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described ; or, if the reader do not happen to possess a flower of terms applied to designate the botanical order Ranunculacea. this kind, he may convince himself of the truth of this descrip. The reader will admit each term has had a meaning, and that, tion by reference to the accompanying diagram (Fig. 121), in when understood, these terms are very expressive. Pernaps he which the little central bodies, marked cc c, are the carpels, or may think that the remarks concerning the manner of adhesion female parts of the flower; the little thread-like things, P p, and the number of the petals are all well enough, but he may, being the stamens, or male parts of the flower; the curved lines, at the same time, think that the microscopic examination of the mn m, representing the position of the corolla, and the lower curved seed and its fruits are a little far-fetched. Nevertheless, the lines, nn, that of the calyx. Hence the meaning of the term hypo- reader will find, when his botanical studies have been a little gynous petals will now be evident, for the curved lines, m m, the farther prosecuted, that the shape and disposition of the embryo representatives of their position, are evidently below the little constitute some of the most reliable distinctive marks of various carpels, c cc. Stamens ordinarily numerous; anthers usually species. We admit, however, that these microscopic signs adnatant. The general term stamen, the reader already knows, are, for the most part, unavailable to the botanical student, who is applied to each of the little threads, P p, together with its must content himself with broader characteristics. appendages; the anther is the mace-like knot at the upper Fruit, apocarpous. This is a proper opportunity for making extremity of the stamen. We have, therefore, to consider the ourselves acquainted with certain general facts in botany, not meaning of the term adnatant, which is derived from the necessarily connected with the Ranunculaceæ, but which a mem. Latin ad, to, and natus, grown, which, therefore, signifies grown ber of that family of plants may serve to illustrate. Referring to a thing by its whole surface; for example, in the buttercup to the carpels, or the central or female parts of the flower, these the anthers adhere to the styles in the manner represented will be found scarcely to alter in appearance, except in size, in the accompanying diagram (Fig. 122). Here the anthers are from the first period of inflorescence to the last, when the little projections a and b;

the perianth or floral envelopes evidently they are attached to

fall off, and the fruit is dethe filament, s, by their whole

veloped. This fruit, in point of surface, and not a portion of

P fact, consists of nothing but red the same.

carpels. Ovule reflexed. Let us begin

Hence, without any other adby settling exact ideas respect

dition, the fruit of Ranuncuing the ovule; we will then

laceæ furnishes us with the treat about its reflection after

simplest conditions under wards. The casual observer of

which a fruit can exist. All a buttercup would take the

fruit may be defined in strict little central protuberances or

botanical language to be the carpels as they exist in a ripened

matured carpel; but in by far flower for seeds. They are not


the majority of instances the seeds, but fruits; very small,

real botanical fruit is masked but still fruits. If the student

n by the attachment of other appossesses a magnifying glass, 122

pendages. For example, the he may, on cutting a ripened


carpel, or real fruit, bears & carpel or fruit open, find the

very small proportion to the real seed inside, presenting an

absolute size of an apple or appearance of which Fig. 123 a

pear. In these by far the is a magnified representation.


greater portion of the fruit, Now, if the fruit be so small,

in the ordinary acceptation of what must the real seed be ?


the term, consists of a highly Nevertheless, by the aid of a

developed and succulent calys. good magnifying glass all its

Referring to our buttercup various parts may be rendered

again, the carpels are observed evident. Fig. 124 is its magni.


to remain quite distinct; they fied appearance.

When the 121. BOTANICAL SECTION OF THE RANUNCULUS. 122. ADNATANT ANTHERS never adhere ; hence the fruit seed of a buttercup is cat open, OF THE BUTTERCUP. 123. FRUIT OF THE BUTTERCUP. 124. SEED OF of a buttercup is said to be the observer will perhaps at

125. REFLEXED OVULE OF THE BUTTERCUP, apocarpous (Greek, ano, ap'-o, first see nothing but a mass of

from, in the sense of apart; and white flesh, termed by botanists albumen ; but if the seed has, Kaptos, kar'.pos, fruit), or non-adherent. Had the carpels been been accurately divided from top to bottom, a little thing will united, then a syncarpous (Greek, ouv, sune, together, and Kaptos, be observed at a; this is the embryo, and, small as it seems, fruit) fruit would have resulted. this embryo is the only portion of the seed which represents the Several other distinctive signs of the natural order Ranuncu. future plant. The albumen of the plant is really only so much laceæ might be mentioned; but even fewer than those already food for the young embryo to eat before it has grown big enough enumerated might serve pretty clearly to indicate the true order to shift for itself. It consists of a radicle, or representative of of these plants; these essential characteristics are the hypothe root, and two cotyledons or rudimentary leaves. This the gynous stamens and apocarpous fruit. If the student meets reader might have predicted, without finding these cotyledons, with any plants having these characteristics, no matter how from a consideration that the leaves of buttercups are reticulated, different the general appearance of such plant may be from the not straight-veined, from which circumstance they must belong to general appearance of the buttercup, no matter whether the size the dicotyledonous division of plants.

is different, the shape or colour of the flower different, still it is Still, we have not arrived at the reason why the ovule is said almost sure to be a Ranunculus. But what is the use of this to be reflexed; and, indeed, this determination belongs so com- classification ? the reader may ask. Take a supposed case. You pletely to microscopic botany, that we should scarcely have are shipwrecked on some unknown island, or you are a farmer explained the meaning of the term, were we not desirous that in some unexplored land, and you meet with some gay-looking no expression should appear useless or unmeaning. This reflected flowers and tempting-looking herbs; the fruit is apocarpous and state of the ovule the reader will scarcely see even by the aid the stamens are hypogynous; take care of such plants, neither of glasses. The word, however, which is derived from the Latin eat them nor permit your cattle to eat them. They are, most re, back, and flecto, to bend, means bent suddenly back upon itself, likely, poisonous, this being a leading physiological characteristic as represented in the accompanying diagram (Fig. 125). of the tribe; and in certain species the poisonous principle is so

At the base of a horny albumen. If the reader refers to a dia- extremely virulent that death would speedily result from the gram already given (Fig. 123), he will see that the embryo really swallowing of a very minute portion. Such knowledge as this rests at the base of the albumen, as described, and inasmuch constitutes the really useful part of botany, not a mere classifias this albumen is very hard, it is termed horny.

cation of plants without reference to the properties of the memThus we have almost got throngh our analysis of the various bers falling under each classification.


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Having thus studied the general characteristics of the Ranun- educated eye, however, the similarity is complete. The circulus order, taking the buttercup as our standard of comparison, cumstance in reference to which the term larkspur is given let us see how far general appearances may alter without the depends upon a curious formation of one of the sepals of the essential characteristics being interfered with.

calyx, something like the spur on a bird's foot; but it is a con. What plant is apparently more unlike the buttercup than the dition of further botanical importance, thus assisting to indicate clematis ? Nevertheless, it will be found on dissection to present a genus, not an order; and colour is of still less botanical importthe essential characteristics of a ranunculaceous plant.

Inside the sepals or calyx of a larkspur are four petals How seemingly different, again, from the buttercup are the strangely shaped, two of them having long tails. Thus the hepaticas! Yet their structure at once points out the family larkspur wears a complete mask; but the botanist at once to which they belong.

recognises the flower by the essential signs of apocarpous fruit But the Larkspur tribs, including the Delphinium, differ and hypogynous stamens; and once recognised, once referred to 80 greatly in appearance from the yellow buttercup, that none Ranunculaceæ, larkspurs would be justly held in suspicion as bat the botanist can see any alliance between them. To his poisonous plants, a character which they richly deserve.



Agineurt, 143.

Bathurst in Afrien Camada was discovered, 1497 Dzemponto venerudedeckyard in Pasen.




composed. The learner should practise writing each capital by

itself in order to gain facility in forming them, as the sweeping In our new and advanced series of Copy-slips, in addition to the curves of which these letters are composed differ materially small letters of the writing alphabet in four different sizes, the from the somewhat stiff and regular succession of up-strokes reader will find examples of all the various kinds of capital and down-strokes, all on the same inclination or slope, that he letters in general use, as well as the forms of the numerals or has hitherto been in the habit of making. Instead of giving symbols used to denote numbers. It is impossible to classify our readers a simple name or word to copy in the larger hands, the different elementary forms of which the capital letters of or a precept or proverb in the smaller hands, as is generally the writing alphabet are composed, as we did in the case of the done in copy-books, we have endeavoured to set before him in amall letters given in our first series in large text; but it will be each copy-slip some fact that he will do well to bear in memory. seen, on comparing the different capitals, that the prevailing Thus, after copying Copy-slip No. 81 some dozen times, he will strokes are the long curved up-stroke with which the letter A is never forget when the battle of Agincourt took place ; while commenced, the thick down-stroke with which it is completed, Copy-slip No. 82 will, in all probability, cause him to turn to the thick down-stroke with which the letters B and D are his “Gazetteer" or Atlas," if he have one, to find whether commenced—a stroke which enters into the composition of the there be any more Bathursts on the world's surface besides that majority of the capital letters and the curved down-stroke which happens to be the principal settlement in the British turned at the top and bottom, of which the letter e is mainly I colony, at the mouth of the river Gambia, in Western Africa.


ways, and the alien nuisance became greater than ever. The

kingdom swarmed with the countrymen of the queen, and with SIMON DE MONTFORT, AND THE FIRST ENGLISH PARLIAMENT.

other foreigners. The Bishop of Valence, of the house of Savoy, On the 12th of December, 1264, a great act was done for England, was made chief adviser of the crown, and another Savoyard was though by the hand of a rebel. Simon de Montfort, Earl of made primate. The English nobles were nowhere, and in deep Leicester, son of that stern, capable soldier, and inexorable disgust they would not come to court. bigot, who commanded the crusade against the dissenting Bitter and deep was the exasperation of the English, nobles Albigenses in 1206-8, took upon himself to recognise the existence and otherwise; and the irritating method adopted by the king of a power that was being rapidly developed in this country, to defray the expenses of his extravagant court, and of his namely, the power of the towns and townsmen. He wrote liberality to the strangers, served to heighten it. He exacted letters in the king's name to all the barons and high clergy, loans from private persons whom he never repaid; and he levied bidding them assemble in Parliament, or in Grand Council, as taxes and imposts quite regardless of the Great Charter which Parliament was then called, and for the first time he invited the ho had ratified, and which forbade him to do so without concounties and all the important towns to send representatives to sent of Parliament. He was so driven for money after an unLondon, in order to confer with the lords and the clergy upon successful French war in which he lost Poitou, that he had to the affairs of the kingdom. It is much to be regretted that sell his jewels and plate to the citizens of London. But things none of these letters are extant. Few historical documents grew ever worse and worse. The clergy were at length dis. eould possess more interest for a people who have for 600 years gusted, as well as all other ranks, for the king filled those recognised a political constitution with king, lords, and com- English benefices which he could control with Italians and mons, than the writs by virtue of which borough members first Frenchmen. His chaplain, a foreigner, had seven hundred took their seats.

livings at one time. But how came the Earl of Leicester to write the letters on his At length the people, backed up secretly by the nobles, took own responsibility, though in the king's name? and what was the the matter in hand. They resisted the exactions of the royal object which the earl sought to attain when he sent the writs officers, and they burned the estates of the foreigners, and the out? The writing happened on this wise. Ever since the king, knowing who were behind them, was afraid to punish. beginning of the young king's (Henry III.) reign, in 1216, But resistance unchecked is fatal·to anthority, as Henry found there had been a perpetual succession of political troubles. To out. The barons, who had hitherto kept in the background, begin with, the king at that time being only nine years old, it and had contented themselves with keeping aloof from the became necessary to appoint a council of regency, a fruitful court, and so discouraging the king's practices, now came to the source of jealousy and heart-burning at all times, and especially front, having a strong force to support them, in the shape of an so in days when men were wholly swayed by a passionato pride, angry and jealous town population, besides their own tenantry which was but too ready to take offence, and a spirit of revenge- and dependents. They had attempted, some years before, to ful restlessness which forthwith made them take up arms upon get the appointment of the Chancellor, and of the Grand Jus. the faintest appearance of real or imaginary slight.

ticiary (this office is now extinct, but at this time it was the From this regency sprang the never-ending commotions known highest in the kingdom), into their hands, but they had not as the Barons' wars. The barons were too nearly equal in rank succeeded : now they revived the proposition with additions to and power to admit of one set being in the government while it, and wished to take all power, direct and indirect, out of the the others were excluded, and the matter was made worse by the king's hands. In unmeasured terms they reproached him in ill-advised proceedings of those in power, who availed themselves Parliament for his extortions and his misconduct, and flatly reof the opportunity to annoy and oppress their peers. Besides, fused to give him any money till he should have sworn once these causes of disunion, there was another in the fact that the more solemnly to observe the Great Charter. They were not French Dauphin (the eldest son of the French king was always to be taken in by a sham request for the supply under the plea called so, from Dauphiné, of which he was Count) claimed the of the king's intention to go to the Crusades. Henry had to crown by virtue of an invitation he had received from some of swear in the presence of the assembled prelates and barons that the barons, when King John misgoverned the land. The dis- he would govern according to the charter before he could contented among the English barons made use of the Dauphin touch a farthing of the money of which he stood in so great for a time, till the growing unpopularity of the French inter- need. ference obliged the prince to quit England, which would not have Chief among the barons who resisted the king was Simon de him at any cost.

Montfort, Earl of Leicester. Something has been said of him In order to put a bridle into the barons' mouths, for they at the beginning of this notice ; let us now look more closely on were not disposed to render allegiance to Rome, the Pope de- the man, and fill in the details which are wanting. His father clared Henry to be of full age when he was but fifteen, just was a French count, whose name is too well known in the history, after the Great Charter, which John had given, had been con- of religious persecution ; his mother was a Montmorency; and firmed by the regent and the barons in a council at Oxford. he himself, the child of French parents, was also born ont of Soon after this Henry was persuaded to claim the Duchy of England, so that in no sense was he an Englishman except by Normandy, which his father had lost for the English crown; and adoption. The adoption of England as his country came about the French king (Louis VIII.), who had won it, very naturally in this way. Simon's paternal grandmother was Petronilla, refusing to give it up, war was declared, and a campaign fol- sister and co-heiress of Robert Beaumont, last Earl of Leicester lowed, which nearly had the effect of losing for England the of his house. The English barony thus devolved, in default of remainder of her French provinces, Poitou, Gascony, and issue born to Earl Robert, upon the descendants of Petronilla. Guienne ; and this, of course, did not tend to make Henry's Simon de Montfort the elder was thus Earl of Leicester, in government more popular. But, to mako things worse, just at addition to his other honours, and he did homage for it, and the this time (1231) Henry, who was now twenty-four years old, lands belonging to it, to King John. In consequence of soma began to commit an error which Englishmen have never for dispute with that king, he lost both title and lands, and though given in their kings. He began to cherish foreigners and to he afterwards got back the lands he never recovered the title

. neglect his own people.

When Simon died, his eldest son Amauri succeeded him ; but This conduct in the king was soon resented by the English the English king refused any longer to receive a homago half barons, who, for a time, laid aside their intestina quarrels,

and of which was owed to the King of France, and Amauri, there openly declared their intention to dethrone Henry unless

he fore, was obliged to come to an arrangement by which he should dismissed his foreign friends. Divided counsels among the be the liegeman of the King of France, while his younger brother confederates, however, helped Henry, and he took occasion to Simon was admitted to homage

for the honour and lands punish some of the rebels, and to bestow their property on the of the barony of Leicester. Another fact contributed to make Frenchmen, till the Archbishop of Canterbury (like his prede- him more and more the Englishman and less the Frenchman. cessor Becket), in the interests of liberty, threatened to excom- He married, clandestinely it is said, the widowed Countess of municate him and his unless he acted differently. For a time Pembroke, sister to Henry III., and the prominence which this Henry submitted, and allowed the Primate to rule; but marrying, alliance gave him forced him to take his place in the ranks of in 1236, the daughter of the Count of Provence, and the arch English nobles, with an English nobleman's responsibilities and bishop dying in the meantime, the king returned to his former interests.

But the marriage, clandestine or not, of a princess of the ever hearing from the other side of the Channel maxims of blood-royal with a foreigner did not, under the circumstances government and ideas of royal authority which were utterly inalready mentioned, pass sub silentio. The barons were furious applicable to the actual state of his own kingdom.” that their consent had not been first sought; the people beheld The straits to which this policy, vehemently opposed as it was in the marriage one more notable instance of the king's partiality by the English barons, brought the king has been partially for foreigners; and the clergy professed to be scandalised at the shown. To the council at which Henry has been represented as marriage of one who, after the death of her husband, had vowed having to ratify the Great Charter before he could get a supply, to remain single, and had betaken herself to a convent as a reli- the barons came armed, and with armed followers. Simon de gieuse. On the bursting of the storm off went Simon de Mont- Montfort was the guiding spirit among them, and his influence fort to Rome, and, by dint of strong personal applications, and, was all powerful. Acting upon his suggestions, they demanded, his enemies said, by the free use of his money, obtained the in addition to previous requirements, that the government of Pope's consent to wbat he had done. He came back, was the kingdom should be entrusted to a council of twenty-four received with great joy by the king, and in 1239 was created barons, who should continue to govern until the flagrant abuses Earl of Leicester in his own right. Then came disgrace, for which had crept in should have been reformed; and Henry, reasons upon which it is difficult to speculate; indeed, there unable to say “No” with effect, was obliged to listen while the seems at the present day to have been so little reason that it is barons fixed the 11th of June (1258) at Oxford for the time and not unwarrantable to attribute the disgrace to the caprice of the place of a meeting at which arrangements should be made for king. Simon de Montfort left the country, and continued carrying this resolution into effect. In the interim De Montfort to reside abroad for several years. One lesson, and a useful and his friends seized the Cinque Ports (Dover, Hastings, Hythe, one, he had learned during his short experience of political life, Romney, and Sandwich), as a precaution against the king's namely, that he should not put his trust in princes. He foreign friends ; and when the 11th of June came they apnever forgot that lesson, and the fact that he had to learn it peared at Oxford in arms, as their fathers had appeared at Runloosened considerably the ties which bound him to the king, nymede when they presented the Great Charter for signature. though it does not appear to have diminished his sense of the This council, for it was not a parliament, in the modern personal duty he owed him. Thus we find him lending his acceptation of that word, has been called "the mad parliament,' sword-he "whom the Gascons feared as the lightning"-to for no other reason that one can discover than because the Henry during the short and inglorious campaign which that king measures agreed to by the members were of a more revolumade against Louis IX. (Saint Louis) in 1242, and in the course tionary and " thorough" character than were usually debated of which De Montfort, by his own prowess, saved Henry from in such assemblies. Henry was obliged to submit, and the being taken prisoner.

barons proceeded to draw up their resolutions, called the ProFor six years after this the Earl of Leicester lived almost all visions of Oxford, to the observance of which they required the his time abroad. To him, as to the fittest man, was committed oath of every lord. By these provisions it was declared that the government of Gascony, and the arduous task of fighting four knights from each county should attend the next parliament and subduing the professional rebels who dwelt there. In spite in order to represent grievances; that there should be three of gross neglect on Henry's part, in spite of lack of money and sessions of the parliament in a year; that the election of sheriffs men, the earl succeeded in breaking the heads and the spirit of officers having much more power then than now) should be the Gascons; and when he had recovered the province for annual, and by the votes of the freeholders ; that the power of Henry, and laid it once more at his feet, it was only to be re- the sheriffs should be curtailed ; that no new forests should be warded with charges of dishonesty and malversation in his office made; that the revenues of the counties should not be farmed; as seneschal, or governor. De Montfort had obliged the king and last, not least, that no foreigner should be guardian of any too much, served him too well, and the king resolved therefore to English ward, or be allowed to hold any English castles. It was crush him and his claims to gratitude together. But for the also arranged, as previously determined, that a council of twentyunanimous voice of the barons against the step, the earl would four barons, with the Earl of Leicester at their head, should take have been sent to the Tower, and probably thence to his death; upon themselves temporarily the government of the kingdom. but Henry, thwarted in this, abused the earl before the whole The royal power was completely subverted. court for his misconduct. De Montfort replied by reminding Had the barons only chosen to act unitedly, and with a single the king of his great services, and of the broken promises with eye to what they had undertaken, they would have had the which they had been requited.

popular feeling wholly with them, and would have been the “I will never keep promises made to a traitor," said the king. means of conferring a lasting benefit on their country. But Whereupon De Montfort, unable to control himself, gave him the the old divisions sprung up again, the old jealousies and the old lie, and told him that but for his royalty he should not have hatreds were revived, and the cause which the barons had in lived to repeat the word. “Who can believe that you are a hand was well-nigh lost on the rock on which the friendship of Christian ?" he continued. “ Have you ever confessed ?" the Earls of Leicester and Gloucester split. Instead of carrying " Certainly,” replied Henry.

out the much needed reforms, the barons wasted the precious " To what end have you done so, since you havo neither re- time in striving, after the old fashion, which should be the pented nor made amends ?"

greater. The king was unkinged, and the twenty-four kings “ I never repented of anything so much,” returned the king, who proposed to reign in his stead could not arrange how they (as of suffering you to set a foot in England, or to hold land or should do so. De Montfort was disliked because he was a bonoar in the realm."

foreigner, and because he was too clever for his companions, Thus a great gulf was fixed between Henry and his powerful though as regards his alien origin he set a good example to subject, a gulf which, as will be seen, could not be bridged over other aliens by being the first to give up the English castles. during their respective lives. De Montfort went his way and which had been committed to his care. Unable to settle matters Henry went another, and the former waited for an opportunity with the other lords, he threw up in disgust and went abroad. to settle his accounts with his debtor. Something has been said In his absence things grew worse. Little was done by the of the way in which Henry went. Read what an eminent council of government after the first six months, and the people writer and reviewer (Edinburgh Review for January, 1866) says began to tire of them and to pity the sorry plight to which of it:-"He aimed at making the crown virtually independent Henry was reduced. After three years the king was so strong of the barons. The sons of the men who had extorted the Great in friends that he determined to resume his authority, and the Charter were told that it was their business to find money for barons, deprived of the Earl of Leicester's influence and ability, every rash enterprise which the interests of the king's Conti- were without the means of thwarting him. The Pope, too, was Dental relations and advisers might suggest ; but that they must induced to annul the Provisions of Oxford, or rather he released not presume to demand the resignation of one officer of state, or from the obligation of their oaths all who had sworn to respect to murmur if the most important castles of the realm, and the them; and, armed with these powers, Henry, in the early part first places in the states were committed to the hands of aliens. of 1262, resumed his authority by means of a sort of coup de In all this his connection with Louis IX., whose brother-in-law he main. became, was certainly a misfortune to him. In France the royal Simon de Montfort refused to accept the terms offered by the power had during the last fifty years, been steadily on the ad- king when he returned to power, and accepted by the majority vande; in England it had as steadily receded; and Henry was of the barons. His rival, the Earl of Gloucester, having died

in July of 1262, he returned secretly from his voluntary exile their best friend, and left De Montfort to fight out their quarrel, in October following, and immediately assumed the leadership not only alone, but against their own opposition. The final of the barons' party. Patiently, artfully, he laboured to re- result of it all was, that when Simon de Montfort, with his eldest organise their ranks, and he appealed at the same moment to son, and a few good men and true who remained to him, saw their patriotism and their pride when he showed them that the the army of Prince Edward approach his army at Evesham, Provisions of Oxford were as important to the nation as the there was nothing for it but to fight to the death against men Great Charter itself; and when he pointed out that their de- whom he himself had trained to discipline and war. "May liberate act had been ostentatiously set aside by a foreign God have mercy on our souls, for our bodies are Prince Edward's,"

. bishop whose authority in such matters they could not possibly exclaimed the earl as he saw the enemy advancing against him recognise. Under Leicester's skilful guidance the barons re- in force, and he entered on the battle with a full conviction that united as one man, and demanded in the spring of 1263 a it was his last. ratification of the Provisions. Henry refused, the barons drew He died, with his eldest son, Lord Basset, Lord Despencer, the sword, and England was once more the scene of domestic and many more, bravely fighting in defence of those principles violence and civil war. But the barons had it all their own which he had advocated all his political life. His example and way. Combining their forces with those of Llewellyn, Prince his statesmanship survived him, and we must recognise in him of Wales, they carried all before them, captured the royal castles, the founder of that system of Parliamentary government which imprisoned the obnoxious aliens who were in posts of authority, it has been our pride and our privilege to preserve to the present and laid that part of the country which was devoted to the king hour. We will finish this article in the words of the Edinburgh under heavy contributions. London opened its gates, and reviewer, to whose essay we have already referred:-“And when received them with bells ringing and with flags flying, while the the full survey is taken we shall not forget what is due to the king, who had retired to the Tower, was compelled to be a statesman who first struck the key-note of constitutional govern. witness of their triumph. There was no resisting them, and at ment, and showed that there was more both of wisdom and of a Parliament, holden in September, 1263, the Provisions of strength in a confiding appeal to a free people, than in the coer. Oxford were solemnly confirmed by the king, and by Edward, cive despotism of the first Plantagenets. We shall remember, the crown prince (afterwards Edward I.).

too, that he applied his principles with a breadth of view and In a few weeks only all De Montfort's work had to be done an evenness of hand too rare in later times to the Church as over again. Henry ignored his own solemn act so soon as the well as to the State, and that almost alone of feudal statesmen barons' army had dispersed, and by the autumn chaos was come he perceived that the just privileges of a national clergy might again in English politics. It was decided to refer the questions become, not the chronic difficulty of the State, but her surest at issue to the arbitration of Louis IX., "a king, a hero, and and least perishable safeguard. Lastly, we shall bear in mind a man,” as Gibbon said of him, and at Amiens, in January, that, over the coarse ignorance and impure rudeness of the old 1264, Louis's award was given absolutely in favour of the king. feudal manners, he bore himself in calm, gentle superiority, The barons, who had been somehow or other inadequately repre- cultivated, refined, and unsullied—the very model of an English sented before the French king, were astounded, but they offered gentleman: so English in heart, so true to the land of his adopto bow to the decision if only the objectionable claim to thrust tion, that we almost forget, as we think of him, the parentage foreigners into English honours were withdrawn. This was that is implied in the name of Simon de Montfort." refused, and war once more broke out.

After the signal victory which De Montfort won at Lewes when SYNOPSIS OF EVENTS IN THE LIFE AND REIGN OF HENRY III. he captured both the king and Prince Edward, the earl was com. pletely master of the position. He summoned the Grand Council, Henry III., the eldest son of King John, by his second consupplemented by four knights chosen by each county, to meet him sort, Isabel of Angoulême, was the eighth king of England after on the 23rd of June, and when they met they conferred despotic the Norman Conquest, and the fourth of the Plantagenet power upon him, until the differences between Henry and the Dynasty. barons, which were again to be submitted to French arbitration Born at Winchester Oct. 1, 1207| Disputes between the King (the alien question excepted), should be settled. Arrangements Began to reign . . Oct. 18, 1916 and Great Council

1343 were in progress for the new arbitration when the Pope inter- Revision of Magna Charta 1216 Gold coin first issued in Eng. fered, excommunicated the Earl of Leicester and the barons, French defeated in a battle and declared Henry free to do as he liked.

called the “Fair of Lin- The “Mad Parliament" as The declaration must have sounded rather like a mockery to

May 19, 1217 Oxford.

June 11, 1958 the king, who was a close prisoner to his own subjects, and it Grand Council summoned at

French quit England 1217 The “ Barons' War served only to show De Montfort that he must go on steadily, Westminster

1225 Battle of Lewes . May 14, 1964 knowing that he had nothing to hope for short of success. He Ratification of previous Char- First regular representative did what in him lay towards doing justice to those under him ters

1225 Parliament meets who were most oppressed by the prevailing system. He tried | Marriage of Simon de Mont- Battle of Evesham . Aug. 4, 195 to free the Anglican Church from the tyrannical authority which

fort to the Countess of Death of Simon de Montfort 133 the Roman Church arrogated to have over her, and he tried to

Pembroke .

. 1238 Henry dies at Bury St. Ed. let the voice of all those who were obliged to contribute towards


Nov, 16, 172 the burdens of the state, heard in the councils where their SOVEREIGNS CONTEMPORARY WITH HENRY III. political fate was decided. Not merely because he wanted their

Denmark, Kings of. Germany, Emperors of. | Celestine IV. help, but because he deemed they were entitled to them as of Waldemar II. 1202

Frederick II. 1212 Chair vacant from 1941 right, he sent summonses to the chosen of the counties, to Eric IV.


1247 Innocent IV. the chosen of towns, and to the chosen of the inferior clergy, Abel

1250 Conrad IV.


Alexander IV. to meet him in Parliament assembled. As the exponent of the Christopher I. 1252 Interregnum from 1256

Urban IV. popular will he could do no less, and he acted as he did out of Eric V.


Richard of Corn. Clement IV., 1383 conviction that he ought to do so.

Eastern Empire. wall and Al. Chair vacant from 1958 On the 12th of December, 1264, the writs went out, directed in

Peter de Courte

phonso of Cas- Gregory X. the king's name, to the barons and prelates as heretofore, to Robert de Cour.



tile, rival Eman extra number of abbots, to the deans of cathedrals, and to

Scotland, King et perors


Alexander II. 1214 every county and every important town. Each county and each Baldwin II.

Norway, Kings of.

Alexander II. 190 town addressed sent up two representatives apiece to the Grand [Constantinople taken

Haco V.

1217 Council of the realm, and their members, in common with the from the Latin Empe

Magnus VI. 1263 Spain, Kings of lords of Parliament, settled the affairs of the nation. For him rors by the Greok Em.

Portugal, Kings of

Henry L. self, De Montfort took nothing; he even allowed another, an

peror Michael VIII.]
Alfonso II. 1912

Ferdinand III. Englishman, to be made Grand Justiciary, or chief officer of

Michael VIII.


Sancho II. the kingdom, by a Parliament of his own creation.

France, Kings of.

Alfonso III. 12 18

Philip II., 1180 What was the upshot of it all? Simply this. The barons, Louis VIII.

Swedm, Kingston

Rome, Popes of. John I. weakened by their own mutual jealousies and distrusts, and by Louis IX. . 1226 Honorius III. . 1216 Eric III. the glittering promises of the king, fell away like water from Philip III. 1270 Gregory IX. 1227 Waldemar I...









. 1241


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