AND

or bell-shaped (Fig. 95); rotate (Latin, rota, a wheel), or wheel

. MODIFICATIONS.

shaped (Fig. 98); labiate (Lat., labium, a lip), or lip-shaped (Fig. As the calyx may be made up of one sepal, in which case it is 96); personate (Lat., persona, a mask), or mask-like (Fig.100); and termed monosepalous, or of many sepals, in which case it is ligulate (Latin, ligula, a strap), or strap-shaped (Fig. 101) Aowers. termed polysepalous, so the corolla may be made up of one or When the corolla is neither labiate, nor personate, nor ligulate, many parts called petals. In the former case a monopetalous, it is called anomalous, from the Greek a, negative, and dualos in the latter a polypetalous, flower results. Even the most (hom-a-los), equal or similar, as in the foxglove (Fig. 99). casual observer of flowers must have noticed some of the various SECTION XVIIL-ON FRUITS AND THEIR VARIETIES. modifications of form and arrangement to which petals are We have already remarked that the female parts of a flower subject. Hence have

termed carpels, arisen various botani.

from kaptos, fruit, becal designations, some

cause fruit is the result of which we shall now

of their development. proceed to explain. In

Sometimes the ovary the disposition and ar.

alone becomes deve. rangement of petals,

loped into the fruit, but those which assume the

90

occasionally other parts cross form are very con

91

of the flower attach spicuous. Vegetables 89

themselves to the ovary, of the cabbage tribe,

and thus become incorindeed, including tur

porated with its subnips, watercresses, and

stance, helping to form many others, have had

the fruit. In the mathe botanical designa.

jority of cases fruit will tion cruciform or cru.

not ripen except the ciferous (Latin Crux,

100

ovary has been ferti. crucis, a cross, and fero,

101 lised; but many excepI bear) given to them

tions occur to this rule. from this very circum94

Thus certain varieties stance (Fig. 89). The

of oranges, grapes, and rosaceous disposition of

pine-apples ripen freely petals is also very well

92

enough, although the marked, not only being

ovaries from which they observable in the rose

spring have never been tribe, but being shared

96

fertilised, and conseby numerous other ve

quently they bear no getables. The straw.

seed. Now, even in orberry flower, for exam.

dinary language, we ple, is rosaceous in the

employ various terms disposition of its petals

to denominate various (Fig. 90). The cleft

99

kinds of fruit: it fol. appearance which cer.

lows, therefore, that tain petals have is also

97

since botanists recog. highly characteristic,

nise many growths as and gives rise to corollæ

fruits which we in orwhich are said to be

dinary language fail to caryophyllate, from the

dignify by that pleasGreek kapvov (kar'-ru

ing term, many botanion), a nut, and puklov,

cal designations become a leaf. Of this the

necessary.

There are lychnis (Fig. 91) fur

95

98

two methods of communishes us with an exam93

nicating to the reader ple. The papilionaceous

these distinctions. The (Latin, papilio, a but

first is by telling in terfly) corolla consti- 89. CRUCIFORM COROLLA OF THE CELANDINE. 90. ROSACEOUS COROLLA OF THE STRAW. 91. CARYOPHYLLATE COROLLA OF THE LYCHNIS.

what the distinctions

92. PAPILIONACEOUS COROLLA tutes an exceedingly OF THE PEA. 93. TUBULAR COROLLA OF THE CORN CENTAURY. 94. INFUNDIBULIPORN

consist; the second by well - marked natural COROLLA OF THE BINDWEED. 95. CAMPANULATE COROLLA OF THE CAMPANULA, 96.

showing in what they division, the name being

97. HYPOCRATERIFORM COROLLA OF THE consist.

Perhaps the acquired from the cir- PERIWINKLE. 38. ROTATE COROLLA OF THE PIMPERNEL. 99. ANOMALOUS COROLLA latter method, will, of cumstance that they re

100. PERSONATE COROLLA OF THE SNAPDRAGON 101. LIGULATE the two, be the more semble a butterfly in COROLLA OF THE CHRYSANTHEMUM.

simple. We shall theregeneral appearance. No

fore give drawings of person, we are sure, who has ever seen a pea-flower—and who has some of the chief varieties of fruit, which are as follow:not ?--can have failed to be struck with the marked resemblance Pomes, or fruits resembling apples (Fig. 102); drupes, or in question. Hence the technical name papilionaceæ has been fruits resembling cherries, peaches, plums, so called from falling applied by botanists to plants bearing such flowers. Our dia- from the tree when ripe—the term drupe being derived from gram (Fig. 92) represents the flower of a common garden pea. the Greek Opuina (drup'-pa), an over-ripe olive, or SputeTTIS

Such are amongst the chief of the modes in which the petals (dru'-pet-ees), quite ripe, which is derived from Opus (droos), an oak of polypetalous flowers are arranged. Monopetalous corollæ or tree, and AirTW (pip-to), to fall (Fig. 103) ; the achenium evidently do not admit of these variations, since they only (from the Greek a, negative, and xaivw [ki'-no), to gape), a term consist of rean ; nevertheless, so numerous are the forms app'ied to hard, dry fruits, such as the fruit of the ranunculus, which

aled corollæ assume, that many distinctions which do not adhere to the shell or pericarp, and do not open

17 them. Thus, for example, we have when ripe (Fig. 104); the caryopsis (from kapvov (kar'-ru-on), tubulus, the diminutive of tubus, a pipe nut, and OTTW Cop-to], to see), a small dry seed-like fruit which rm (Latin, infundibulum, a funnel), or coheres inseparably with the seed within, as in buckwheat ); hypocrateriform (Greek, inoxpatnp (Fig. 105; the follicle (from the Latin folliculus, the diminutive

BERRY.

LABIATE COROLLA OF THE DEAD NETTLE,

OF THE FOXGLOVE.

of follis, a windball or bag), a fruit or seed vessel which splits | flowering plants; and we shall presently discover that seeds on one side only, as in the columbine (Fig. 106); the legume or admit of two natural divisions characterised by a difference pod (from the Latin legumen, from the verb lego, to gather), of structure—one division corresponding with endogenous, the a seed-vessel which splits into two valves, having the seeds other with exogenous plants. attached only to one suture or seam at the union of the margin Did the reader ever remember planting & bean for of the valves, as in the lotus (Fig. 109); the capsule (from the amusement ? Most young people have done this, and we Latin capsula, a little chest), a pericarp which may have one cell' will assume that the reader of this lesson has done it.* only, or many cells,

After having re

105 and which splits into

mained in the earth

103 pieces by valves, as

a few days, the bean in the gentian (Fig.

throws up a shoot 107); the colchicum

terminating in two (Fig. 110), the iris

little leaves. These (Fig. 111), the lych.

little leaves were emnis (Fig. 117), and

bedded in miniature the corn.poppy (Fig.

proportions, it is 108); the pyais (from

102

104

true, in the bean, and the Gr. Tužis (puke'.

100

might have been re

113 sis), a box), a fruit

cognised there by which is like a box

careful examination; and throws off a cap,

however, by plantas in the pimpernel

ing the bean they (Fig. 118); the sili

are rendered still qua (from the Latin

more evident (Fig. siliqua, a husk or

119). These two pod), & pod which

cup - shaped seed. splits into two pieces

leaves are termed or valves, separat

107

cotyledons, from the ing from a frame

Greek κοτυλη (koand which is longer

tu'-le), a cup, and than it is broad, as

114

the bean possessing in the celandine 111

two of these cotyle(Fig. 112); the sili

dons is termed a die 112 cule (from the Latin

cotyledonous plant. silicula), a little pod

Again, perhaps or husk, the diminu.

the reader has at tive of siliqua, a pod,

115

118

108

some period of his which splits into two

life planted a grain pieces or valves, se

of wheat, barley, or, parating from

still better, Indian frame, and which is

corn (Fig. 120). If about as broad as it

he has done this, he is long), as in the

may have remarked mustard (Fig. 113);

the result to have the samara (from

differed from that 116 the Latin samera, an

noticeable when the elm-seed), fruit

bean was planted. which is hard, thin,

Instead of two seed. and extended into a

109

leaves, or cotylewing at the back, as

119 dons, only one in 120 in the maple (Fig.

this case appears on 114); the nut (from

the

young plant, the Anglo - Saxon

which, therefore, hnut, or the Latin 117

may be said to be muz, nucis, a nut), as

a monocotyledonous in the chestnut (Fig.

110

plant. Extending 115); and the berry

these inquiries still (from the Anglo- 102. POME. 103. DRUPE. 104. ACHÆNIUM OF THE RANUNCULUS. 105. CARYOPSIS OF THE BUCK

further, it will be Saxon berio, a grape, 106. FOLLICLE OF THE COLUMBINE 107. CAPSULE OF THE GENTIAN. 108. CAPSULE

found that all plants a succulent or pulpy OF THE CORN POPPY, 109. LEGUME OF THE LOTUS. 110. CAPSULE OF THE COLCHICUM. 111. which grow by exfruit containing

112. SILIQUA OF THE CELANDINE. 113. SILICULE OF THE MUSTARD ternal depositions naked seeds, 114. SAMARA OF THE MAPLE. 115. NUT OF THE CHESTNUT. 116. BERRY OF THE

and possess reticu. seeds which have no DEADLY NIGHTSHADE, 117. CAPSULE OF THE LYCHNIS. 118. PYXIS

lated leaves — in 119. GERMINATION OF THE BEAN. 120. GERMINATION OF IXDIAX CORN. covering but the

other words, all palp or rind), as in

exogenous plantsthe deadly nightshade, the fruit of which is shown in Fig. 116. yield dicotyledonous seeds; and, as an inevitable consequence of

this deduction, all plants which grow by internal depositions, SECTION XIX.-THE SEED.

and possess straight-veined leaves, yield monocotyledonous The seed, everybody knows, is that part of a plant which, seeds. being sown, gives rise to a new plant. We might write a Thus, then, it follows that even already the reader is so far whole treatise on the nature and varieties of seeds, especially master of the principles of botanical classification, that he could 23 concerns their anatomical construction, but much of this indicate the grand division of the vegetable kingdom to which information would be out of place in a series of elementary any plant belonged by one of three classes of signs—namely, papers; we shall, therefore, content ourselves with recapitulating forne points that have already been adverted to in relation

* The germination of a bean may be watched from day to day by to seeds, and shall then mention some general facts concerning suspending the seed over water in the mouth of a hyacinth-glass, seeds which must not be forgotten.

or crocus-glass. The bean should not be allowed to do more than Seeds, the reader will remember, belong exclusively to barely touch the water,

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the signs of the section of the trunk, the signs of the leaf, í Saffet. 12. Haben Sie dieselben Bücher, wdóne me radhes gekast het! and, lastly, the signs of the flower. We may, therefore, divide ; 13. hat der Matros seinem Brute gezatmuntes 14. Han hak the various members of the vegetable kingdom as follows:- feinen Brief beantwortet.

EXERCISE 55. Cryptogamic, or flowers not apparent.

1. They have recommended the foreigners to se si to you. Endogenoas. Monocotyledonors. 2. There lives in Naples a friend of mine; I se recommend Phænogamous, or flowers

Parallel-Feised leares.

him to you. 3. One of my friends, whom yos bare seen with apparent.

Exogenous. Dicotyledonon me, has travelled in America, and has writta a letter to me, in
Leaf-veins reticulated.

I which he describes his journey. 4. A mas of beece lovers him-
I self to [ver] nobody, in whatever condition he msy fod himself.

1 5. Did you receive the news before us6. I received it after LESSONS IN GERMAN.-XVII.

you; the whole neighbourhood too was informed of it, as we SECTION XXXI.-INSEPARABLE PARTICLES. received your letter. 7. The children promised their father to

be obedient. 8. Advantages may be derived from this inven. BESIDES the separable particles (Sect. XXVI.), there is another tion, which nobody can account for. class (be, emp, ent, er, miś, wr, etc., $ 94, that, unlike the former, are never used apart from the radical words to which they are

VOCABULART. prefixed, and hence are called inseparable particles; thus by the Infangen, to begin. Aus linter, fo it. .. fire. union of these particles be, emp, ent, et, etc. , with the radicals In tommen, to arrive. reigner.

Sett sig 44). feblen, etc., we have the compounds befeblen, empanten, entbehren maten, to kindle And irrevoca, to pro Tres to comfort

. erholen, mißfallen, werboten, zermalmen, etc., corresponding in forma- . to make a fire). nounce.

Saterte to hurt. tion to the English compounds be-tray, de-rive, dis-may, mis. 'An`zünten, to light. Grheben, to raise. Sezguizon, a pleasure take, etc. With few exceptions (as begeistern, beretica), however, ar ieber, to rise. Grxci'ger, to render, Sett, a Ford. German, unlike most English radicals, may be used as well aime ne geben, to go out. - show, do. Zees:1, twice ($ 50). as in combination with prefixes; as, stören, to distarb; erit, to demolish.

EXERCISE 56. Many particles in German, which are used to modify radical 1. Gicht Ibt Bert Bater beute mát aus? 2. GT ist it snizeningen, verbs, have their exact equivalents in English, as :-Deuter, to a iš (Sect. XXII.) beute Morgen iett fris eu gestanden. 3. Both interpret; mißteuten, to misinterpret; fallen, to fall; boalan, to er bingegangen? 4. Gr it zu seinem Nachbar gegangen, es will auf tas befall, etc. ($ 97. 1, 2, etc.)

Land geben. 5. Be wollen Sie bingeben? 6. 36 mes qui ta Markt, In German, as in English, the inseparable particles never take in tea Estten, an ren Brunnen geben. 7. Seis freezi bat iba gritrieben, the primary accent. ($ 98.)

1 raser in Imerita angefemmen ist. 8. Hann Keben Sie angtiansen, 1. Bor, which is often rendered by the English ago," unlike Cestit zu lernen? 9. 34 tube s ich Becken abgefsagen zu den the latter, always precedes the word of time to which it refers, ' 10. Bann sollen Sie ani angen, franzöfiit zu lernen? 11. Id Kabe fitt as :-Er war vor zwei Stunten bier, he was here two hours ago, anzeiangen zu leicn, und werte balranianach zu irteten 12. Salen Sie (literally, he was here before tro hours).

mit den Giciallen erzeigen, eine game andristen? 13. 34 zill d mit Seit (sinoe), when used with words denoting time, often som fristen Bergnügen thun. 14. 6a ras Danimarán isi scarten answers to "for " or " during," as :--GT ist seit einer Sache tranfangmatt? 15. Plan, fie hat es nad nft angemant. he has been (literally is see Sect. XVII. 6) siek w a week. Ich babe ihn seit einem ganzen Zabre midt geichen, I have not seen him

EXERCISE 57. during a whole year (a whole year since).

1. Wil you have the goodness to pronounce those words to VOCABULARY.

me? 2. Do you pronounce well? 3. I believe I pronounce

well, but my brother pronounces better. 4. Many an innocent Antworten, to answer Gisca, to eat. Stiefel, m. boot mind has been hurt by reading pernicious books. 5. The

(intransitive). Favittet, n, tempest, Stirea, to disturb, tempest has distarbed the company in their enjoyments, and Beant 'worten, to an- thunder and light- interrupt.

has destroyed the house. 6. I have papers to read and letters swer (transitive) ning.

Tragen, to carry. to write. 7. Those persons who set fire to the house ought to Begrita'den, to consti- halten, to hold. Trinken to drink. be punished. tute. Mrit n, nest.

Bertruten to promise.
Beidheiber, to de Barr, a pair. Berite ben, to under

SECTION XXXII.–VARIOUS IDIOMS.
Horite
Stevie 1 journey. stand.

Brite plural) is declined like an adjective, and, unlike its Betres gor., o behare Series to travel. Zeitung, f. newspaper, equivalent (hoth), comes after the article or pronoun with which Erfirmen tu inrent. Somnibestallow,

gazette.

it is used, as :-Du beiden gånte, both the hands; meine beitan Ethatta L peseine St helf, eta Berita Tea to destroy, Share both my hands. Alle (all) is sometimes, for the sake of émer'etaga, midwar Sect. ITIL 2.)

emphasis placed before beure and may together be translated, Påství OF ELAXILES.

* both of them," or simply, “ both," as :-Alle beite, both of them;

both Trier pioner fake tumage hot My father gave me this beauti. 1. Buanes (neuter singular) is frequently employed to couple

mr menu in Tiergum fa canary-bird this morning, two things diferent in kind, whether designated by nouns alike *****

or different in gender, as :-Wem gehirt ($ 129. 2) dicies Mejjer un Se Te Iutter: tis ir son for The friends bare betaken them. Taries Samett? Beites grbist meinem freunte, both belong to my

Beltes to the garden

friend. $at Ihnen der Utrmatet nur die Ubr, eter auch diesen Ning Se socioe Firme ba ii erge". The bostale army has surren.' gemacht? Gt het Beiver gematt : or, Beite gemacht. Sind Sie mit

dered (itself.

tet lik om team Sung unten! Mein, ich bin mit Beitem unzufrieten, Ser Seher be dem Anuben verge'. The teacher has pardoned the rein Brzet van de nat menem Wanite. no, I am dissatisfied with

bos.

both, for both are not according to my wish. EXERCISE 34

2. For the pronoun “neither” the phrase feines or feins ton

baten is used, as aber Sa 13 meue ster tas alte Buc? Ich habe 1. Mu Ihr Sohn mein per halten? 2. Er hat er schriten, aber! Born Tum Paten I have neither (of the two). e bat an Borcholten, caen er leien ml3. u dat niet & Rot and lured, like the words “right" and "wrong," are Knahe betragen! 4. Er hat fit aut bestagen, et sai manen Wegentum nouns a djectires, and adverbs. The phrases, however, “to be getragen. 5. Die Nuñen bahen ane tariera Pelten gefunden 6. Ir right to be wrong," are expressed in German by the noun, with Deutian baben viele müşluche finite erfunden. 7. Dreier Bettie hat eine the twistu verd halen as:-ór þat Rant, he (has) is right. Stunde an der Thüre gettanden, et hat mich mitt uttanten & vat en kabeh ted: Fog 12 164) are not wrong. me édubmatter Zeit, mir ein Paar (Seet. LXI.) Snehel zu machen? 4. Ons bromean a-tjective, signifies "just as," as:-Dieses 9. Ge Fat feine Zeit, Ihnen Stiefel zu maiben, it hat intern so moel om alt eben is at ze me this child is just as old as that. Dieser fraten. 10. Dat der Bauet mehr Kaffee zu trinken, alt Hros a mano Warn hat earn it sie keine wu Serijant, this man has just as

1. Grşat Brot genug zu offen und Wasser zu trinken, aint & Nat fana , much prudence as understanding.

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