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N.

-es

-ēs

the opposite sexes. Our readers will notice that, in pursuance | 7. By the solace of hope the mind of a sage is refreshed. 8. We ought of the plan laid down in the last lesson, our copy-slips convey not to lose virtue in the miseries of life. 9. The wretchedness of the the knowledge of some fact, scriptural, historical, geographical, condition beats down the man. 10. He loses the hope of a happier time. or chronological. Each may serve, too, as the basis or founda

VOCABULARY. tion-stone of a theme or essay, and excite inquiry into the Adventus, rūs, m., Debeo, 2, I owe. Rarus, - , -um, rare, condition of the countries or the history of the personages that advent, coming. Etiam, conj., also.

seldom. are mentioned therein.

Amicitia, -æ, f., friend. Exemplum, -i, n., an Salus, -ūtis, f., health,
ship.
example.

safety.

Avolo, 1, I'Ay away. Exspecto, or expecto, Serenus,-2, -um, serene, LESSONS IN LATIN.-XII.

Cito, adv., quickly. 1, I erpect, await. fine, bright

Conquiesco, 3, I am at Fides, -ei, f., fidelity. Servo, 1, I keep. THE FIFTH DECLENSION.

poace.

Incorruptus, -a, -um, Tristis, -e, sad. ALL the nouns of the fifth declension end in es in the nomina. Convoco, 1, I cal incorrupt.

Tutus, -a, -um, safe. tive singular. This ending arises from the addition of the

together.

Portus, -ûs, m., a Ver, veris, 11., spring. Cupide, adv.,desiringly. harbour, port.

Verus, -a, -um, true. termination s to the characteristic vowel of the stem-namely, ē, which thus becomes es. This characteristic vowel ē appears

EXERCISE 41.-LATIN-ENGLISH. in all the cases. The ablative ending in ě is blended with the 1. Amicitiæ fides animum recreat in ærumnis vitæ. 2. Vera amicitiæ ē of the stem. All the nouns of this declension are feminine, exempla rara sunt. 3. Amicorum fidei debemus salutem in adversis except dies, a day, and its compound, meridies, mid-day, the rebus. 4. Verus amicus etiam in ærumnis vitæ servat fidem. 5.

6. Paratur mihi portus tutus. south. Dies, in good prose, is used as a feminine only when it Fides etiam miseris portum parat. signifies generally a time, or duration, or a fwed day, an ap- conquiescit. 9. Veris adventus suavis est.

7. Incorruptus amicus rarus est in rebus adversis. 8. In fide amicorum

10. Cito avolat dies. 11. pointed time; as dies dicta, dies constituta, an appointed day; Dies sereni rari sunt in vere. 12. Die constitutà milites in urbem longa dies, a long period; damnosa dies, a time of suffering; dies

convocat. 13. Certă die amici in domum meam convocantur. 14. perexigua, a very brief period. In the plural, dies and meridies Tristes sunt dies miserorum. are masculine.

EXERCISE 42.-ENGLIBA-LATIN.
FIFTH DECLENSION.

1. True friends keep fidelity in the miseries of life. 2. The fidelity Sign El in the Genitive Singular.

of friendship is not a vain hope. 3. Is the fidelity of an incorrupt CASE-ENDINGS AND EXAMPLE,

friend a rare example ? 4. In adversity we owe (are indebted for) a Cases. Singular.

Cases,
Plural.

port to true friends. 5. The solace of true friendship calls together N. -és dies, a day. -es dies, days.

6. Fine days quickly fly away. friends,

7. On a certain day the G. -ei diei, of a day. G. -ērum dierum, of days.

generals call together (their) bands. 8. The soldiers are called together D. -ei diei, to a day. D. -ebus diebus, to days.

by the king on an appointed day. 9. I await the coming of spring Ac. -ēm diem, a day. Ac.

-es dies, days.

desiringly. 10. A sad day in spring is rare.
V.
dies, 0 day!

V.
dies, days!

We have now gone through the five declensions; and here
Ab. -8 die, by a day. Ab, -ēbus diebus, by days. present, in a tabular view, the several variations :
In the genitive and dative singular-namely, ei—the e is

DECLENSION.
short when it follows a consonant, as rẽi, fiděi; and long when
it follows a vowel, as diēi, faciéi.
Only two words in this declension--namely, res and dies— NUMBER. Cases. I.

II.
III.

IV. V. have all the cases in both the singular and the plural; all other words are without the genitive, dative, and ablative plural.

Nom.
- us,-er, -ir, um various

-Us, u
Species is commonly added to res and dies, as having all the

Gen,

-ig

-ei cases, but Cicero pronounces the genitive and dative of species as not good Latin.

Dat.

i SIN

•ai, -u Of the following nouns, only the nominative and accusative

Ac.

-em, -im

-um, -u plural are found in good prose writers :

-e, -er, -ir, -um

like nom. Acies, an edge, line, or Facies, an appearance. Series, a series. sucord. Glacies, glass.

Ab.

Spes, hope. Effigies, an effigy or Progenies, a progeny likeness. or offspring.

N. & V.

-es, -a, -in

-Us, -ua VOCABULARY.

PLU- Gen. Adversus, -um, Dubius, -a, -um, doubt. Recreo, 1, I recreate,

D.& Ab. -is

-is

-ibus against. ful. quicken, refresh.

-ibus, -ubus -ebus Ærumna, - f., Facile, adv., easily. Res adverse, adverse

Ac.

-os, -a -es, -a, -ia wretchedness, misery. 'Felicior, felicius, gen. things, adversity, Amicto, 1, I beat down, -oris, happier.

misfortune.

In this summary view, many facts regarding gender, number, ajjlict, grieve. Humanus, -um, Solatium, .i, n., solace, and case, are of necessity omitted. The greater number of them Amitto, 3, I lose.

human,

comfort.

may be found in the lessons on the declensions of nouns that Certus, -a, -um, cer. Incertus, -a, -um, un- Spes, -ei, 1., hope. tain, fixed.

certain.
Tempus, -öris, n.,

have already been given. It seems, however, desirable to add,

time. Conditio, -ōnis, f., a Miser,

-um,

that grammarians recognise in Latin what is called a common

Vanus, -a, -um, empty, state or condition, ueretched.

vain.

gender. Those nouns are said to be of the common gender (c.), Dulcis, -e, sweet. Oppono, 3, I set against. Vita, -æ, f., life.

which may be applied indifferently either to a male or a female.

Such nouns are-
EXERCISE 39.- LATIN-ENGLISH.

Bos, a bull or a cow. Inesla, an inhabitant. Sacerdos, a priest or 1. Spes est incerta et dubia. 2. Vis spei est magna in animis Canis, a dog or a bitch. Lepus, a hare.

priestess. hominum. 3. Nonne magna est vis spei in animo tuo? 4. Facile Hospes, a quest, Mus, a mouse.

Testis, a witness. indulgent spei vanæ pueri. 5. Spem feliciorum temporum non Hostis, an enemy. Parens, a parent.

eto. etc. debemus amittere in ærumnis vitæ. 6. O spes, dulci solatio animos miserorum hominum recreas! 7. Spe vanå sæpe fallimur. 8. Res

GENERAL EXERCISES ON THE FIVE DECLENSIONS. humanæ sunt incertæ et dubiæ. 9. Conditio rerum humanarum est

VOCABULARY. dubia. 10. Rebus adversis virtutem debes opponěre. 11. Sapiens non

Acutus, -a, -um, sharp. Commodus, -a, -um, Eximius, extimescit res adversas. 12. O, res humanæ, quam sæpe animos

Avarus,

convenient.

eminent, remarkable. hominum fallitis ! 13. Animus sapientis non afflictatur rebus

avaricious.

Contentus, -a, -um, Exoptatus, -a, -um, adversis.

Barbarus, -a, -um, bar. satisfied.

vished for, desired. EXERCISE 40.–ENGLISH-LATIN.

barous.

Credulus, -um, Fames, -ís, 1., hunger. 1. The hope of life is nucertain. 2. The hope of a long life is vain. | Caducus,

-um,

credulous, too believing Felix, felicis, happy. 3. I refresh my mind with hope. 4. The wise man is not easily beaten falling, frail. Divitiæ,arum, f., riches Frigidus, -2, -um, cold. down in wretchedness. 5. Adversity beats down the minds of brave Clarus, -2, -um, clear, Exiguus, -a, -um, short, Gelidus, -a, -um, cold

. 6. The minds of brave men are beaten down by adversity. distinguished.

Glacies, -ei, f., ice.

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- um,

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narrow.

humid, tcst.

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non

27.

Gradas, -Os, m., a Limpidus, -2, -um, Potens, potentis, KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN LATIN.-XI.
step.
limpid, bright.
powerful.

EXERCISE 35.–LATIN-ENGLISH.
Græcus, -6, -um, Greek. Lubricus, -a, -um, slip- Profundus, -a, -um,
Hiems, hiemis, f., pery.

deep.

1. Play is pleasant to boys. 2. There are various kinds of play. 3. trinter.

Magnificus, -a, -um, Quies, quietis, f., rest, Boys willingly indulge in play. 4. Is not play pleasant to boys. 5. Humidus, -2, -um, magnificent.

quiet.

Play is pleasant to me. 6. Play is exceedingly pleasant to thee. Morosus, -um, Rotundus,

-um, 7. Grave men avoid boyish plays (games). 8. O play, how sweetly Humus, i, f., the morose, ill-tempered.

round.

thou delightest boys' minds! 9. Kings are not delighted with boyish ground or soil.

Nemo, neminis, c., no Semper, adv., always. play. 10. The senses are keen, 11. I have keen senses. 12. Great is Infidus, -a, -um, un

Sempiternus, -a, -um, the power of the senses. 13. Is the power of the senses great ? 14. faithful, Nox, noctis, f., night." everlasting.

A brave man does not yield to feelings of pain. 15. Beasts have keen Insperatas, -a, -um, Nunquam, adv., never. Sermo, -ōnis, m., spesch. senses. 16. O ye senses, how great pleasure you procure for

unhoped for. Palus, palūdis, f., a Sitis, -is, f., thirst. (occasion) men ! 17. The animals are endowed with senses. Latínus, -2, -um, Latin. marsh.

Tardus, -a, -um, slow.

EXERCISE 36.-ENGLISH-LATIN.
Lëpus, -öris, m., a hare. Pavidus, -a, -um, fear. Tumidus, -a, -um,
Ligneus,

-um,
ful, timid.
tumid, swelling.

1. Sensus doloris est amarus. 2. Estne amarus tibi doloris sensus? wooden.

Ultimus,-a, -um,tho last. 3. Omnibus hominibus et omnibus animalibus sensus doloris est

amarus. 4. Magna est luctus vis. 5. Sapiens vi sensuum EXERCISE 43.-LATIN-ENGLISH.

vincitur. 6. Fortis luctui non cedit. 7. Fortesne vi sensuum cedunt? 1. Est mihi amicus fidus et carus. 2. Infydus est servus tuus. 3. 8. O luctus, quam vincis hominum animos! 9. Pueri libenter indulTerra est rotunda, 4. Vera amicitia est sempiterna.

5. Fames et gent lusui. 10. Multa genera sunt lusūs. 11. Lusus omnis generis sitis sunt molestæ. 6. Avarus nunquam est contentus, 7. Rex est grati sunt pueris et puellis. 12. Viros non delectant pueriles lugus. potens. 8. Gradus tuus tardus est. 9. Virtus patris tui est eximia.

13. Viri puerili lusu non delectantur. 14. Indulgent voluptati pueri et 10. Fons est clarus et gelidus. 11. Nomen clarum est ducibus. 12. homines. 15. Quam magnopere evitatur luctus a liberis. 16. Arcubus Amris limpidus delectat omnes. 13. Cervo sunt alta cornua. 14. Res et sagittis delectant pueri. 17. Acubus delectant puellæ. est magna et insolita, 15. Hic sunt vastæ paludes. 16. Opes credula

EXERCISE 37.-LATIN-ENGLISH. fallit pueros. 17. Hominibus exigua est dies. 18. Nemo semper felix est. 19. Glacies est lubrica. 20. Pons ligneus custoditur. 21. Non

1. The terrible thunder greatly moves the minds of men. 2. Is not omnes milites sunt fortes. 22. Magnificæ porticus defenduntur. 23.

the sound of thunder terrible ? 3. The roaring of thunder is frightful. Portus est commodus. 24. Dentibus acutis edimus. 25. Nox est 4. Thunder is frightful. 5. Lightning precedes thunder. 6. Many longa et frigida. 26. Bonus laudatur, impröbus vituperatur.

men fear thunder. 7. Thunder is feared by many men. 8. O thunder,

9. The house resounds with the Senectus sæpe est morosa. 28. Insperata salas venit. 29. Mare est how frightful is thy roaring! vastum, profundum, tumidum. 30. Quies valde exoptata facile amit- thunder. 10. Men's knees are strong. 11. The vigour of the knees titur. 31. Sermonem Latinum discimus. 32. Nonne doces Græcam indicates the strength of the body. 12. The knees have great binguam? 33. Gentes barbare remotæ sunt. 34. Lepores pavidi

strength. 13. Suppliants fall on (their) knees. 14. O knees, how evolant. 35. Flos est caducus. 36, Hora ultima venit. 37. Incerta

much you tremble! 15. In the knees there is great strength, sont divitiæ. 38. Mores antiquos amat mater mea. 39. Verba tua

EXERCISE 37.-ENGLISH-LATIN. simt dara, 40. Quam humida est humus! 41. Non facile in hieme agri arantur.

1. Hominis genu validum est. 2. Validis genibus est vigor. 3. EXERCISE 44.—LATIN-ENGLISH.

Suntne valida genua tua ? 4. Silvæ resonant horribili sonu tonitrūs.

5. Sonus tonitrus animalia permovet. 6. Tonitru a validis bestiis 1. Faithful friends are loved. 2. I have great riches. 3. They extimescitur. 7. Sunt mihi debilia genua. 8. Suntne patri tuo lose wished for friendship. 4. The ground is wet. 5. Wet ground debilia genua ? 9. Non; valida genua sunt patri meo. 10. Permoveor injures. 6. Hares have sharp teeth. 7. With sharp teeth we all eat. multo fulmine. 11. Fremitus tonitrus supplices permovent. 12. 8. Thy soldiers are brave. 9. Are thy father's soldiers brave ? 10. Supplex pulchram domum indicat. They delight in (abl.) credulous hope. 11. The horns of the bull are strong. 12. The virtues of the king are remarkable. 13. How beauti. ful is the portico. 14. You ought to learn Latin. 15. Men fear the

LESSONS IN DRAWING.–XII. last hour.

16. The house is guarded by a strong band. 17. Avaricious men are avoided. 18. Il-tempered women are never loved. 19. The In the last two lessons we have dwelt altogether upon the treatill-tempered are troublesome. 20. Is friendship eternal ? 21. Hope is

ment of shadows, which belong more especially to flat surfaces, eternal. 22. How slow are thy steps ! 23. Ice is slippery in winter. 24. No one loves hunger and thirst. 25. Quiet quickly flies away. 26.

as they come more commonly under our general observation, The harbour is convenient for ships. 27. The fearful are never safe.

and are found to be under the most simple conditions. We now 28. Art thou satisfied with the speech of thy father? 29. They strike propose to enter upon the consideration of shadows connected a powerful prince. 30. Falling flowers are gathered (lego, 3). 31. He with convex and concave or curved surfaces, where we have to gathers flowers in the march. 32. The Greek language is beautiful. represent the relief and rotundity of an object. These require a 23, Swelling seas are often found. 34. The rest and solace of true different style of treatment to those on a flat or evenly-shaded friendship are wished for. 35. No one is always happy.

surface. For flat shadows-namely, those on the sides of walls, To how large an extent Latin words enter into the com- or on the ground—we have employed straight lines only, without position of our present English is strikingly seen in the last crossing them with other straight lines, and thus produce either Focabulary. These words found therein have their English dark or light shades by making the lines broader, or closer representatives.

together, or wider apart, as the tone of the shadow required ;

but with rounded forms we must adopt the practice of crossing LATIN. ENGLISH REP.

LATIN.

ENGLISH REP.
Acutus
Acute, acutely.
Infidus Infidel, infidelity.

lines by others, straight lines by straight, and curved lines by Avarus Araricious, avarici- Limpidus Limpid.

curved, making the lines to follow the course of curvature, which, ously. Lubricus. Lubricate.

independently of the tone employed, materially assist us in proBarbarus

Barbarous, barbarism, Magnificus Magnificent, magnifi- ducing the effect of rounded forms. The first essay will be a barbarity.

flat tint, for which the pupil must use a B or BB pencil with a Clarus

Clear, clearness, cla- Morosus Morose, moroseness. tolerably broad point. Fig. 82 is a series of regular perpenrify.

Nox

Nocturnal, equinox. Conmodus

dicular lines crossed over with inclined lines at a very acute Commodity, commode. Potens

Potont, potentate, po angle with the perpendicular ; the angle of inclination may be Contentus Content contentedness.

tency. Credulus Credulous, credulity, Profundus Profound, profundity.

understood by referring to the crossed lines, a (we caution the incredulity. Quies Quiet, quietness,

pupil at present against crossing the lines at right angles, Pames Famish, famine.

quietly.

thereby producing a kind of rectangular network); this first Felicity, felicitate. Rotundus Rotund, rotundity. example must be repeated over and over again until it is Frigid, frigidity. Sempiternus Sempiternal.

mastered. The first difficulty will be to draw the lines equi. Jelly. Tardus Tardy.

distant from each other, so that the intervals between them,be Gradus Grade, graduate. Tumidus

Tumid, tumidity, tu- uniformly regular, both with regard to the first-drawn perpenHumidus Humid, humidity.

dicular lines and those which cross them. In the next place, the The stadent of Latin will be greatly assisted if, before he beginner will at first be almost certain to make some of his lines attempts to commit a Latin word to memory, he tries to find an broader, some darker than others. To avoid this, he must enEnglish word which is derived from it, and with which he may deavour to use equal pressure ; and then again, probably, they associate it in his mind.

will not be parallel with each other. To overcome all these , ,

cence,

Felix Frigidus, Gelidas

mour.

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little impediments to progress, he will require very considerable the paper, as a (Fig. 83) or as b, where, at the termination, the practice before he thinks of attempting the next step in shading, pencil is gradually raised from the paper ; or as c, where the which differs from that already explained in the manner of manner of a and b is combined; that is, where the line comdrawing the line.

mences imperceptibly and ends imperceptibly, first, by lowering It will be noticed that in Fig. 82 the learner placed the pencil the pencil in an inclined direction to the paper at the commenceupon the paper before he began to draw each line, nor was it ment, and by raising it gradually at the end before leaving off, taken off until the line was finished; in fact, it was very much so that the strength of the line when completed is in the middle. like drawing a number of downward strokes like the "straight Curved lines drawn in the same way must also be repeatedly stroke" in Copy-slip No. 25, in our Lessons in Penmanship (page practised. The straight lines (Fig. 82) are for flat tints, back 117). The kind of line we are now considering is one that must grounds, etc.; the curved lines are employed for rounded forms. have no perceptible beginning or ending, where the pencil either After the pupil has mastered the manner of drawing these commences the movement for drawing the line before it touches various kinds of line, he may then proceed to cross them, es is

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Fig. 84, observing again that he must not as yet cross them at lines for an even tint of shade of some extent is, that we may right angles. Perhaps he may ask, why not as yet? is there any continue the line by the manner of c, so that the extremities of decided objection to lines crossed at right angles ? Certainly these lines as they lap over one another may form an even line not, when done by an experienced hand; but the reason why we without any perceptible joint. Very probably it may be necesobject to his crossing them in that way at present is because he sary to repeat the example c many times successively (but this will have first to acquire the power of making all his lines equal depends upon the extent of the shadow), and then we finally end in tone, thickness, and strength, and at regular intervening dis- with the example a. Let the pupil draw a square of about four or tances; and this we know will demand all the thought and care five inches' side, and fill it up by this method of making an even he can bestow for a while before he must attempt to cross them shade tint. If he were to work the whole space with continued in any direction.

portions similar to Fig. 82, the joints of these portions would The reason for commencing the line (as shown at b, Fig. 83) show, and spoil the tint; the edge, b c (Fig. 82), wonld be shown firmly, and then gradually lifting up the pencil when drawing across the shadow as many times as the portion was repeated.

Believing the pupil now to be master of the method of draw. tone to be given to these portions of the shadow, the pupil must ing a single line ander any one of the conditions above named, be guided by his own judgment, which the more it is exercised whether straight or curved, we will proceed to apply them, or the keener will be his perception of the tone of a shadow or rather to combine them so as to form tints required in shading. reflection by comparing it with other shadows and reflections, DE course we can do little for the pupil towards helping him in for by comparison only we can undertake to say how dark or his judgment regarding the tones of shadows; his own observa. how light a tint must be. tuon must be his guide in deciding how dark or how light a Fig. 87 is drawn from & cast of a geranium leaf, where a shadow is. Shadows and tones must be compared with one mixture of lines is employed, some more curvilineal than others, another, because the circumstances surrounding them will so far according to the rotundity of the surface to be copied; for it infiience their intensity that it would be impossible to give rules must be observed that in proportion as a rounded surface apfor shadows under all conditions. They are so varied and so proaches the flat, so will it require straighter lines to reprechangeable that we can do no more than give him a few general sent it. principles to guide his practice.

In & former lesson we mentioned the stump, an instruWe have said before that cast shadows are, for certain reasons ment used for laying on a tint by rubbing ; this may be used already given, generally darker than broad shadows; we will for the first instalment of a shadow, that is, for rubbing in add now that the highest light and darkest shadow are together; a flat tint over the broader and more decided parts of the and as the strength of the light upon an object or collection of shadow, the whole being afterwards passed over by the line objects gradually diminishes, so the depth or intensity of the method. In using the stump, the tint must not be made as dark shadows diminishes also. Take an example :-Place a chair as the shadow ought to be when finished, nor must it be carried Dear to a window, and another chair in the part of the room into the half tones uniting the shade with the high light. An farthest from the window; the light which falls upon the chair effect can be much more readily produced with the stump, but near to the window will be much stronger than that which falls the danger is lest the shadows should be made dirty or cloudy. upon the farther chair. Observe the broad shadows and the cast After a little experience this method will be found to be quicker shadows from the legs upon the ground, the latter especially, of the than doing it altogether by lines, inasmuch as it saves a little first chair. Compare them with the corresponding shadows of the labour ; but the shadows must be passed over with lines after second chair, or that farthest from the window. We venture to the stump has laid the foundation, otherwise all the crispness, gay, without more comment, that the pupil will have seen enough clearness of tone, and definite precision of character will be from this experiment to satisfy him upon this point. This prin- sacrificed. We strongly advise the pupil to provide himself ciple of the darkest shadow being near to the highest light is with a few plaster casts of leaves, fruit, and ornament. The found to be the same respecting the shadow on a ball (Fig. 85), advantages of casts are many. They can be placed in any light, or on the side of a column (Fig. 86), and in thousands of cases and they present so many different views that they may be said besides, so numerous that we need not look far for examples. to be inexhaustible copies. The great difficulty in shading is the management of the half tints. Any one can make an extreme shade of black; and if the right LESSONS IN ENGLISH.—XII. feeling for half tints and semi-tones is not a natural one-something analogous to that of a good ear for music—it can be

DERIVATIONS: PREFIXES (continued). to a great extent acquired, though in some cases it will demand Pausing for a moment in the details of our subject, I would a much greater amount of practical experience and observation ask you whether you know what words are. Take the word than in others before they begin to perceive the many va- father. What is it? Father, as it stands here on the page, is rieties of tone which are spread upon the surface of an object, a combination of straight and curved lines. What does the especially if it be an irregular one. But when we have to add combination of lines represent? A combination of sounds. colour in connection with light and shade, we go farther into a What does the combination of sounds represent? A state of field of change and variety that is unbounded. And here is the mind; a mental conception. What does the mental conception test of the painter. It is the management of the minor tones represent? An external object; an external object that has the which makes all the difference between a first-rate artist and a quality of being a father, or that bears the relation which we common country sign-painter. The latter may paint a red cow designate by the term father. So then the whole connection sufficiently well to answer the purpose of giving a title to the between an external object and the written or printed name of village alehouse. We will grant that he has the ability to make this book may be set forth thus :-Lines make letters ; letters a tolerable representation of the animal in outline, but when he make syllables; syllables make words; words represent sounds ; attempts to paint it he will do nothing more than fill up the sounds represent ideas; ideas represent outward objects-that outline with red, and darken the parts in shade with black, is

, persons or things. Consequently, objects are the basis of because he can see nothing further ; but the eye of the true language ; ideas are its essence; sounds are its medium, and artist would seize apon the innumerable tints spread all over the lines are its forms. These outward objects, and internal realities, gurface—the various degrees of colour influenced by the position are set forth by signs,--signs made by the mouth-signs made and strength of the light, some parts more brilliant, some more by the hand. The lips, then, and the fingers are the intersubdued, intermingled with greys of various hues in every preters of the person. What progress in civilisation is implied portion--added to which are the reflections of colour and of in this connection of the pen with the mind and with the universe; light amongst the shadows, some warm, some cold : in short, to the pen describing, and the press diffusing, so as to be univers name all the changes and tones that would require his especial sally understood, the most subtle of all essences; states of attention can only be done by him who is able to paint them. thought and feeling; and the widest, as well as the wisest of Here, then, is the secret why one painter is greater than all generalisations which we term the laws of God, or God's another; and their comparative excellence is determined by their own operations in the government of the universe! The study of ability to perceive and represent few or many of the infinite language, thus viewed, is the study of the mind of man, as well varieties of tones scattered over every object in Nature.

as the study of the works and the will of God. Deep and mysIt will be readily seen, on referring to Figs. 85, 86, and 87, where terious study, worthy of our best powers, and sure to be curved lines in working the shadows are used in preference to attended by an ample reward! And if the study of language is straight ones, and, on the contrary, where straight are preferred the study of the human mind, and the Divine mind in their to curved ; curved lines must be used to represent curved sur activity and their utterances, then no one who has not made faces, either convex or concave. The ball (Fig. 85), is altogether some proficiency in the study is, or can be, competent to inter shaded by curved lines, which render such important service in pret or expound man’s will or God's will, profane or sacred giving effect to rounded forms. Straight lines are the principal literature. To resume our subject : composing lines of the shadow on the cylinder (Fig. 86). On Olig, of Greek origin (oriyos, pronounced ol-i-gos, a few), is the account of its uniformity of surface and because it is perpen- first part of oligarchy (Greek, apxn, pronounced ar-ke, government), dicular, perpendicular lines are employed; whilst the apparent government by a few; oligarch, one of a small number of rulers. bandity of the cylinder is made to depend upon the tone of the Omni, of Latin origin (omnis, all), is seen in omniscient (Latin,

rather than upon the lines which compose it; the shadow scio, I know), all-knowing; omnipotent (Latin, potens, powerful), reflection, its deep shade, and its half tint, the

last all-powerful; omnipresent, existing everywhere ; omnivorous, allto the highest light. As to the proper strength of devouring.

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