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LESSONS IN GERMAN.–XIX.

Sie hat (teren) genugʻ, aber zu wenig She has enough of them, but
Zeit, rice'ben zu lesen.

too little time to read them. SECTION XXXV.-PECULIARITIES IN VERBS, ETC.

Wissen Sie, wer das ist ? (continued).

Do you know who that is ?

G8 ist mein Vater, meine Mutter, It is my father, my mother, my FOR “any" and "some," as generally used before a noun, the

mein Kind.

child. German has no corre-ponding word, as :-Haben Sie Brot? have

EXERCISE 66. you some bread? Haben Sie Seite? have you any silk ? Ich

1. Wie alt ist dieser Mann? 2. Er ist nicht sehr alt. 3. Hat er viel habe Bücher, I have some books. 1. The indefinite adjective pronoun

Geld ? 4. 3a, und er hat auch viele Freunde und viele Feinde. 5. Welcher is expressed in

some German by welcher, welche, welches

, as :—Haben Sie Wasser? Ich habe Knabe hat viel (R. 2, above) Aepfel und Birnen? 6. Giner von den welches; I have “ some.” For the genitive of welcher--which, Sohnen tes Bauern hat viel Aepfel, der antere viel Birnen. 7. Der eine however, is usually left out--we employ the personal pronoun þat viel Glück, der andere hat nur Gram und Kummer. 8. Wie viel Breb preceded by "of,” as:-Haben Sie viel Wasser? have you much

bat ter Bäcfer? 9. Gr hat sehr viel Brot, aber nur wenig Mehl. 10. water? Ich habe (dejjen) viel, I have much of it (literally, I have Dieser Mann hat wenig Geld, aber viel Berstand. 11. Diese Stiefel of it much). Haben Sie riel Hüte? have you many hats ? Id sind mir viel zu groß, und die Schuhe find meinem Bruder ein wenig zu habe (teren) viele, I have many of them (I have of the many). kurz. 12. Wird Ihr Oheim viel Pulver faufen? 13. Er wird nur wenig From these examples it will be seen that the partitive word in faufen, denn er hat zu wenig Welt

. 14. Wer ist das? 15. Es ist ein German is placed after the pronoun, while in English it is alter freund des Arztes. 16. Wer hat gutes Wasser ? 17. Der Matrefe placed before it. In this use it is declined like the relative welcher. Hat welches. 18. Werte ich morgen die Bücher befommen? 19. Sie sollen

schon heute welche haben. 20. Hat der Bauer viel Weizen? 21. Gr hat DECLENSION OF welcher As A PARTITIVE.

dessen nicht viel. 22. Hat der Schmied viel Stahl ? 23. Er þat (bessen) Singular.

Plural

viel. 24. Hat er viel Nägel ? 25. Er hat (teren) riel. 26. Wer hat Masculine. Feminine. Neuter. of all genders.

Milch? 27. Der Bauer hat welche. 28. Hat er (deren) sehr viel ? 29. N. Weicher, weldhe, welches,

welche, who.

Er hat genug. . Dessen,

EXERCISE 67. deren, dessen, , Deren, whose. D. Welchem, welcher, welchem, welchen, to whom. 1. We must be cautious in the choice [vorsichtig in der Wahl) of A. Welchen welche, wel: es, welche, whom.

him to whom we confide important concerns [wichtige Angelegen

heiten anvertrauen]. 2. They that (who) speak evil (übel] of others 2. Genug like “enough,” is indeclinable, and generally follows are often worse [schlimmer] than those whose failings they lay its noun, or stands independently. Viel and wenig are frequently open [bloßstellen). 3. He professed (bekannte] that religion whose used without declension. (53.)

origin is divine (Ursprung göttlich ist). 4. This boy has too much 3. Dus as also ties (ries being a contraction of the neuter dieses) pride and too little diligence. 5. That is the man through is frequently used in referring to nouns of both numbers and all whose help he was saved. 6. Which pleased you the most ? genders, as :-Wer ist das? who is that? Dies ist mein Freund, This or that? Neither. 7. Can those be loved whose vices are This is my friend. Das sind Franzosen, those are Frenchmen. Das detested by everybody [Jetermann]? 8. How many hats has and dies, however, never precede and qualify a noun, except of that boy ? 9. He has three of them. 10. Who sells here good the neuter gender. (§ 134. 1.)

bread ? 11. Our baker sells very good bread. 4. &s, like its English equivalent, may refer to nouns of both numbers and all genders, as :-Es ist mein Freunt, it is my friend.

SECTION XXXVI.-IMPERSONAL VERBS. When es refers to a noun in the plural, the verb must agree in Impersonal verbs are confined to the third person singular, number with the noun, while in English it agrees with the pro- ' and have as their subject or nominative only the pronoun es, Houn, as :-Es sind die Russen, die Ungarn überwunden baben, it is as :

-s regnet, it rains. Es tonnert, it thunders. Es vligt, it (German, sind) the Russians who have overpowered (conquered) lightens. ($ 81. 1.) Hungary. ($ 57. 8.)

1. Besides those verbs that are merely impersonal, others may 5. Gs sometimes answers to our word "so" or "one," as :- be thus employed, as :-

:--Gs scheint, daß er frank ist, it appears that he Gr ist gefund crer scheint es zu sein, he is healthy, or appears so to is sick. Es schmerzt mich, tas zu hören, it pains me to hear that, etc. be. Gr 1st Soltat, aber ich bin es nicht, he is (a) soldier, but I am 2. Many verbs, however, that in German are used imperson

Go is likewise rendered by “there” (Sect. XXXVI. ally have, in this respect, no verbs of the same kind in English to 3), as : --G8 stand in alten Zeiten ein Schloß so hoch und Hehr (Uhland), correspond, as :--G8 gelingt mir, I succeed (it succeeds to me), there stood in ancient times a castle so high and lofty, etc. Es war ein König in Thule (Goethe), there was a king in Thule. | 1

3. Geben, “to give,” is often, with its proper case (the accusa(S 57. 8.)

tive), employed to denote existence in a manner general and in6. Gd is often so used as to have no equiralent in English, definite, and is translated like sein,“ to be," as :- -Es giebt (note -Es reben und träumen die Menschen viel von bessern fünftigen Tagen sint) Leute

, rie alle Tage auf ten Markt geben, there are (i.e., there (Šđiller), men talk and dream much of better future days. ' exist) people who go to the market every day. Go find beute (not Ich weiß es, daß er da war, I know (it) that he was there. Es es giebt) viele Leute auf dem Markte, there are many people to-day at leben tie Freiheitskämpfer, (long) live the champions of liberty. (s the market. Es giebt feine Rosen ohne Dornen, there are there lebe die Republik, (long) live the republic.

crist) no roses without thorns. Es find (not es giebt) viele Kinder ist

tieser Schule, there are many children in this school. @s giebt VOCABULARY.

(there exist) noch, Riesen in der Welt, there are still giants in the Arzt, m. physician. Gram, m. grief, afflio- | Kurz, short.

world. oleg m. diligence. tion, sorrow. Milch, f. milk.

VOCABULARY. (Gelehrósamkeit, f. eru. Klug, prudent, jadi- Nagel, m. nail. Armee', f. army,

Grel, noble, magna- Rüfzug, m. return. dition, learning. cious.

Pulver, n. powder.
Aufgang, m. rising, nimous.

Schneien, to snow. Slück, n. luck, for. Köchin, s. cook. Stabl, m. steel.

ascent.
Gis, n. ice.

Stürmen, to storm. tune, happiness. Kummer, m. anxiety, Stolz, m. pride. Vis, until, up to. Grfla'ren, to explain. Tagen, to dawn, be distress.

Blißen, to lighten. Feintlich, hostile. come day.
RÉSUME OF EXAMPLES.

Brechen, to break. Fürchten, to fear. Thauen, to thaw.

Ding, n. thing, af- Georg', m. George. Vergeben, to forgive. Er hat mir Aepfel und Birnen ge- He has given me (some) apples fair.

Mageln, to hail. Wahr, true. ge'ben.

Donnern, to thunder. Leicht, easy, easily. Wolf, m. wolf. Wollen Sie Brot oder Suchen has Will you have (some) bread or

Reifend, ravenous. Zuflucht, f. refuge. ben?

(some) cake ? Haben Sie feines schwarzes Tuch? Have you (some, any) fino

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. black cloth ?

Es wirt immer Peute geben, die sich There will always be people Dat er (ett genug, ster þat er Has he money enough, or has gegen die bellsten Wahrbeiten who exalt themselves against frunze? he none ?

empe'ren, wie viele giebt có teren the clearest truths ; how Er bat pressen) genug'. He has enough (of it).

heut zu Tage nicht!

many of those are there (Dot) Gat tie l'her genug? Has she books enough?

at the present day!

not one.

ay:

and pears.

1

Es war einmal ein Weifer, welcher There was once a sage who learned men that are owned by the three kingdoms. They call

behauptete, tab es fein besseres maintained that there was themselves Templars, they worship in common in the Temple Gut gebe, als eine gesun'de Bera no better possession than a Church, and they preserve the devices and traditions of an order kunft in einem gesun'den Körper. sound understanding in a of knights whose name they bear, and in whose seats they site sound body.

How is this? Was it always so ? Certainly not. The lines Gi'nige behaupten, daß es Ein'. Some maintain that there are of Edmund Spenser, quoted above, testify as much, and their wobuer im Monde gebe. (Sect. inhabitants in the moon. witness, as we shall see in the course of this sketch, is exactly XLII.)

even with the truth. Let us inquire somewhat into the history Es ist kein Mensch unóglüdlicher, als There is no mortal more unfor- of these colleges of law, and see how they came to be colleges

tar, welcher nie Wi'terwärtigkeiten tunate than he (that one) at all; let us glean something out of the historio memories er ultete.

who never endured reverses which cling around them, and follow the path pointed out by of fortune.

the finger of Time till it leads us to the epoch when the lawyers Il giebt wenig Gelden, die ihren There are few heroes who main- dwelt not in the Temple, but armed Christianity stalled her

Character bis in ihr Alter bem tain their character till (in) horse and sharpened her sword there.
haupten.
their old age.

There was a cry in Christendom that the heathen had entered Ei ist nichts loʻbenswerther, als There is nothing more praise into the inheritance of God, and had defiled His holy places. andere das jenige zu lehren, was worthy than to teach what Stories the most pitiable were told of what the infidels had man weiß. one knows to others.

done to those who went up to Jerusalem to worship ; how that EXERCISE 68.

once more the wicked had given the dead bodies of God's ser

vants to be meat for the fowls of the air, and the flesh of His 1. Es giebt dieses Jahr sehr viel Obst. 2. Es ist heute sehr schönes saints to the beasts of the land. A thrill of horror went through Better. 3. Es giebt mehr arme, als reiche Leute. 4. Es ist ein wahres men as they listened to the accounts, most likely exaggerated, Bergnügen, diesen Morgen spazieren zu gehen. 5. Giebt es in Deutschland which were repeated from mouth to mouth, " and the sensation quid reißende Thiere ? 6. Es giebt noch viele Wilfe in den Gebirgen. vibrated to the heart of Europe." Swiftly there followed upon 7. Die feindlid Armee ist auf ihrem Rückzuge. 8. Giebt es etwas this a determination to be up and doing, a stern sentiment Spincres, ale ten Aufgang ter Sonne ? 9. 68 hat den ganzen Tag founded on religion and soldierly anger, prompting men to exact sridncit

. 10. Gehen Sie diesen Nachmittag mit mir auf's Eis? 11. satisfaction at the risk of their lives for the blood of Christ's Nein, ei thaut schon, und das Gis fann leicht brechen. 12. Wenn es children which had been shed. This was in the year 1090. tagt, werte ich Sie zu einem Spaziergang abholen. 13. Es schneit heute The Saracens (a people often confounded with Turks, from ten ganzen Tag. 14. Regnet es schon ? 15. Nein, aber es wird bald whom they were altogether dissimilar), from Arabia, had conanjangen zu regnen. 16. Wie lange hat es geregnet ? 17. Es hat bis quered Palestine in the year of our Lord 637, driving out the cia lhr geregnet. 18. Donnert es? 19. Ia, es donnert und blißt, und authority of the declining Greek emperors, and establishing the ich fürøte, taß es auch hageln wird. 20. Wo waren Sie, während es religion and the state system of Mahomet. The Caliphs, or joneite? 21. Ich suchte in der Capelle des St. Georg Zuflucht, tenn es chiefs of the Saracens, had so far respected the religion and is neite nicht nur, sondern es stürmte und Hagelte auch. 22. Ich fage social habits of the conquered Christians, that they had allowed 3hnen nur das, was (Sect. XXI. 1) ich gehört habe.

them to retain about one-fourth of the city of Jerusalem, besides EXERCISE 69.

numerous places in the provinces. Among other things which

they were permitted to keep was the Church of the Holy Sepul1. It seemed this morning as if it [als ob es] would rain, but chre, which the Empress Helena, mother of the first Christian now the weather begins to be fine. 2. It happened [es ereignete Emperor, Constantine, had built over the spot where the Saviour froj that it rained just as the battle commenced, and it thun

Fas supposed to have been buried. The Christians experienced dered and hailed throughout the whole day. 3. It has rained, at the hands of the Saracens the greatest moderation, though hailed, snowed, and frozen this winter. 4. As long as it rains the character and principles of the two religions were essentially I cannot depart. 5. It appears that there are many strangers different, and in some particulars diametrically opposed. Pil. in this hotel. 6. There are (exist) many things which we cannot grims flocked in hundreds and thousands from all parts of explain. 7. As soon as it becomes day, I shall call upon you to Europe, to see the places which had been honoured by the real go and see the rising of the sun. 8. Exists there anything more presence of their Lord, to utter their prayers in the very places noble than to forgive an enemy? 9. Do you intend to go to where He had prayed, to abase themselves on the very scene of DOTTOW with me upon the ice ? 10. No, I fear that it thaws His sufferings, and to adore Him in Jerusalem, " the place already, and it would be dangerous to venture it (gefährlich sein, es where God ought to be worshipped.” Though their numbers a magen). 11. As soon as the wind abates it will rain. 12. In must have proved inconvenient, one would think, to the Mussulevery community there exist more blockheads than villains, and man authorities, and though their enthusiasm was not unlikely more ignorant men than learned.

to have produced breaches of the peace, we do not hear of their having been interfered with. Occasionally, perhaps, there was

a disturbance, but that in all probability was due rather to the HISTORIC SKETCHES.—X.

imprudence of the Christians than to the tyranny of the Caliph; THE KNIGHTS TEMPLARS, OR RED CROSS KNIGHTS. so the pilgrimages went on, and were accounted by the reliOs the borders of the debateable land where the jurisdictions formed them.

gious system of the day for righteousness in those who perof the Queen and of the Lord Mayor of London conflict and con

But a change came. In the year 1065, the year before the join, is a stately monument (not Temple Bar), rich in historic conquest of England by the Normans, Palestine was wrested interest, and in memories of bygone men. Hidden away under from the Saracens by the Turcoman troops, whom they had the block of buildings which form the south side of Fleet Street, hired, in the decline of their own vigour, to defend them.

Tho one does not notice, without seeking for them, the colleges of power of the Arabian Caliphs was over ; that of the Turkish the Inner and Middle Temple, which constitute the monument Sultans or Emirs had taken its place. A very different sort allnded to. It is from the river, from Waterloo or Blackfriars of power the Christians found it. Though professing the same Bridge, or better still from the Surrey shore, that one sees

creed as the Saracens, the Turks had none of their moderation. “ Those bricky towers,

Brutality coupled with fanaticism—these were the principles The which on Thames' broad, aged back do ride,

on which the new rulers proceeded to govern. Forthwith Where now the studious lawyers have their bowers,

came a wail of misery from the Holy Land; pilgrims were There whilome wont the Templar knights to bide,

ill-treated, insulted, and put to death. Women (it was cusTill they decayed through pride."

tomary even for women to go) were outraged ; taxes the most Within those “ bricky towers” do now study and work the offensive were exacted from those pilgrims who had money, and apprentices, barristers, and serjeants of the law who are mem- those who had none were driven back with the sword, whilst great bers of the two societies of the Temple; there are collected some numbers perished through the instrumentality of the Turks. of the brightest minds which the Universities of the kingdom A golden fee was required of every one before he could be adhave trained, some of the wittiest hcads that ever Nature looked mitted to the Holy Sepulchre. The Patriarch of Jerusalem was upon and smiled, some of the most intellectual, polished, and dragged across his church by the hair of his head, and flung into

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LESSONS IN FRENCH.-XX.

cinquante-cinq. 14. Fait-il trop froid pour vous dans cette

chambre? 15. Il n'y fait ni trop froid ni trop chaud. 16. Y SECTION XXXII.-UNIPERSONAL VERBS.

a-t-il beaucoup de foin dans votre écurie ? 17. Il y en a assez 1. By unipersonal verbs is simply meant those verbs which are pour mon cheval. 18. Restez-vous à la maison quand il pleut ? used only in the third person singular. Having, properly speak. 19. Quand il pleut je reste à la maison, mais quand il fait beau ing, no personal subject, they are sometimes called impersonal; temps je vais chez mon cousin. 20. Y a-t-il de la viande au for the third person singular, used in English, is neuter, and in marché ? 21. Il y en a beaucoup, il y a aussi du gibier. 22. Il French, though il be used, it is understood and translated as y a du veau, du mouton et de la volaille. 23. N'y a-t-il pas neuter by the word it. These verbs express chiefly an abstract aussi des légumes et des fruits ? 24. Il n'y en a pas. 25. Il y

en a aussi. opinion or sentiment; most frequently they denote the state or

EXERCISE 60. change of the weather; and they generally precede or announce the occurrence of an event, as, it happened.

1. Are you cold this morning ? 2. I am not cold, it is warm this 2. The unipersonal verb is conjugated only in the third person morning. 3. Is it foggy or windy? 4. It is neither foggy nor singular of a tense. Its nominative pronoun il, it, is used abso- windy, it rains in torrents (à verse). 5. Is it going to rain or lutely, i.e., it represents no noun previously expressed.

to snow ? 6. It is going to freeze, it is very cold. 7. It is Il pleut aujourd'hui,

It rains to-day.

windy and foggy. 8. Is there anybody at your brother's to-day ? 3. The unipersonal verb assumes the termination of the class 9. My brother is at home, and my sister is at church. 10. Is or conjugation to which it belongs. Some verbs are always 12. Is it too warm or too cold for your sister in this room? 13.

there any meat in the market ? 11. There is meat and poultry. unipersonal, and will be found in $ 62. Others are only occasionally so, and if irregular, will be found in the personal form It is not so warm in this room as in your brother's

library. 14.

Are there good English books in your sister's library? 15. There in the same § 62.

are some good ones. 16. Are there peaches and plums in your 4. PRESENT OF THE INDICATIVE OF THE UNIPERSONAL garden? 17. There are many. 18. Do you remain at your VERBS.

brother's when it snows? 19. When it snows we remain at Y AVOIR, to be there. PLEUVOIR, to rain. NEIGER, to snow.

home. 20. Are there ladies at your mother's ? 21. Your two Il y a, there is, there 11 pleut, it rains, it is Il neige, it snows, it is sisters are there to-day. 22. Have you time to go and fetch raining,

snowing.

them? 23. I have no time this morning. 24. Is your horse in GRÊLER, to hail. GELER, to freeze. DÉGELER, to thaw. the stable? 25. It is not there, it is at my brother's. 26. Does Il grêle ($ 49), it hails, Il gèle ($ 49), it freezes, Il dégèle ($49), it it hail this morning ? 27. It does not hail, it freezes. 28. it is hailing, it is freezing.

thaws, it is thawing. What weather is it this morning ? 29. It is very fine weather. 5. Il y a means there is, or there are, and may be followed by 32. Is it going to freeze ? 33. It is going to snow.

30. Is it too warm? 31. It is neither too warm nor too cold.

31. Does a singular or plural noun [$ 61 (2)].

it snow every day ? 35. It does not snow every day, but it Il y a du gibier au marché, There is game in the market.

snows very often. Il y a des pommes dans votre There are apples in your garden. jardin,

SECTION XXXIII.-PLACE OF THE ADVERB [S 136]. 6. In relation to the weather, the verb faire is used uniper- 1. In simple tenses, the adverb generally follows the verb, and sonally in the same manner as the English verb to be.

is placed as near it as possible. Il fait beau temps aujourd'hui, It is fine weather to-day.

Votre commis écrit très-bien, Your clerk writes very well.
Il fait chaud, il fait froid,
It is warm, it is cold.

Cette demoiselle lit très-mal, That young lady reads very badly.
RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

2. When a verb is in the infinitive, the two negatives ne and Pleut-il ce matin ? Does it rain this morning

pas, no and rien, should be placed before it.
Il ne pleut pas, il neige.
It does not rain, it snows.
Ne pas parler, ne pas lire,

Not to speak, not to read.
Il va pleuvoir ce matin.

It is going to rain this morning.
Ne gėle-t-il pas ce matin?
Does it not freeze this morning?

3. The adverb assez, enough, to ubly, precedes generally the
Il ne gèle pas, il fait du brouillard. It does not freeze, it is foggy. other adverbs. It precedes also adjectives and nouns.
Y a-t-il du sucre chez vous ? Is there any sugar at your house ?
Il y en a beaucoup chez mon frère. There is a great deal at my brother'8.

Vous écrivez assez correctement, You write pretty correctly. Y 8-t-il plusieurs personnes chez Are there several

You have books enough. persons at my

Vous avez assez de livres, house?

Cet enfant est assez attentif, That child is attentive enough. Il y a plus de cent personnes. There are more than one hundred

4. Voici means here is; voilà, there is. persons. N'y a-t-il personne à l'église ? Is there nobody at church?

Voici le livre que vous aimez, Here is the book which you liko. Il n'y a encore personne. There is as yet no one there. Voilà le monsieur dont

There is the gentleman of whom you Est-il trop tôt ? Is it too soon?

parlez,

speak. Au contraire, il est trop tard. On the contrary, it is too late. Fait-il froid ou chaud aujourd'hui? Is it cold or warm to-day?

5. Dans is used for in or into, when the noun which follows it Il fait chaud et humide. It is warm and damp.

is preceded by an article, or by a possessive, demonstrative, or Fait-il-du vent ou du brouillard ? Is it windy or foggy ?

numeral adjective [$ 142 (2)]. Il fait un temps bien désagréable. It is very disagreeable weather.

Le crayon est dans le pupitre, The pencil is in the desk.
VOCABULARY.

Mettez cette lettre dans votre Put this letter into your trunk.

malle,
Assemblée, f., assem- | Couvert, -e, cloudy. Manuscrit, m., manu-
Wy, party.
Ecurie, f., stable.

6. En, after the verbs to be, to go, to reside, followed by the

script. Bibliothèque, f.,library. Epais, -se, thick. Souvent, oflen.

name of a part of the earth, a country, or province, gives the Brouillard, m., fog. Foin, m., hay. Veau, m., veal.

preposition to the force of in or into. Chambre, f., room. Gibier, m., game.

Vent, m., wind. Cinquante, fifty.

Notre ami est en France,

Our friend is in Franco.
Humide, damp. Volaille, f., poultry.

Vous allez en Italie,

You go to Italy.
EXERCISE 59.

7. The preposition à is used for the words at or to, in or into, 1. Quel temps fait-il aujourd'hui ? 2. Il fait un temps before the name of a town, city, or village, preceded by the superbe. 3. Fait-il très-beau temps aujourd'hui ? 4. Il fait verbs mentioned above. in temps couvert et humide. 5. Pleut-il beaucoup ce matin ?

Il va à Paris le mois prochain, He is going to Paris next month. 6. Il ne pleut pas encore, mais il va pleuvoir. 7. Fait-il du Tent on da brouillard ? 8. Il ne fait pas de vent. 9. Le 8. The same preposition is used in the expressions à la cambrouillard est très-épais. 10. Combien de personnes y a-t-il à pagne, à la ville, à la chasse, à la pêche, etc.

11. Il y a plus de deux cents (Sect. XIX. 7) per. Nous allons à la campagne, We go into the country. comes. 12. N'y a-t-il pas beaucoup de manuscrits dans votre Vous n'allez pas à la ville,

You do not go to the city. bibliothèque ? 13. Il n'y en a pas beaucoup, il n'y en a que Je vais à la chasse et à la pêche, I go hunting and fishing.

moi ?

vous

l'assemblée ?

sons.

9. INDICATIVE PRESENT OF THE IRREGULAR VERBS. as well as her sister ? 28. She reads better than her sister, but

her sister reads better than I.

29. Is there any one at your CONDUI-RE, 4,to conduct. ECRI-RE, 4, to write. LI-RE, 4, to read.

house ? 30. My father is at home. 31. Is your brother-in-law Je conduis, I conduct, J'écris, I write, do Je lis, I read, do read.

absent? 32. My brother-in-law is at your house. 33. There is do conduct, or am write, or am writing. or am reading. conducting.

no one at home to-day.
Tu conduis.
Tu écris.
Tu lis.

SECTION XXXIV.-THE INDEFINITE PRONOUN ON, ETC.
Il conduit.
Il écrit.

Il lit.
Nous conduisons. Nous écrivons. Nous lisons.

1. The indefinite pronoun on has no exact equivalent in Vous conduisez. Vous écrivez.

Vous lisez.

English. It may be rendered by one, we, they, people, etc., Ils conduisent. Ils écrivent. Ils lisent.

according to the context. On has, of course, no antecedent, and RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

seldom refers to a particular person ($ 41 (4).(5), $ 113].
On doit honorer la vertu,

We should honour virtue.
Votre parent écrit-il bien ? Does your relation write well?
Il écrit assez bien et assez vite.

Money is brought to us.
He writes well enough and rapidly On nous apporte de l'argent,
enough.

2. As may be seen in the last example, on is often the nomiNous avons assez de livres. We have books enough,

native of an active verb, which is best rendered in English by Nous sommes assez attentifs à nos We are attentive enough to our les- the passive ($ 113 (1)].

leçons. Voilà la demoiselle dont vous There is the young lady of whom you

On dit que votre épouse est ici, They say that your wife is here. parlez.

speak.

On raconte des histoires singulières, Singular histories are related. Votre cheval n'est-il pas dans le Is not your horse in the field ?

On récolte beaucoup de blé en Much wheat is harvested (grown) in champ?

France,

France. Il n'y est

pas,

il est dans le jardin. It is not there, it is in the garden. 3. Avoir lieu answers to the English expression to take place. Allez-vous en France cette année? Do you go to France this year ? Nous allons à Paris et à Lyon. We go to Paris and to Lyons.

Cela a lieu tous les jours,

That takes place every day. Où conduisez-vous ce jeune homme? Where do you take this young man ? 4. Au lieu de answers to the English instead of. The verb Je le conduis en Allemagne. I take him to Germany.

which follows it must, according to Sect. XX. 2, be put in the Demeurez-vous à la ville ? Do you live in the town?

infinitive. Nous demeurons à la campagne. We live in the country. Allez-vous souvent à la chasse ? Do you go often hunting?

Au lieu d'étudier, il joue,

Instead of studying he plays. Nous allons quelquefois à la pêche. We sometimes go fishing.

5. Devoir, to owe, is used before an infinitive, like the English VOCABULARY.

verb to be, to express obligation. Associé, m., partner. Italie, f., Italy. Suisse, f., Switzerland. Je dois lui écrire demain,

I am to write to him to-morrow, Campagne, f., country. Pêche, f., fishing. Terre, f., farm, estate. Nous devons y aller demain, We are to go there to-morrow. Canif, m., penknife. Prusse, f., Prussia, Ville, f., town, city.

6. Recevoir des nouvelles means to hear from. Chasse, f., hunting. Rapidement, rapidly. Vite, quickly. Commis, m.,

clerk. Rend-re, 4, to return. Voyage, m., journey. Devez-vous recevoir des nouvelles Are you to hear from your sister! Fort, very. Si, if.

de votre seur? EXERCISE 61.

7. Entendre parler answers to the English phrase to hear of or

about, 1. Écrivez-vous encore la même leçon ? 2. Je n'écris plus la même, j'en écris une autre. 3. Votre commis écrit-il rapide

Entendez-vous souvent parler de Do you often hear of your friends!

vos amis? ment? 4. Il écrit fort bien, mais il n'écrit pas vite. 5. N'avez

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. vous pas assez d'argent pour acheter cette terre ? 6. J'ai assez d'argent, mais j'ai l'intention de faire un voyage en France. 7. Que dit-on de nous dans la ville ? What do they say of us in the city?

People do not speak of you. Voilà votre livre, en avez-vous besoin ? 8. Je n'en ai pas besoin, on ne parle pas de vous.

Ne mange-t-on pas tous les jours ? Do not people eat every day! j'en ai nn autre. 9. Avez-vous encore besoin de mon canif ?

On mange quand on a faim, People eat when they are hungry. 10. Je n'en ai plus besoin, je vais vous le rendre. 11. Notre On trouve beaucoup d'or en Cali- Much gold is found in California. cousin demeure-t-il à la ville ? 12. Il ne demeure plus à la

fornie. ville, il demeure à la campagne. 13. Aime-t-il aller à la Dit-on quelque chose de nouveau ? Do they (people) say anything new ! chasse ? 14. Il n'aime pas aller à la chasse. 15. Il va tous On ne dit rien de nouveau. Nothing new is said. les jours à la pêche. 16. Notre associé est-il à Paris ou à A-t-on reçu des nouvelles de Has anything been heard from Rouen? 17. Il est à Marseille. 18. Où avez-vous l'intention George ?

George ? de conduire votre fils ? 19. Je vais le conduire en Italie. 20. On n'a point entendu parler de lui. Nothing has been heard of him. Demeurez-vous à Milan ou à Florence ? 21. Je ne demeure ni à On n'a point reçu de ses nouvelles. They have not heard from him. Milan ni à Florence, je demeure à Turin. 22. Votre ami Je dois lui écrire demain.

Devez-vous écrire à notre ami ? Are you to write to our friend!

I am to write to him to-morrow, demeure-t-il en Suisse ? 23. Il ne demeure plus en Suisse, il Le concert doit-il avoir lui Is the concert to take place this demeure en Prusse. 24. Votre domestique est-il à l'église ? soir ?

evening ? 25. Non, Monsieur, il est à l'école.

Il doit avoir lieu ce matin.

It is to take place this morning.

Je viens au lieu de mon frère. I come instead of my brother. EXERCISE 62.

Il danse au lieu de marcher. He dances instead of walking. 1. Does your clerk write as well as your son ? 2. He writes

VOCABULARY. tolerably well, but not so well as my son. 3. Have you books enough in your library ? 4. I have not books enough, but I Afrique, f., Africa. Habits, m. pl., clothes. : Part-ir, 2, to depart, to intend to buy some more.

Alger, Algiers.

Heure, f., hour, time. set out, to leave. 5. Here is your sister's letter, will

Prochain, -e, nezt. you read it? 6. I intend to read it. 7. Does your son like to Apport-er, 1, to bring. Malade, sick.

Mois, m., month. go fishing ? 8. He likes to go fishing and hunting: 9. When Diamant, m., diamond. Or, m., gold.

Sav-oir, 3, ir., to knor.

Vente, f., sale. does he like to go fishing ? 10. When I am in the country. Fourn-ir, 2, to furnish. Os., m., bone.

Voyage, m., journey. 11. What do you do when you are in the city? 12. When I am in the city, I read and learn my lessons.

13. Do you

EXERCISE 63. intend to go to France this year? 14. I intend to go to Ger. 1. Vous apporte-t-on de l'argent tous les jours ? 2. On ne many. 15. Will you go to the city if it rains ? 16. When it m'en apporte pas tous les jours. 3. Vous fournit-on des habits rains I always remain at home [R. 1]. 17. How many friends quand vous en avez besoin ? [Sect. XXI.] 4. On m'en fournit have you in the city? 18. I have many friends there. 19. Are toutes les fois (every time) que j'en ai besoin. 5. A-t-on besoin there many English in France ? 20. There are many English in d'argent quand on est malade ? 6. Quand on est malade, on en Wrance and in Italy. 21. Are there more English in Germany a grand besoin. 7. Avez-vous reçu des nouvelles de mon fils ?

in Italy? 22. There are more English in Italy than in 8. Je n'ai point reçu de ses nouvelles. 9. Ne dit-on pas qu'il 'y. 23. Is it fine weather in Italy? 24. It is very fine est en Afrique ? 10. On dit qu'il doit partir pour Alger

. 1!. there? 25. Does it often freeze there? 26. It freezes Quand doit-il commencer son voyage

12. On dit qu'il doit es there, but not often. 27. Does that young lady read le commencer le mois prochain. 13. Ce mariage a-t-il lieu

ce

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