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steadily as possible, and ascending as high as his voice will allow the rest. This habit is important to comfort and pleasure in (with the cork, if necessary, to keep his mouth open), and with singing, and absolutely necessary for expression and refinement. the most careful observance of the following directions. Expand The medium voice of one person is, of course, different from the ribs, so that they press against the dress at the sides, and, that of another, according to the size of the larynx and the by drawing in the muscles of the lo ver belly, keep the ribs thus strength of the lungs. expanded. This will allow free and easy play to the lungs. The suggestions given above must be kept constantly in mind For courses of exercises on these subjects, see the two small ( in every daily practice. If you enjoyed the advantage of a books named in Lesson V.
private teacher, such points as these would be constantly in his The sounds of the voice, in singing, should be delivered mind, and he would see to it that you observed them. Indeed, promptly and easily. If the voice is given out carelessly, it one of the chief uses of a private teacher is to keep us to our comes roughly through the throat, and is called guttural; and work. The self-educator, however, must summon to his aid if produced in a forced manner, it is driven through the nose, sturdy determination and steady perseverance. A lady went to and so becomes nasal. Correctness in singing depends upon a distinguished teacher of singing, to receive a course of costly mental effort, for it is the mind which commands the delicate lessons in the art. For a large proportion of these lessons, in zascles of the larynx and throat. Lazy singing is always flat the early part of the course, he did not permit her to sing a d miserable ; hence we always sing musically better when our single note, but made her simply pace the room, expanding her rta are most engaged in the song.
lungs, and taking breath in every way which was required to note may be loud or soft. The loudness or softness of the give her command of the material of which voice.is made. We is called its force. It is very important to cultivate the have heard that even the great public singers do not think of f using a medium force of voice, so that it may be always omitting the daily practice of the scale and chord in long sing a note or strain more loudly or more softly than “holding” notes, as we have recommended.
EXERCISE 16.-LEYBURN. KEY B. M. Crotchet = 66, beating only twice in a measure.
lines which have been thus put together at right angles. The tri- them we find that the side E L of the triangle C E L is equal to angle formed in this manner, as the triangle C EG in Fig. 40, is a the side E G of the triangle G H E, each being also a side of right-angled triangle; and as in the case of this triangle it has been the square G EL M, and that the side c e of the triangle CEL shown practically that the square G E L M described on G E, the is equal to the side E of the triangle G H E, each of them side which subtends the right angle E c G, is equal in superficial being also a side of the square C DHE ; and the angle c E L, area to the squares C F Ń G, C D I E, described on the sides G c, contained by the sides C E, E L of the triangle c E L, is equal to C E, which contain the right angle E C G, so it is true that in any the angle G E A contained by the sides G E, E 1 of the triangle and every right-angled triangle the square described on the side GH E, for each of these angles is composed of a right angle and which snbtends the right angle is equal to the squares of the the angle C E G, which is common to both, the angle C E L being sides by which the right angle is contained.
composed of the right angle L E G and the angle G E C, while But there are yet other facts that may be gathered from an the angle G E L is composed of the angle G EC and the right examination of Fig. 40, and a consideration of the dotted lines angle C EH. Here, then, we have two triangles, each having that are drawn in the figure. First, through the point c the two sides of the one, namely, G E, E H, equal to two sides of the straight line c n is drawn parallel to G X or E L, intersecting other, L E, E C, and the angles contained by these sides equal, the straight line E G in the point t, and dividing the square namely, the angle G E u to the angle C EL; and this being true, it GEL M into the unequal rectangles (see Definition 27, page 53) is plain that their bases or third sides are also equal, namely, TEL N, T GMN. Of these the rectangle TELN is equal to 1 G to cl; and the areas of the triangles are equal, as we may the square CDI E, and the rectangle T N M G equal to the prove practically by cutting out the triangle c E L, and turning square C G K F, as we will proceed to show.
it, as on a pivot, round the point E, until it rests on the triangle The reader will remember that in Problem XXIV (page 308) G H E. But the square D H E has been shown to be double of it was shown that triangles on the same base and between the the triangle G H E, and the rectangle E L NT has been shown to same parallels are equal to one another, and that triangles on be double of the triangle C E L, and as things which are double equal bases and between the same parallels are also equal to of equal things must be equal to one another, the rectangle one another. Now in the trapezoid (see Definition 31, page 53) ELNT must be equal to the square C D A E. In the same way G D H E, of which the sides & D, I E are parallel, there are two it may be shown that the rectangle G tnx is equal to the square triangles, D I E, G 1 E. These triangles stand upon the same CF K G, and the learner is recommended to work out the proof base 1 E, and between the same parallels G D, I E, and are of this as a useful exercise. therefore equal to one another. But the dotted line D E is a diagonal of the square C D H E, and divides it into two equal parts; therefore the triangle D I E is equal to the triangle
READING AND ELOCUTION.-XI. C D E, or, in other words, the square C D E is double of
ANALYSIS OF THE VOICE (continued). the triangle D I E, and as the triangle D HE is equal to the triangle G H E, the square C DHE is also double of the triangle EMPHASIS distinguishes the most significant or expressive G I E; and this brings us to the fact, that when a square and a words of a sentence. triangle happen to be on the same base, and between the same It properly includes several functions of voice, in addition parallels, the area of the square is double the area of the triangle. to the element of force. An emphatic word is not unfrequently
Now let us turn to the trapezoid C EL N, of which the sides distinguished by the peculiar “time," "pitch," "stress," and CX, E L are parallel, and which contains the rectangle, or rect- “inflection” of its accented sound. But all these properties angular parallelogram E L N T within its limits. In this there are partially merged, to the ear, in the great comparative force are also two triangles, C E L, EL N, standing on the same base, of the sound. Hence it is customary to regard emphasis as E L, and between the same parallels, the parallel sides E L, C n, merely special force. This view of the subject would not be of the trapezoid C EL N, and these triangles are consequently practically incorrect, if it were understood as conveying the equal to one another. Now the rectangle E L NT is divided idea of a special force superadded to all the other characterinto two equal parts by the diagonal E N, and the triangle E L N istics of tone and emotion, in the word to which it applies. is therefore equal to the triangle E TN, or in other words, the Emphasis is either “absolute” or “relative." The former rectangle E L N T is double of the triangle E L N, and as the tri- occurs in the utterance of a single thought or feeling, of great angle E L n is equal to the triangle c E L, the rectangle E L NT energy; the latter, in the correspondence or contrast of too is double of the triangle C EL. And this teaches us that when or more ideas. a rectangle or right-angled parallelogram and a triangle are “ Absolute" emphasis is either “impassioned" or
“ distincupon the same base, and between the same parallels, the area tive.” The former expresses strong emotion, as :of the rectangle is double the area of the triangle. And as it is true that when a square and a triangle, or a rect
False wizard, AVAUNT! * angle and a triangle, are upon the same base and between the But the latter designates objects to the attention, or distinsame parallels, the area of the square or rectangle, as the case guishes them to the understanding, as :may be, is double that of the triangle, so it is equally true that The fall of man is the main subject of Milton's great poem. when a square and a parallelogram, or a rectangle and a paral.
“Relative" emphasis occurs in words which express comparilogram, are upon the same base and between the same parallels, the areas of the square and rectangle , or the areas of the rect: son, correspondence, or contrast, as :
Cowards die many times; the brave but once. angle and the parallelogram, thus situated, are equal to one another, as may be seen by drawing the straight line n o through
Rules on Emphasis. 1, parallel to E G, when we have the square o D A E, and the Rule 1.-Exclamations and interjections usually require parallelogram 0 H E G on the same base E 1, and between the " impassioned" emphasis, or the strongest force of utterance, as same parallels 1 E, G D, equal to one another; and by drawing in the following examples :the straight line L v through L, parallel to E C, when we get the
Woe! to the traitor, WOE! rectangle ELNT and the parallelogramcelv equal to one another.
UP! comrades, UP! Parallelograms also on the same base and between the same
AWAKE! ARISEI or be for EVER FALLEN! parallels are equal to one another, and when a parallelogram
Ye icefalls ! and a triangle are on the same base, the area of the parallelo
Motionless torrents! silent cataracts! gram is double the area of the triangle; and more than this, as
Who made you glorious as the gates of heaven, triangles on equal bases and between the same parallels are Beneath the keen full moon equal to one another, so also rectangles and parallelograms on God! GOD! the torrents, like a shout of nations, equal bases and between the same parallels are equal to one Utter: the ice-plain bursts, and answers, God! anotner.
The silent snow-mass, loosening, thunders, GOD! But to proceed to show that the rectangle E Let is equal to the square C D H E, let us look at the triangle G H E, which was first by Italic letters ; the second, by small capitals; and the third, by
Three degrees of emphasis are usually thus denoted in type: the proved to be equal to half the square CD E, and the triangle large capitals. Thus, “You shall DIE, BASE DOG I and that before CE L, which was proved to be equal to half of the rectangle yon cloud has passed over the sun!"-Sometimes a fourth, by Italie LL N T, and compare their sides and angles. On inspecting capitals, thus :-Never, NEVER, NEVER !
Rule 2.-Every new incident in a narration, every new object religion. He must avoid everything which may look like moroseness in a description, and every new subject in a didactic passage, and gloom. He must cultivate a cheerfulness of spirit. He must en. requires " distinctive" emphasis, or a force of utterance suffi. deavour to show, in his whole deportment, the contentment and cient to render it striking or prominent.
tranquillity which naturally flow from heavenly affections, from a mind at
peace with God, and from a hope full of IMMORTALITY. Examples.
The spirit which Christianity enjoins and produces is so widely
different from the spirit of the world, and so immensely superior to it, Their frail bark was, in a moment, overset, and a watery grave that, as it cannot fail of being noticed, so it cannot fail of being seemed to be the inevitable doom of the whole party. The eye rested with delight on the long, low range of beautifully what particulars this spirit shows itself ? I answer, in the exercises of
Do you ask in
admired, even by those who are strangers to its power. tinted clouds, which skirted the horizon.
humility, of meekness, of gentleness; in a patient bearing of injuries; in a The power of faith was the subject of the preacher's discourse.
readiness to forgive offences; in a uniform endeavour to overcome evil with Rule 3.-All correspondent, and all antithetic, or contrasted good; in self-denial and disinterestedness ; in universal kindness and words, require a force sufficient to distinguish them from all the courtesy; in sloveness to urath; in au unwillingness to hear or to speak evil other words in a sentence, and to make them stand out pro
of others; in a forwardness to defend, to advise, and to assist them; minently. When the comparison or contrast is of equal force in loving our enemies; in blessing them that curse us ; in doing good to
them that hate us. These are genuine fruits of true Christianity. in its constituent parts, the emphasis is exactly balanced, in
The Christian must "let his light shine before men, by discharging the words to which it is applied : when one of the objects com- in a faithful, a diligent, and a consistent manner, the personal and parli. pared or contrasted is meant to preponderate over the other, the cular duties of his station. emphasis is stronger on the word by which the preponderance As a member of society, he must be distinguished by a blameless and is expressed.
an inoffensive conduct; by a simplicity and an ingenuousness of character, Examples.
free from every degree of guile; by uprightness and fidelity in all his
engagements. The gospel is preached equally to the rich and to the poor.
As a neighbour, he must be kind, friendly, and accommodating. His Custom is the plague of wise men, and the idol of fools.
discourse must be mild and instructive. He must labour to prevent The man is more KNAVE than fool.
quarrels, to reconcile those who differ, to comfort the ajlicted. In short, Exercises in “ Relative ” Emphasis.
he must be "ready for every good work ;" and all his dealings with others
must show the HEAVENLY PRINCIPLE which dwells and works in his VIETUE || is better than riches. Study | not so much to show knowledge, as to acquire it.
Exercise.—The Benefits of a Popular Government.
The real glory and prosperity of a nation does not consist in the hereIt is not so easy to hide one's faults, as to' mend them.
ditary rank or titled privileges of a very small class in the community ; in I | that denied thee gold, will give my heart.
the great wealth of the few, and in the great poverty of the many; in the You have done that you should be sorry for.
splendid palaces of nobles, and the wretched huts of a numerous and halfWhy beholdest thou the moto || that is in thy brother's eye, but con. famished peasantry. No! such a state of things may give pleasure to siderest not the beam || that is in thine own eye?
proud, ambitious, and selfish minds, but there is nothing here on which As it is the part of justice ll never to do violence, so it is the part of the eye of a patriot can rest with unmingled satisfaction, In his modety | never to commit offence.
deliberate judgmentA friend I cannot be known || in prosperity, and an enemy || cannot be “Tu fares the land, to hastening ills a prey, hidden | in adversity.
Where wealth accumulates, and men decay; Emphatic clauses (those in which every word is emphatio) are
Princes and lords may flourish or may fade;
A BREATH can make them, as a breath has made; Fometimes pronounced on a lower, sometimes on a higher key,
But a BOLD PEASANTRY, their country's pride, but always with an intense force.
When ouce DESTROYED, can NEVER be supplied."
It is an intelligent, virtuous, free, and extensive population, able by Heaven and earth will witness
their talents and industry to obtain a competent support, which conIF 'RONE MUST PALL-that we are innocent.
stitutes the strength and prosperity of a nation. This state had then not one ship-NO, NOT' ONE WALL.
It is not the least advantage of a popular government, that it brings
It is But youth, it seems, is not my only crime : I have been accused || of into operation a greater amount of talent than any other. acting a THEATRICAL part.
acknowledged by every one, that the occurrence of great events awakens As to the present ministry, I cannot give them my confidence. the dormant enorgies of the human mind, and calls forth the most Pardon me, gentlemen : Confidence is a plant of slow growth.
splendid and powerful abilities. It was the momentous question,
whether your country should be free and independent, and the declaraGeneral Remark.—Young readers are commonly deficient in tion that it was so, which gave to you orators, statesmen, and generals, emphasis, and hence feeble and unimpressive, in their style of whose names all future ages will delight to honour. reading. Students should exert much vigilance on this point. The characters of men are generally moulded by the circumstances in At the same time, an overdone emphasis is one of the surest which they are placed. They seldom put forth their strength, without indications of defective judgment and bad taste. Faults which some powerfully exciting motives. But what motives can they have to result from study are always the most offensive.
qualify themselves for stations, from which they are for ever excluded
on account of PLEBEIAN EXTRACTION ? How can they be expected to Exercise.—The Duty of a True Christian.
prepare themselves for the service of their country, when they know
that their services would be REJECTED, because, unfortunately, they The true Christian must show that he is in earnest about religion. dissent from the established religion, and have the honesty to avow it ! In the management of his worldly affairs, he must let it clearly be
But in a country like OURS, where the most obscure individuals in reen, that he is not influenced by a worldly mind; that his heart is not society may, by their talents, virtues, and public services, rise to the most upon earth; that he pursues his worldly calling from a principle of
honourable distinctions, and attain to the highest offices which the people DUTY, Dot from a sordid love of gain; and that, in truth, his treasures
can give, the most effectual inducements are presented. It is indeed are in HEAVEN. He must, therefore, not only “provide things honest true, that only a few who run in the race for political honour, can in the sight of all men;" not only avoid everything which is fraudulent obtain the prize. But, although many come short, yet the exertions and and unjust in his dealings with others; not only openly protest against the progress which they make, are not lost either on themselves or society. those iniquitous practices which the custom of trade too frequently coun- The suitableness of their talents and characters for some other importouances and approves ;-but, also, he must "let his moderation be known unto all men."
tant station may have been perceived ; at least the cultivation of their He must not push his gains with seeming eagerness, minds, and the effort to acquire an honourable reputation, may render eren to the utmost LAWFUL extent. He must exercise forbearance. He
them active and useful members of the community. These are some of must be content with moderate profits. He must sometimes even
the benefits peculiar to a POPULAR government; benefits which we have forezo advantages, which, in themselves, he might innocently take, long enjoyed. lest he should seem to give any ground for suspecting that his heart is secretly set upon these things. Thus, also, with respect to worldly pleasures : he must endeavour to
LESSONS IN MUSIC.-VI. convince men that the pleasures which RELIGION furnishes, are far preater than those which the world can yield. While, therefore, he For Exercise 15, in the following page, the pupil will pitch his coniscientiously keeps from joining in those trifling, and, too often,
own key-note as indicated in the title. If, however, he has pot profune amusements, in which ungodly men profess to seek their happi- got a tuning-fork, let him take doh at a rather low pitch. heahe must yet labour to show, that, in keeping from those things, beneath two or more notes shows that they are to be ew be is, tu respect to real happiness, no loser, but even a Gainte by syllable of the words, or “ slurred.” The comma after a
LESSONS IN FRENCH.-XXII.
heure vous éveillez-vous le matin ? 12. Je m'éveille ordinaire.
ment à six heures moins un quart. 13. Vous levez-vous aussitôt SECTION XXXVIII.-USES OF REFLECTIVE VERBS (continued).
que vous vous éveillez ? 14. Je me lève aussitôt que je m'éveille. 1. The reflective verb se passer is used idiomatically in the 15. De quels livres vous servez-vous ? 16. Je me sers des sense of to do without. It is followed by the preposition de, miens et des vôtres. 17. Ne vous servez-vous pas de ceux de when it comes before a noun or u verb.
votre frère ? 18. Je m'en sers aussi. 19. Les plumes dont (Sect. Vous passez-vous de ce livre ? Do you do without that book ?
XXX. 8] vous vous servez sont-elles bonnes ? 20. Pourquoi Je ne puis m'en passer, I cannot do without it.
votre ami s'éloigne-t-il du feu ? 21. Il s'en éloigne parcequ'il a 2. Se servir (2, ir. ; see § 62), to use, also requires the prepo- 23. Il s'en approche pour se chauffer. 24. Vous ennuyez-vous
trop chaud. 22. Pourquoi votre domestique s'en approche-t-il? sition de before its object.
ici ? 25. Je ne m'ennuie pas. Je me sers de votre canif,
I use your penknife.
EXERCISE 72. 3. The second example of the two rules above shows that, 1. Will you lend me your penknife ? 2. I cannot do without when the object of those verbs is a thing, it is represented in it, I want it to mend my pen. 3. Do you want to use my book? the sentence by the pronoun en.
4. I want to use it, will you lend it to me? 5. What knife Je m'en sers ; je m'en passe, I use it; I do without it.
does your brother use ? 6. He uses my father's knife, and my
brother's fork. 7. Will you not draw near the fire ? 8. We 4. The pronoun* used as indirect object of a reflective verb, are much obliged to you, we are warm. 9. Is that young lady if representing a person, follows the verb ($ 100 (4)].
warm enough ? [Sect. XXXIII. 3.] 10. She is very cold. 11. Je puis me passer de lui, I can do with ut him. Tell her (dites-lui) to come near the fire. 12.
do you go Je m'adresse à vous et à elle, I apply to you and to her.
from the fire ? 13. We are too warm. 14. Does your brother 5. S'endormir (2, ir. ; see § 62), to fall asleep, and s'éveiller, leave the window? 15. He leaves the window because he is
cold. to awake, are also reflective.
16. To whom does that gentleman apply? 17. He
applies to me and to my brother. 18. Why does he not apply Je m'endors aussitôt que je me I fall asleep as soon as I go to bed.
to me? 19. Because he is ashamed to speak to you. 20. Do couche, Je m'éveille à six heures du matin, I awake at six o'clock in the morning. to bed early. 22. Why do you go to sleep? 23. I go to sleep
you awake early every morning ? 21. I awake early when I go 6. S'approcher, to come near, to approach ; s'éloigner, to draw because I am tired. 24. Are you afraid to go near your father? back, to leave, take the preposition de before a noun. Their 25. I am not afraid to approach him. 26. Can you do without object, when a pronoun, is subject to Rules 3 and 4 above.
us? 27. We cannot do without you, but we can do without Votre fils s'approche-t-il du feu ? Does your son draw near the fire ? your brother. 28. Do you want my brother's horse ? 29. No, Il ne s'en approche pas, He does not come near it.
Sir, we can do without it. 30. Do you intend to do without Il s'éloigne de moi et de vous, He goes from me and from you. money? 31. You know very well that we cannot do withont it. RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.
32. Is your brother weary of being here? 33. He is not weary
of being here. 34. Come near the fire, my child.
LESSONS IN ARITHMETIC.-XX. vous ? Nous nous servons de couteaux We use steel knives,
RATIO AND PROPORTION. d'acier. Pouvez-vous vous passer d'argent? Can you do without money ? 1. In comparing two numbers or magnitudes with each other, Nous ne pouvons nous en passer. We cannot do without it.
we may inquire either by how much one is greater than the Vous passez-vous de votre maitre ? Do you do without your teacher ? other, or how many times one contains the other. Nous nous passons de lui. We do without him.
This latter relation-namely, that which is expressed by the Vous adressez-vous à ces messieurs? Do you apply to those gentlemen ?
quotient of the one number or magnitude divided by the otherNous nous adressons à eux et à We apply to them and to you.
is called their Ratio. Vous vous endormez facilement. You go to sleep easily.
Thus the ratio of 6 to 2 is 6 • 2, or 3. The ratio of 7 to 5 Je m'éveille de très bonne heure. I arake very early.
is 7 = 5, or, as it would be written, the fraction. The two Pourquoi vous approchez-vous du Why do you come near the fire ?
numbers thus compared are called the terms of the ratio. The feu ?
first term is called the antecedent, the last the consequent. It Je m'en approche parceque j'ai I come near it because I am cold. will be seen that any ratio may be expressed as a fraction, the froid.
antecedent being the numerator, and the consequent the denoNous nous éloignons du feu. We go from the fire.
minator. A ratio is, in fact, the same thing as a fraction. Nous nous en éloignons. We go from it.
When we talk of a ratio, we regard the fraction from rather & Nous nous approchons de notre We go near our father.
different point of view, namely, as a means of comparing the père. Nous nous approchons de lui. We go near him.
magnitude of the two numbers which represent the numerator
and the denominator, rather than as an expression indicating VOCABULARY.
that a unit is divided into a number of equal parts, and that so Aussi, also, Encre, f., ink.
gene- many of them are taken. Aussitôt--que, as soon Fenêtre, f., window. rally.
2. The ratio of two numbers is often expressed by writing Feu, m., firo. Plume, f., pen.
two dots, as for a colon, between them. Thus the ratio of 6 to Canif, m., penknife. Fourchette, f., fork. Pourquoi, why. 3 is written 6:3; that of 3 to 5, 3: 5, etc. Demoiselle, young lady. Heure, f., hour, o'clock. Prêt-er, 1, to lend.
The expressions and 3 : 5, it must be borne in mind, mean Domestique, m., ser. Moins, lesa, before. Quart, m., quarter. vant. Obligé, -e, obliged.
exactly the same thing. Taill-er, 1, to mend.
A direct ratio is that which arises from dividing the antece." EXERCISE 71.
dent by the consequent. 1. Pouvez-vous vous passer d'encre ? 2. Nous pouvons nous
An inverse or reciprocal ratio is the ratio of the reciprocals of en passer, nous n'avons rien à écrire. 3. Vous servez-vous de the two numbers. Thus, the inverse ratio of 3 : 5 is the ratio
which is the same as or 5. Ne voulez-vous pas vous approcher du feu ? 6. Je vous suis bien obligé, je n'ai pas froid. 7. Pourquoi ces demoiselles otherwise expressed, 5 : 3. s'éloignent-elles de la fenêtre ? 8. Elles s'en éloignent parce
Hence we see that the inverse ratio of two numbers is erqu'il y fait trop froid. 9. Ces enfants ne s'adressent-ils pag à pressed by inverting the order of the terms when the ratio is vous 10. Ils s'adressent à moi et à mon frère. 11. À quelle
* The reciprocal of a number or fraction is the pumber or fraction The rule does not apply to the reflective pronoun, which is some obtained by inverting it. Thus, the reciprocals of 5, }, }, etc., are mas an indirect object.
respectively }, , 6.
votre plame? 4. Je ne m'en sers pas; en avez-vous besoin? Of } } }, or otherwise expressed