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Ortho, of Greek origin (Greek, opdos, pronounced or-thos, Paradise is a Persian word, denoting a park, and has no constraight, right), as in orthodoxy, right opinion; orthogonal, right- nection with the Greek para ; in Hebrew, pardes, a garden. angled; orthopædic, right-footed, etc.

Par, of Latin origin (pars, partis, a part), appears in partici" Athanasius is commonly accounted the very rule of orthodoxality pate (Latin, capio, I take)--that is, to partake. This word par. in this point."-Cudworth, " Intellectual System.”

take is a hybrid, being formed of an English and a Latin word; This prefix forms part also of orthography (Greek, ypaon, pro

it is therefore a cross in the breed between Latin and English. nounced graf'-fe, writing), right writing, that is, in the spelling

Pent, or penta, of Greek origin (TTEVTE, pronounced pen'-te, five), of words ; as orthoepy (Greek, eros, pronounced ep'-os, a word) is the name given to what are called “the five books of Moses”.

as in pentagon, a figure having five sides ; pentateuch (fivefold), right pronunciation. Over

, of Saxon origin, as in overarch, overbalance, overbear, namely, Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. overcharge, overboard, over-boil, over-bounteons, frequently de- It is found in perambulate (Latin, ambulo, I walk), to walk

Per, of Latin origin, through, by; as, peradventure, by chance. Doting too much, as over-careful, that is, careful to excess.

through, over. Overcome has two significations, to conquer, and to come over or upon.

“ The ancients used to crown virgins with the flowers of this plant " He found the means to subdue both the one and the other, com- thereto." —Miller, “ Gardener's Dictionary.”

(milkwort) when they perambulated the fields, to implore fertility pelling as well the overcomers as the overcome to be his tributaries."Brende, "Quintus Curtius."

The per passes into pol in pollute (Latin, polluo, per, and lutum, " Mac. Can such things be

mud). Pob is found also in pollicitation, a promising, from the And overcome us like a summer's cloud,

Latin polliceor, I promise.
Without our special wonder ?"-Shakespeare.

Peri, of Greek origin (Tepu, pronounced per'-re), meaning around; Oter when employed for above, as “over two hundred,” is to be as, periphery (Greek, pepw, fer'-ro, I bear), a circumference; avoided as an Americanism. To overtake is to come up with in also in periphrasis (Greek, ppaois, fra'-sis, a phrase, a speech), walking or running.

a circumlocution, or roundabout mode of utterance; as, the

loss of life, for death.
" And had he not in his extremest need
Been helped through the swiftness of his steed,

Phil and philo, of Greek origin (pios, fil-los, a lover), as in
He had him overtaken in his flight."-Spenser.

philologer, a lover of science (particularly the science of lan. In the passive the verb overtake seems to denote the being sud- wisdom; philomel (Greek, medos, mel'-los, a song), applied to

guage); ; philosopher (Greek, copia, sof'-i-a, wisdom), a lover of denly surprised into an action ; surprise is from the French sur. prendre (consisting of sur, above or over, and prendre, to take), man), the love of mankind.

the nightingale; philanthropy (Greek, avpwtos, an-thro'-pos, a whence surprise is the same as overtake in both derivation and

Phys, of Greek origin (Greek, puois, fu'-sis, nature), physic, meaning.

and physician, originally meant natural philosophy and a natural * Brethren, if a man be overtaken in a fault."-Gal. vi. 1,

philosopher; but derivatively, the words came to refer to a It is not difficult to see how to overtake may mean to get over, knowledge of such natural objects as were held to conduce to overcome, surprise, but how means to come up with is less the art of healing. Physics, plural, still means Natural Philoeasy to conceive. The notion of over, or of superiority may, sophy; and the French word physicien means a Natural Philohowever, lie in the act by which you succeed in coming up to sopher, or one acquainted with the laws of nature. the person you wish to overtake; thus, by walking more quickly

Physiognomy consists of the Greek words Quois, fu'-sis, nature, than be, you overtake your friend, you take a step over his, and and yyrworw, gi-no'-sko, I know; and so properly denotes a get beyond him.

knowledge of nature by outward appearances; but, as employed, Out, of Saxon origin, beyond a certain limit, is a very common the word signifies a knowledge of a man's character, as gained prefir, as in outbid, outdo, outface, outlaw, outlive, outstrip, etc. from his countenance. Physiology is the science of nature, but Outrage has nothing to do with out. Outrage comes from the in a particular way; a science, that is, of the structure and laws medieval Latin word altragium, through the French oultraige, of the human frame in particular, and of animal organisation in outrage. Ultragium, from ultra, beyond, denoted a surplusage general. paid to the lord by his subject on failure of paying his dues in “ I find that the most eminent and original physiologist of the present proper time, whence outrage came to signify something in excess age (M. Cuvier) has been led, by his enlightened researches concerning and to have an offensive meaning.

the laws of the animal economy, into a train of thinking strikingly Pan, of Greek origin (tas, pas, m.; naoa, pa'-sa f.; tav, pan, n., similar.”—Dugald Stewart, Philosophy of the Mind." all), is found in panacea (Greek, akeouai, pronounced a-ke'-o-mi,

Pleni, of Latin origin (plenus, full; hence plenty), is found in I heal), all-heal, a universal remedy; in pancreas (Greek, kpeas, plenipotentiary (Latin, potens, powerful), one who has been pronounced kroʻ-as, flesh), all flesh--that is, the sweetbread; entrusted with full power or authority. and in pandects (Greek, dexomai, pronounced dek'-o-mi, I receive), a common title of the Greek miscellanies. The term is known matic sophisters of France in what manner right is to be corrected by

“Let the plenipotentiary sophisters of England settle with the diploin history in its application to a digest of the civil law published

an infusion of wrong, and how truth may be rendered more true by a by the Emperor Justinian. Again, pan occurs in pantheism due intermixture of falsehood." —Burke. (Greek, Beos, pronounced the'-os, God), all-goodness--that is, the system which regards God and the universe as the same. Pan The Greek word ardeos (ple'-os) is the same as the Latin plenas, formas the first part of pantomime (Greek uiuos, pronounced found in our plenty.” This word supplies the first syllable in mi'-mos, a mimic; and the word mimic is from mimos), all. pleonasm, a fulness of expression so as to become excessive. mimicry, because the performance consisted solely of imitation. “It is a pleonasm, a figure used in Scripture, by a multiplicity of

* The pantomimes who maintained their reputation from the age of expressions, to signify some one notable thing." —South.
Augustus to the sixth century, expressed, without the use of words,
the various fables of the gods and heroes of antiquity; and the per-

Poly, of Greek origin (Tolus, pol'-use, many, much), appears lection of their art, which sometimes disarmed the gravity of the phi its many flowers; and

in polygamy (Greek, yapos (gam'-os],

in polyanthus (Greek, avoos, an'-thos, a flower), so called from losopher, always excited the applause and wonder of the people."Gibbon, " Roman Empire."

marriage), having many wives. Para, of Greek origin (Trapa, pronounced par-ra, by the side of,

Polygamy was not commonly tolerated in Greece, for marriage aa in parallels, i.e., parallel lines), has in English various accepta

was thought to be a conjunction of one man with one woman."-Potter, tione. . In parable (Greek, Barrw, pronounced bal-10, 1 throue); “ Antiquities of Greece.” something put by the side of another thing, a comparison, a Poly is also the first syllable of polyglot (Greek, głwtta, gloat-ta, similitude. In Scripture, the parables of the Old Testament are a tongue), one who knows many languages; also a book written short, pithy, and weighty sayings ; the parables of the New in many languages, as the “ Polyglot Bible.” Testament are short tales, setting forth religious truth under Post, of Latin origin, after, afterwards, appears in postdate, similitudes; the former are apothegms; the latter allegories. to date after the time of writing, at some later time; in postpone Para appears in paraclete (Greek, kaleiv, pronounced kall-ine, to (Latin, pono, I place), to put off; and in postscript (Latin, call), the Advocate or Comforter (John xiv. 16).

scriptum, a writing), something added to a letter.

Postumous, erroneously spelt posthumous, from the Latin postu- explorer was not successful in penetrating as far into the mus, the same as postremus (from post, after), signifies late, very interior as he intended, and another journey will be necessary late, the latest, the last. This word is applied to a child born to ascertain from what sources sustenance is derived by the after the father's death, or a book published after the author's herds of deer that come from the interior of the country to the death.

coasts at certain periods, and after a short stay return once Sometimes the word is spelt posthume, for postume. We more to their yet undiscovered haunts. In Alaska Mr. Frederick have here an instance of the effect on spelling of a supposed Whymper, an artist attached to the late Russo-American Teleetymology. Postume was thought to be composed of post, after, graph Expedition, has been more successful, having advanced and humus, the ground, and hence the word was written post more than 1,200 miles into the heart of the country along the hume. It is, however, the superlative of the Latin posterus, course of the Kwichpac or Youcon River, a magnificent stream and is used in the Latin language with the same applications as that discharges its waters into the ocean nearly opposite the in English. Richardson is wrong in the etymology which he Isle of St. Lawrence, that lies like a breakwater across the gives of this word.

entrance to Behring Strait, between the opposing coasts of Asia Pre, of Latin origin, before, as in precaution (from Latin, and America. cavere, to beware), forethought.

Mr. Frederick Whymper's journey into the interior of Alaska Precaution trudgeth all about

was made in 1866-7. He travelled by sledge from Norton To see the candles fairly out."

Sound, a deep inlet to the south-east of Behring Strait, to the

Churchill, “ The Ghost." banks of the Youkon River, spending the winter months at Pre is found in precede (Latin, cedo, I go), in precipitous (Latin, Nulato, the last of the trading ports that the Russians have caput, the head), headlong; in precocious (Latin, coquere, to established along the course of the river and the interior of the cook), cooked before, forward, too soon ready.

country. In the spring he re-commenced his journey, and made I had heard of divers forward and precose youths, and some I his way up the stream in a boat, consisting of a framework have known, but I never did either heare or read of anything like to covered with skins, to a point about 600 miles distant from this sweete child."-Evelyn, "Memoirs."

Nulato, where the Porcupine River enters the Youkon. He then turned, and descended the course of the river to the sea.

The Youkon is navigable for 1,800 miles from its embouchure LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY.-XI.

during the summer months, but for at least eight months of the

year it is frozen over. The natives on the coast are Esquimaux, In our last lesson it was stated that it is generally believed while in the interior, and on the banks of the river, parties of by geographers in the present day that the southern pole of Indians are occasionally met with. Public attention has recently the axis on which the earth revolves once in the course of been directed to Alaska, formerly Russian America, on account every twenty-four hours, is situated in the midst of a vast of its sale by the Russian government to the United States in continent to which access is forbidden by the masses of ice 1867, for the sum of 7,000,000 dollars, or about £1,400,000. that fringe its coasts, and the steep rampart of volcanic Some hundreds of miles lower down the west continent of mountains that rises abruptly from the very edge of its shore. North America, a little to the north of the boundary line The northern pole of the earth’s axis, on the contrary, is between the British dominions and the United States, lies a supposed to be in the midst of an open ocean, navigable by broad belt of forest land and fertile pasture ground, watered vessels, if a ready and practicable means of entrance to its by the head-streams of the Saskatchewan and the Red River, waters could be found through the ice-fields that encircle it. which stretches from the western confines of the new dominion Possibly we are on the eve of solving the problem, and dis- of Canada to the Rocky Mountains. This region was visited by covering with certainty what may be the condition of the Viscount Milton and Dr. Cheadle in 1861-63; the expedition regions that lie around the North Pole, for an expedition being “undertaken with the design of discovering the most thither is preparing under the auspices of the French Govern- direct route through British territory to the gold regions of ment, which will in all probability set out for its destination Cariboo (in British Columbia), and exploring the unknown in 1869, under the command of its originator, M. Gustave country on the western flank of the Rocky Mountains, in the Lambert. It is M. Lambert's intention to avoid the routes neighbourhood of the sources of the north branch of the Thomptaken by former explorers, and to push his way to the north son River.” This expedition has furnished us with much through Behring Strait.

valuable information about a country that has hitherto been To tell the story of Arctic explorations since Sir John entirely abandoned to Indians and trappers, but which contains Franklin left England on his third expedition of discovery to upwards of 65,000 square miles of land, of unsurpassed fertility, the north in 1844, to die three years after on the dreary wastes abounding in mineral wealth, and which is destined to become, of King William Land, hard by Point Victory-an apt name at no very distant period perhaps, one of the principal centres for the last resting place of a man to whom belongs the merit and of British colonisation, affording the true north-west passage honour of having discovered the “north-west passage” from by land from Europe, through our colonies of Canada and British England to the shores of Asia by sea--" barren honour” as it is Columbia, to the splendid harbours of Esquimault and the great and must be to all save himself and his companions, as its dis. coal-fields of Vancouver Island, which offer every advantage for covery can never be attended with results useful to commerce-- the protection and supply of a merchant fleet trading thence to would occupy too much space. It will, therefore, suffice to say India, China, and Japan. Our illustration will give the reader that of late years the most active and successful explorers of some idea of the beauty and grandeur of the scenery on the eastern the regions that lie north of the line of waters that stretch from slope of the Rocky Mountains. It is a view of the valley near Baffin Bay on the east to Banks Strait on the west, are Dr. Jasper House, or Fort Assiniboine, a little trading station on the Elisha Kent Kane and Dr. Isaac J. Hayes. Both of these bank of the Athabasca or Elk River, which emerges from the travellers are Americans, and both have received a gold medal heart of the Rocky Mountains through a narrow gorge near this from the Royal Geographical Society as an acknowledgment of point, and expands into a lake about three or four miles long, the eminent services rendered to geography by their discoveries the shores of which are beautifully wooded with clumps and -the former having received the Founder's Gold Medal in clusters of dark-green pines, and covered with luxuriant verdure. 1856, for his services in connection with the American expedi- In the background, on the right of the picture, is an ice-capped tions sent out in search of Franklin in 1850 and 1853, and conical mountain called the Priest's Rock, which forms a prothe latter the Patron's Gold Medal in 1867, for his memorable minent feature in the landscape, while on the left is seen the expedition in 1860-61, towards the supposed open polar sea, in flattened top and profile of a steep ascent rising almost perpenwhich he attained lat. 81° 35' in Smith Sound, a more northern dicularly from the plains below, called the Roche à Myette. point of land than has been reached by any previous navigator. Passing still southwards through the United States-the

Coming southward from Smith Sound, up which Dr. Hayes western parts of which are now being opened up by strong and penetrated to within 9° 25', or somewhat less than 600 miles of resolute backwoodsmen from the outlying

districts of the Central the North Pole, we have Greenland or Danish America on our right, which was visited by Mr. Edward Whymper, a well- • This illustration is taken, by permission of the authors, from the known Alpine explorer, in 1867. Owing to an epidemic, which " North-West Passage by Land," by Lord Miltou, M.P., and Dr. had carried off about ten per cent. of the population, this Cheadle. London : Cassel, Petter, and Galpin.

States, the pioneers of advancing civilisation-and through Mexico | the Tapajos River, another vast tributary of that river, which -the most ill-conditioned country under the sun, as far as its drains the central and northern part of the province of Matto people are concerned, yet in itself fair, rich, and fruitful, and Grosso. worthy of being the home of an energetic and industrious race, Of the semi-organised republics of South America, which have instead of a paradise of thieves and cut-throats—we come to scarcely recovered the effects of the revolution which separated Central America, which deserves a passing mention here for the them from Spain in the first quarter of the present century, and explorations of Captain, now Admiral, Bedford Pim and others, which (especially La Plata, or the States of the Argentine Conwho are seeking to turn the stream of emigration setting steadily federation) have much to do in eradicating the sources of intesout from the southern parts of the United States into British tine discord before they can attain the condition of prosperous, Honduras, & country especially adapted for the production of peace-loving countries, there is little or nothing new to say; and cotton, sugar, and indigo; and the attempts that have been turning eastward across the Atlantic we reach the last of the six made to bring about the cutting of a ship canal across the great divisions of the world, the continent of Africa, in which narrow slip of land that separates Lake Nicaragua from the it is necessary to trace the history of geographical discovery waters of the Pacific, to form with the lake itself and the river since 1820. St. Juan & water way through the isthmus for ships trading After the travels of Sporrman, Shaw, Norden, Bruce, Le from Europe and the eastern coasts of America to India, China, Vaillant, Mungo Park, and Horneman, which threw a flood of Japan, and the shores and thousand islands of the vast Pacific. light upon the geography of Africa in the last century, we

Southward yet a little further, and we come to South America, owe much to Adams, Tuckey, Bowditch, Mollien, Major Laing,

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2 continent of whose central regions little more is known with and Messrs. Ritchie and Lyon in the present century. The any degree of certainty than has been yet learnt of the unex. labours of Messrs. Denham and Clapperton, and Dr. Oudney, plored heart of Africa. But even here travellers have been busy in exploring the interior of this continent in 1822, added conin collecting facts to add to our limited knowledge of these parts siderably to our knowledge of North-Central Africa. When we of the world's surface, for Mr. Henry W. Bates, the present look upon a modern map of Africa, all the geographical posiassistant secretary of the Royal Geographical Society, explored tions which are laid down in Bornou, round Lake Tchad, the the countries on either bank of the mighty river Amazons between lake itself, the direction of the course of rivers in this region, the years 1848 and 1859, giving us a series of vivid and animated the rectification of the course of the Niger, and other topodescriptions of the habits of animals, sketches of Brazilian and graphical details, such as the position of mountains, etc., are Indian life, and aspects of nature under the equator, during due to the last-mentioned travellers. Clapperton closed his eleven years of travel, in his work entitled "The Naturalist on successful career by reaching Sockatoo from the Gulf of Benin, the River Amazons.” Mr. Bates's researches have been ably and died in 1826, leaving his labours unfinished, after having supplemented by Mr. W. Chandless, who received the Patron's accomplished the remarkable journey from Tripoli to Benin, and Gold Medal in 1866 for his exploration of the river Parus, one enriched geography with a vast collection of new and accurate of the southern affluents of the Amazons, which he ascended discoveries. Timbuctoo, that singular object of African travelfor a distance of 1,800 miles, making, by observations as he lers, was reached by Major Laing in the same year, but at a proceeded, an accurate map of the windings of the river. Pre- later period, when he also paid the debt of nature. In 1830, vious to this journey of discovery Mr. Chandless had travelled Richard and John Lander undertook to resolve the problem of through South America from the head-streams of the Paraguay, the direction of the Niger from the point to which it had been a river which rises in the Brazilian province of Matto Grosso, traced by Park and Clapperton. They proposed to descend the and joins the Parana near the town of Corrientes, in the Argen- river along its course from Boussa, where it had so far been tine State of that name-to the mouth of the Amazons, down traced, and to follow its course to the Atlantic Ocean, in order to ascertain its embouchure. After encountering many and great able variation for an immense number of centuries. Now, it is dangers, they reached the sea by the central or principal branch found that this time is 365.24224 (i.e., about 365-25, or 3654) of the Niger, which is the river called Nun, and which disem- mean solar days, a solar day being the interval which elapses bogues itself into the Atlantic Ocean, between the Bight of between noon and noon—that is, between the times when the Benin and the Bight of Biafra. The source of this river, as sun is successively highest in the heavens.* determined by Laing, is at the foot of Mount Loma, in the The year is made to consist of 365 days---i.e., about of a day Kong Mountains. From this point to Timbuotoo its course was less than the time of the revolution of the earth in its orbit. known; but the brothers Lander made it known from Boussa To every fourth year (Bissextile or leap year, as it is called) one to the ocean, and so solved a part of the geographical problem day is added, and thus at the end of every four years the earth which had so long existed without a satisfactory solution. is again very nearly in the same part of its orbit as it was at the

beginning of them. We say very nearly, because the earth

actually revolves round the sun in 365.24224 days, which is less LESSONS IN ARITHMETIC.-XXI. than 3651 days by .00776 of a day. This error in excess amounts

to a day in about 128 yearsmi.e., to very nearly 3 days ir 4 CONCRETE OR COMMERCIAL ARITHMETIC. centuries. Hence, to make our reckoning still more accurate, 1. We have hitherto been concerned with what are called we omit 3 days in 4 centuries ; and this is done by making the abstract numbers—that is to say, numbers abstracted from their year which completes every century not a leap year, except such connection with any special thing, object, or magnitude ; and centuries as are divisible by 4. Thus A.D. 1700, 1800, and 1900 we have established all the principles connected with them are not leap years, but A.D. 2000—i.e., the year completing the which are necessary to be known by the student of elementary

twentieth century-is a leap year. arithmetic. We now proceed to apply these principles to con

The establishment of the leap year is due to Julius Cæsar ; crete numbers—that is to say, to numbers which indicate some Pope Gregory XIII., who, in the year a.d. 1582, when the error

that of the omission of the leap year three times in 400 years to actual magnitude, object, or thing--as, for instance, time, money, amounted to ten days, caused the ten days which followed length, etc.

Theoretically, we are already in possession of principles which October 4th to be omitted in the reckoning. October 5th conenable us to perform any calculation with reference to any consequently was called October 15th. crete number. Take length, for instance. Suppose that we fix

This latter system, the New Style, as it is called, was not upon a certain length, and call it a mile. By means of this mile adopted in England until A.D. 1752, when the difference between we could measure any other length whatever. For by fractions this and the old mode of reckoning amounted to about eleven or decimals we could express any part or parts of a mile whatso- days. The difference betwoen the Old and New Style amounts

Thus any fixed dayever; we could add, subtract, multiply, or divide any number of at present to about twelve days. miles or parts of a mile, etc. etc. But it is manifest that,

Christmas Day and Lady Day, for instance-Old Style, would although this could be done, great inconvenience would arise

occur twelve days later than our present Christmas and Lady from the cambrous nature of the operations. In treating, for Day: Russia is now the only country in Europe which retains instance, of fractional parts of a mile, it would be often very

the Old Style. difficult to realise the length indicated. What idea would most

Having, then, thus established a fixed invariable standard people have of gass of a mile? But if they were told that this whereby to measure time, we are enabled to make any further

subdivisions for convenience. length is very nearly indeed equal to a foot, they would form a very clear conception of the length. Hence, in measuring all magnitudes, the method of subdivision has been employed. 60 seconds

= 1 minute, written thus, 1 m., Certain magnitudes have been fixed upon and named, and then 60 minutes

= 1 hour these again divided and subdivided, and names given to the 24 hours

= 1 day divisions, as convenience best suggested.

7 days

= 1 week Quantities expressed in this way by means of different sub- 4 weeks

= 1 common month divisions are called compound quantities. Thus, a sum of money,

12 calendar months, or expressed in pounds, shillings, and pence, is a compound quan

365 days tity. The names of the various subdivisions are generally called Any number of seconds are written either thus-35", 23", or denominations.

35 sec., 23 sec. 2. Accurate Standard or Unit.

It is better, however, in indicating time, to use the abbreriaOn proceeding to measure any magnitude or quantity, it is tions sec. and min. for seconds and minutes, inasmuch as the evident that it is of the utmost importance to come to an exact same names and the marks' and" are used for certain divisions definition of some one fixed magnitude of the same kind, with of the circle (Art. 18). which we may compare all such magnitudes. Such a fixed The Calendar months into which the year is divided do magnitude is called a standard. When this has been done, not each contain the same number of days.

The number in then the standard can be subdivided, or multiples

of it can be each month, however, may be remembered by the following taken, as we. please, and names given to the subdivisions or lines:multiples. The subdivisions which are employed in England in the

Thirty days has September, coinage and weights and measures are, as might be expected,

April, June, and November ;

February twenty-eight alonenot founded upon one carefully prepared and philosophical

All the rest have thirty-one ; system, but have gradually grown up during long centuries,

But leap year comes one year in four, having often been suggested by special convenience or local

And February then has one day more. usage. The subject has of late received much attention, and the possibility and advantage of establishing a uniform decimal

MEASURES OF LENGTH. system of coinage, weights, and measures, have been discussed 4. Having determined, as above explained, an exact measure with considerable warmth.

of time, we are enabled, curious as it may appear, to deduce On July 29th, 1864, an Act of Parliament was passed to from it a fixed and invariable measure of length. We might, of render permissive the use of a decimal system of weights and course, take any object-a piece of metal, say—and, giving to measures called the "Metric System.” Contracts and transac- its length a particular name, thus obtain a means of measuring tions, therefore, based on this system are now legal. We shall, all other magnitudes. But this object, whatever it might be, however, return to this subject hereafter.

and however carefully preserved, would be liable to be lost, to We proceed now to treat of the subdivisions of various con- alteration from decay, variation of temperature, etc. It is crete quantities which are now generally in use.

therefore very desirable to have some invariable and independent MEASURES OF TIME. 3. The time of the revolution of the earth in its orbit can be times in the year rather longer, and

at others rather shorter, than its

A solar day is not actually of unvarying duration, but is at some hown by the calculations of astronomical science to be an average length. It is this average length of the solar day which is

nrying quantity, or, at any rate, to be subject to no appreci- called the mean solar day, and is divided into 24 hours.

DIVISIONS OF TIME.

or 1'.

99

1 hr. 1 d. 1 wk. 1 mo.

= 1 year

1 yr.

means to which we can always have recourse, to give us an

OUR HOLIDAY. exactly accurate standard of length with which to compare all

CRICKET.-I. other lengths.

Now, the interval of time called a second being invariable, it The early days of spring bring with them the return of the is found that a pendulum which, in the latitude of Greenwich, cricketing season, and by many persons they are more gladly under certain conditions, oscillates in one second, is of a certain welcomed on that account, than for all the other charms which length. It is further proved, from mechanical and mathe- accompany them. Cricket is, undoubtedly, the national pasmatical principles, that this length must always be exactly the time of England. Every rural village has its players ; towns same whenever the experiment is tried under exactly the same and counties all over the kingdom are pitted against each other conditions. This accurate and scientific method, however, as in rivalry for the palm of superiority in the game. Commencing might be expected, was not the way in which a measure of in school-days, the pastime is often carried on as the chosen relength was first determined. A certain measure called a yard creation of mature years; and with real benefit to him who having been established, and this yard divided into 36 equal practises it. For cricket is a vigorous and manly game, free parts, called inches, it was found that the length of the pen- from abuses that attend some other field sports, and well calcudulum oscillating in one second of time at Greenwich contained lated to refresh and strengthen the physical powers, while it 39-1393 such inches. We thus see that we have a means of has sufficient science in its elements to give a not unprofitable recovering and correcting, at any time, the measure of the yard. exercise to the mental faculties also. The actual standard yard was fixed, by Act of Parliament

Cricket, for so universal a pastime, is a very modern game. passed 1835, to be “the straight line or distance between the It owes its origin, in its present form, to a meeting in the year centre of the two points in the gold studs in the straight brass 1774, of some noblemen and gentlemen, who wished to improve rod now in the custody of the Clerk of the House of Commons, the “bat and ball” of the period, and drew up a set of rules to fix whereon the words 'Standard Yard, 1760,' are engraved.” The the character of the implements employed, as well as the mode Act further states that in the latitude of London the pendulum of play. These rules were subsequently amended and modified, vibrating seconds of mean time in vacuo at the level of the sea and they gradually gained general acceptance. The first great is 39.1393 inches.

cricket club was established at the close of the last century. This standard, however, was, in fact, destroyed in 1834, at It was called the White Conduit Club, from the circumstance the fire of the House of Commons, before the Act passed. The of its play usually being held in the White Conduit Fields ; Astronomical Society, however, had carefully prepared a standard and from this club the far-famed Marylebone Club of the preyard, which is calculated to differ from the old one by not more sent day took its rise. than th of an inch.

There are two forms of the game of cricket-one known as We cannot here touch upon the ingenious and refined processes single, and the other as double wicket. For single wicket only by which measurements are made when extreme accuracy is a few players are required ; but for double wicket, it is necesrequired, as, for instance, in determining a new standard lengthsary, to play the proper game, that two sides should be formed, from the old one, or in finding to what amount of variation a with eleven players on each side. Any open field, that given measured length is subject, from unavoidable external is tolerably level, will do for the practice of the game; but a canses. The reader may consult the article Standard in the good cricket ground, fit for the set play of club against club, "Penny Cyclopædia,” which will give him a good general idea should be at least that portion of it between the wicketsof the subject.

as level and as well kept as a good bowling-green, or, as is

sometimes said with but little exaggeration," as a billiard-table.” SUBDIVISIONS OF LENGTH, OR LINEAR MEASURE.

The implements used in the game are bats, balls, and wickets. 3. The smallest measure is a barleycorn, or one-third of an In single wicket one bat and one wicket only are necessary; inch; so called because, originally, the inch was obtained by for the double game there must be at least two of each, an extra placing together lengthwise three barleycorns taken from the supply being always advisable in case of an accident during centre of the ear. Little more, however, than the name of this the game. The form of the cricket-bat is, no doubt, fami. subdivision remains, measurements being generally conducted in liar to all our readers; its length should be suited to the decimal or fractional parts of an inch.

height of the player, and such that he may wield it readily and TABLE OF LINEAR MEASURE.

with good effect; but, by the rules of the game, no bat must be 3 barleycorns

= 1 inch
written 1 in.

more than thirty-eight inches long, or more than four-and-a12 inches = 1 foot

1 ft.

quarter inches in the widest part. 3 feet = 1 yard

1 yd.

The ball is made of leather, and as it has to undergo very 5 yards = 1 rod, perch, or pole ,

hard usage, it is best if made with what is known as the “ treble 40 rods, or 220 yards = 1 furlong

seam.” Its size is fixed at not less than nine inches nor more 8 furlongs, or 320 rods = 1 mile

than nine-and-a-quarter inches in circumference. It must = 1 league

11.

weigh not less than five-and-a-half ounces, nor more than five 60 geographical miles, or

of}

= 1 degree 69} common miles

1 deg. or 1° ounces and three-quarters. Both sides in the game play with 360 degrees

the same ball; but at the commencement of each innings either 1 great circle of the globe.

party may call for a new one. The player is not restricted as to Other measures of length are sometimes used, having reference the precise bat he may use, provided it be a cricket-bat within to special descriptions of magnitudes. For instance, 12 lines the dimensions above specified. make 1 inch; 4 inches make 1 hand; 9 inches 1 span ; 18 inches

Each wicket consists of three stumps, usually made of strong 1 cabit; 6 feet 1 fathom. In measuring roads and land, a chain and polished wood, and pointed at one end so as to be firmly 22 yards or 4 rods long is used, called, from its inventor, Gunter's fixed in the ground. The height at which they stand when set chain. It is divided into 100 links, each of which therefore is fixed at twenty-seven inches out of the ground. There must contains of a rod, or 7.92 inches.

be sufficient space between the stumps to prevent the ball from

passing through. The top of each stump is grooved, and in In the measurement of cloth, linen, etc., the following lengths the grooves

, when the stumps are set, two small pieces of wood are sometimes used :

called bails are laid from stump to stump. The length of the 24 inches

bails is fixed at eight inches. = 1 nail

written 1 nl, 4 pails, or 9 inches = 1 quarter (of a yard'

These are all the accessories that are actually required for 3 quarters = 1 Flemish ell

the game. But padded gloves and leg-guards are frequently 5 quarters = 1 English ell

used by the principal players—the batsman and the wicket6 quarters = 1 French ell

1 Fr. e.

keeper—to prevent injury to the hands or legs when playing. The last three measures are now very seldom used in England. They are especially useful when the bowling is of the fast order

which has become so much in vogue in recent times. One set A degree is in reality an angle; but, in measuring the earth's is sufficient for a small club, or for a school party, for the comcircumference, we give the name of degree to that portion of it which mon use of its members; but young players can do very well sabtends an angle of one degree at the centre. See • Angular Measure," without them, when they have only beginners like themselves to in Lesson 23,

contend against.

1 r. or p.
1 fur.

1 m.

3 miles

CLOTH MEASURE.

1 qr.

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1 Fl. e.
1 E. e.

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