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BOWLER,

RETURN

RETURN
CREASE.

CREASE

WICKET.

POPPING

CREASE,

We come now to the preparation and allotment of the cricket All being now in readiness for the game, the bowler takes the ground preparatory to play, confining our remarks at present ball, and, after calling “play” before starting, delivers the ball to the usual game of double wicket. If only an ordinary field in the direction of the wicket farthest from him. His object is be available for the game, the most level portion of it, as near to strike it with the ball, and if he succeed in the attempt, the the centre as possible, is selected for the purpose of pitching batsman stationed at that wicket is out. The object of the the wickets. These must be directly opposito each other, and batsman obviously is to keep the ball off his wicket, and also, at a distance of twenty-two yards

by striking it to a distance, to make apart. A line six feet eight inches

one or more runs towards the game in length is drawn with chalk upon

for his party. A run is scored when the ground at each wicket, so that CREASE.

the batsman is able to pass from the stumps stand in its centre. This

BOWLING

wicket to wicket without being put is called the bowling crease. At each

out before he comes fairly behind end of it another but short line is

the popping crease, or places the drawn at right angles behind the

end of his bat within it. If the bats.

BATSMAN, wicket, and this is named the return

man runs from one wicket to the crease. The object of these lines is

other, and then returns to the wicket to mark out the space within which

he started from, he counts two runs the bowler must be standing when

for his party, and so on. he delivers the ball. In front of the

When the ball is struck, the wicket, four feet from it, and parallel

fielders, waiting in eager expectation, with the bowling crease, another line,

strive to catch it or otherwise stop it, called the popping crease, is drawn.

and return it immediately to the No precise length is defined for the

wicket-keeper or bowler, that he may popping crease, save that it must be DIAGRAM NO. 1. THE BOWLING AND POPPING CREASES. strike the wicket with it before the at least as long as the bowling crease

batsman reaches home. If this be behind it. Within the space marked by these two creases done, or if the ball be caught in the first instance, the batsman is the batsman's proper ground, passing out of which he risks is out, and another of his party succeeds him, until all the being put out of the game, by a touch of the wicket with the eleven have taken the bat in turn. The number of runs they ball by one of the opposite side. The nature of the creases, have made between them is then counted up, and their oppoand the ground marked out by them, will be made clear by nents, now taking their innings, try to get a higher number if diagram No. 1.

possible. Usually, in a game of double wicket, each side has Before commencing the game, the two parties-divided, we two innings, and the party that can boast the highest total at will suppose, into the ordinary number of eleven on each side the end of the play wins the game. select two umpires, whose duty it is to see that the rules of the This is a brief explanation of the mode and the object of the game are adhered to, and settle disputed points that may arise play; but it may be as well to remark here that, besides the runs in the course of the

gained by the batsplay. The umpires

men in the manner pitch the wickets,

3

before mentioned, and the captains or

LONG-STOP.

the side which has leading members of

7 the two elevens

the innings are

sometimes allowed toss for innings; LONG-SLIP.

LONG-LEG.

to score that is, which side 6

through the negli shall first take the SHORT-SLIP.

gence of their oppobat in the play.

2

nents.

Thus, if The winner's party

WICKET-KEEPER.

the ball, instead of generally go first to

being fairly bowled, the wickets. The

is thrown or jerked order in which they

4
WICKET,

towards the wicket, shall take the bat

10

it is called a is decided by their 5

SHORT-LEG.

ball," and the batsleader. Two of the COVER-POINT.

man's party score party station them.

one for it. Again, selves, bat in hand,

if it pass over the before the wickets,

striker's head, or 50 facing each other ;

wide of the wicket and they are then

as to be out of his ready for the game.

reach, it is a "wide The opposite side

ball," and the in select their bowler,

side score one. Or, and the captain of

if either the “10 this eleven stations

ball" or "wide ball" his men at the

WICKET.

be not stopped by various points of

1

the fielders, the the ground, accord.

batsmen may run ing to his know.

BOWLER.

from 8

wicket to ledge of their par.

9

wicket, as if the ball ticular aptitude in

LONG-OX.

had been struck in fielding-that is, in

their play, and catching the ball,

count as many runs stopping it, etc. DIAGRAY NO. 2. DISPOSITION OF THE PLAYERS ON THE CRICKET FIELD.

as they can make. The positions in

There are also which the fielders as a body shall be placed are fixed by other ways of the batsman's being put out than those mentioned custom, which is founded on experience of where they are in the foregoing description; but these will be found fully detailed most likely to be effective. These positions are occasionally in the laws of the game, which will be given in another paper. ariera suit the character of the bowling, whether fast or In this we shall also give a little practical advice to the young

rule the men are stationed for medium bowling player, with illustrations of the proper attitudes in batting, ositions indicated by diagram No. 2.

bowling, etc.

11

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POINT.

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LONG-OFY.

LESSONS IN ARCHITECTURE.-II.

The simplicity of the first erections for religious purposes may

be seen in the construction of the altars of early times. The first BUILDINGS IN UNHEWN STONE.

sacrifices, which the Bible and ancient tradition trace up to the We will now proceed to trace briefly but distinctly the progress creation, were made upon consecrated heaps of stones, which of architecture amongst the different nations of antiquity, for were collected upon high places. These first altars, called the purpose of reaching our own times in chronological order. BETH-EL (the House of God), were erected in Chaldea, in Judea, Before entering into details, we may point out the particular and in Egypt. They were built, according to the Scriptures, of features which characterise the grand periods of the art, and stones without cement, if the places where they were raised the different systems in which its resources were developed in afforded proper materials. In other places they were constructed order to satisfy the numerous demands of the civilisation in of turf and earth, where the plain country presented no solid which it originated.

materials. Such erections or mounds are found in Asia Minor Architecture, like all the productions of the human mind, and in India ; at Heliopolis, celebrated for the worship of the

[graphic][subsumed]

DRUIDICAL REMAINS ON THE PLAIN OF CARNAC, IN THE DEPARTMENT OF MORBIHAN, FRANCE.

presents at first only simple rudiments, quite in accordance with sun, and the great sidereal divinity of the Syrians. Lucian primitive manners. From the earliest ages we find three great describes a throne or altar to the sun composed of four great divisions established amongst all nations : first, private buildings; stones arranged in the form of a table. At Ortogia, in Syria, secondly, religious edifices; and thirdly, military constructions there is an edifice of this kind raised in an open enclosure, and of a defensive character.

built of stones in a square form. Strabo relates that, travelling The first care of a people, as we remarked before, would be in Egypt, he saw his road covered with temples devoted to the to construct individual habitations ; but being at first hunters god Mercury, which were composed of two anhewn stones, which and whepherds, they would be necessarily wanderers, and their supported a third, resembling the cromlechs which are to be drellings would be tents constructed of the skins of animals, or seen in some parts of England. Artemidorus, quoted by Strabo, cottages made of branches of trees. When they dwelt on the mentions that in Africa, near Carthage, the god Melkart (Moloch), borders of rivers they would employ reeds; Asia and Egypt or the Phænician Hercules, was worshipped in a similar manner, present us with examples of this kind. In some exceptional three or four stones being placed one upon another in the form cases they dwelt in caverns, or in shallow excavations. The of a rude altar or table. cottages were usually circular; piles of stones and earth, arranged This simple manner of building applied to primitive altars, and in a circle, constituted their foundation. This form is found to the sacred enclosures which surrounded them, after having amongst all nations ; that of the square, requiring more compli- been developed, as we have seen, in Asia and Africa, extended cated combinations, was not adopted at first.

into Europe from the borders of the Black Sea and the Caucasus, VOL. I.

24

where M. Dubois, of Seafchatel, saw a great number, even to 'participle of these verbs undergoes. The feminine terminations the Atlantic Ocean and to the northern seas. Pausanias de- of the past participle of the irregular verbs will be found in the scribes some of these in Argolis, and recent travellers have seen alphabetical table, g 62. others in Greece. It is well known that they exist in France, in 3. The last letter of the feminine termination is always an e England, in Norway, and in Sweden, where all these works of mute. early civilisation are known under the name of Celtic and 4. The plural of a past participle not ending with an s is Druidical monuments. America presente numerous examples of formed by the addition of that letter to the singular, masenline similar constructions, wzich show how rising nations exhibit or ferninine. the same analogies, as their arts are in the process of formation.' 5. The participle past, accompanied by the auxiliary verb

Simple as this system of building is, for it cannot yet be avoir, never agrees with the nominative or subject [S 134 (3)]. called arebitecture, we recognise the periods of its commence les demoiselles ont chanté, The young ladies sang. ment, its progress, and its development. Thus the most ancient Ces messieurs ont la toate la Those gentlemen read the whole day. of these edifices, such as were erected by the most ignorant journée, people, were built of enormous stones in the shape which nature

6. The participle past, having être as its auxiliary verb, gave them. Moreover, they selected those which presented the square form, if they did not give them this form by manual assumes in its termination the gender and number of the subject

3 134 (2) labour. Stonehenge, in England, exhibits a number of square pillars supporting enormous architraves, the whole appearing to Ma fille est arrivée ce matin, My daughter arrived this morning. have constituted a large and well-constructed edifice. These . Nos frères ne sont pas venus, Our brothers are not come. evidences of the first attempts of past civilisation are gradually 7. The participle, accompanied by the auxiliary verb avoir

, and daily disappearing under the progress of those which are agrees in gender and number with its direct object or régimo teing developed around them. Thus Asia has lost most of her direct $ 2 (2), § 42 (4), when that object precedes it ($ 134 ancient monuments, owing to the early state of her progress (4) in the arts. Africa, for the same reason, presents as few Les dames que nous avons vues, The ladies whom we have seen. examples, although they are mentioned by ancient authors. ! Les lettres que nous avons lues, The letters tchich we have read. Greece and Italy, and their neighbouring islands, only exhibit 8. When the régime direct or objective (accusative) follows examples of the same kind in places nearly deserted. The the participle, no agreement takes place [$ 134 (5)]. northern countries of Europe alone preserve some, because that' civilisation was later there; and the history of their sudden and Avez-vous ru les dames ? Hare you seen the ladies ? unexpected conquests extends only to a period of about two Avons-nous lu les lettres ? Hare rce read the letters ! thousand years. In America the later civilisation of the Aztecs' 9. A participle past never agrees with its régime indirect, or (1196) and the Mexicans caused the primitive monuments around indirect object (dative or ablative) (S 2 (3), § 42 (5)]. them to disappear, by the development of their own. This pro. Les dames à qui nous avons parlé, The ladies to rohom we have spoken. cess is perfectly analogous to that which took place first in Asia, then in Greece, Africa, and Italy, and which we now see taking auxiliary verb, follows the rule of the adjective [$ 66 (3),

10. The participle past used adjectively, that is, without an place in the western countries, where their materials are used § 134 (1)]. for roads and private buildings. This simple and primitire style of architecture appears to

Des livres bien imprimés, Well-printed books. have been originally universal, if it was not simultaneous with 11. The participle, preceded by the relative pronoun en, the progress of civilisation, which marched from east to west ; remains invariable, although the en should relate to a feminine and has left monuments and edifices so varied as to occasion or plural noun ($ 135 (7)]. them to be classified, and have names given to each class. ' Avez-vous apporté des plumes ? Have you brought pens! These names are borrowed from the old Celtic tongue, or lan. J'en ai apporté,

I have brought some, guage of the Druids. Thus, erections of the first class, which

12. The presence of en does not, however, prevent the agreeconsisted of long stonos, erect and isolated (standing singly) like ment of the participle, when it is preceded by a régime direct obelisks, were called Peulvans, or Menhirs. Buildings of the [$ 135 (7)]. second class, consisting of a huge unhewn stone, supported on Les plumes que j'en ai apportées, Thepens which I have brought from it. two or more rough stones set on end on the earth, are called Cromlechs by British archæologists and Dolmens by French

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. antiquarians. The third class consists of Uncovered Alleys, of Vos seurs ont-elles écrit ? Have your sisters written ? upright stones, placed in rows like trees, and occupying a very Elles n'ont pas encore écrit. They have not yet written, considerable area, like those of the plain of Carnac, in the Les lettres que nous avons écrites. The letters which we have tritten. department of Morbihan, part of the old province of Brittany, ! Avez-vous écrit vcs lettres ? Have you written your letters ? in France. While in the fourth class these long rows of stones Je les ai lues, je les ai écrites. I have read them, I have written then. anume a circular or elliptical form, and support stones placed

Les avez-vous apportées ?

Have you brought them ? on them horizontally so as to form a lintel or architrave. The Avez-vous appelé ces dames?

Je ne les ai pas apportées.

I hare not brought them.

Have you called those ladies! military constructions of early times appear to have been mounds Je ne les ai pas appelées.

I have not called them. or artificial hills, at the summit of which there was a shallow Qui avez-vous vu ce matin? Whom have you seen this morning i excavation, of which the edges formed a rampart. It is certain Nous avons vu ces demoiselles. We have seen those that in countries where hills naturally occurred they were for. Nous les avons vues.

We have seen them. tified in the same way as those which were raised by art. These Nous ne leur avons pas parlé. We have not spoken to them. natural fortifications

are still to be seen in the neighbourhood Avez-vous des livres reliés ? Have you bound boolos ? of Athens and the Piræus, and they were of immense service : J'ai des livres brochés.

I have inbound (stitcked in paper in the last war of independence. Mankind in a savage or wan. Avez-vous acheté des pommes ?

covers) books. dering state having no instruments for raising the earth or J'en ai acheté.

Have you bought apples ?

I have bought some. digging ditches, made fortified enclosures with heaped stones, Nous en avons acheté.

We have bought some. having a double slope. The entrances to these fortresses were Nous les en avons persuadés. We have persuaded them of it. defended by artificial hills, placed inside near the gates.

VOCABULARY.

Achet-er, 1, to buy [5 | Dit, from dire, 4, ir., ! Laiss-er, 1, to lear. "SONS IN FRENCH.-XXIV.

49 (5)].

said.

Nouvelle, f., nous.

Appel-er, 1, to call [$ Donn-er, 1, to give. Oubli-er, 1, to forget. XLI.-THE PAST PARTICIPLE [8 134]. 49 (4)].

Entend-re, 4, to hear, Rec-evoir, 3, to receits, articiple, which in French forms a part of every Bel-le, beautifu.

Apport-er, 1, to bring. Examin-er, 1, to ex- Reli-er, 1, to bind.

amine. 180 [$45 (8)], is susceptible of changes in its

Revenus, m. pl., ike Bourse, f., purse.

Exprès, on purpose.

Broch-er, 1, to stitch, Fleur, f., flower. Tasse, f., exp. ndent will find, in the table of the terminations of Cass-er, i, to break. Gard-er, 1, to keep. Vu, from soir, 3, it,

(S 60), the different changes which the past Commission, f., errand. Gravure, f., engraving.

young

ladies.

come.

seen,

nous.

m.,

EXERCISE 77.

6. When, however, we are still in a given place, or on the 1. Nous avez-vous apporté nos habits ? 2. Nous ne les avons

road towards it, the expression je suis allé, etc., is used. pas encore apportés. 3. Les avez-vous oubliés ? 4. Nous ne Le médecin est allé à Londres, Tho physician is gone to London. les avons pas oubliés, mais nous n'avons pas en le temps de les Votre sæur est allée à l'église, Your sister is gone to church. apporter. 5. Pourquoi n'avez-vous pas appelé les marchands ?

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. 6. Je les ai appelés, mais ils ne m'ont pas entendu. 7. Avez

Avez-vous été au bal hier au soir ? Did you go to the ball last evening ? vous entendu cette musique ? 8. Je l'ai entendue. 9. N'avez. Nous n'y avons pas été.

We did not go. rous pas vu les jolies fleurs qui j'ai apportées ? 10. Je les ai Où cette demoiselle a-t-elle été ? Whither did that young lady go ? vues; à qui les avez-vous données ? 11. Je ne les ai données à Elle a été chez son frère et chez She went to her brother's und to our personne, je les ai gardées pour vous. 12. Avez-vous bien

house. examiné ces gravures ? 13. Je les ai bien examinées. 14. Les Où votre soeur est-elle allée ce Where is your sister gone this mornavez-vous achetées ? 15. Je ne les ai point achetées. 16. N'avez- matin ?

ing? 17. Je ne les ai point encore

Elle est allée trouver sa cousine. vous point reçu vos revenus ?

She is gone to her cousin's. reçus. 18. La domestique a-t-elle cassé ces tasses? 19. Elle N'avez-vous pas sorti aujourd'hui? Did you not go out to-day? 20. A-t-elle cassé des tasses exprès ? 21. Elle Où est Monsieur le général ?

Je n'ai pas encore sorti. les a cassées.

I have not yet been out.

Where is the general ? n'en a pas cassé exprès. 22. Avez-vous acheté des livres reliés Je ne sais pas, Monsieur; il est I do not know, Sir; he is gone out. ou brochés. 23. J'ai acheté des livres reliés. 24. Nous avez- sorti. vous dit ces paroles ? 25. Nous vous les avons dites, mais vous Où ce Monsieur est-il né ? Where was that gentleman born ? les avez oubliées. 26. Je n'ai pas oublié votre commission. Il est né à Paris ou à Lyon. He was born in Paris or Lyons.

Votre nièce a-t-elle été voir son Did your niece go to visit her brother? EXERCISE 78.

frère ? 1. Have you seen my cups ? 2. I have not yet seen them. Elle a été le voir hier.

She went to see him yesterday (and 3. Have you brought me my books ? 4. I have not forgotten

is back). them, I have left them at my brother's. 5. Has your mother Elle est allée le voir hier. She went to see him yesterday (and called your sisters ? 6. She has not yet called them. 7. Has

is not back). the servant told you this news ? 8. She has told me this news.

VOCABULARY. 9. She has told it me. 10. Have you forgotten my errand ? Bijouterie, f., jewellery. Magasin, ware- Orfèvre, m., goldsmith. 11. We have not forgotten it, we have forgotten your money. Chapelier, m., hatter. house.

Part.ir, 2, ir., to set out. 12. Where have you left your purse? 13. We left it at the Espagne, f., Spain. Malade, sick,

Retourn-er, 1, to remerchant's. 14. Have you bought the beautiful engravings Eté, from étre, 4, ir., Marchandise, f., mer- turn. which I saw at your bookseller's ? 15. I have not seen them.

been.

chandise.

Sort-ir, 2, ir., to go out.

Suisse, Switzerland. 16. Has your mother bought them ? 17. She has bought books, Horloger, m., watch- Montre, £., watch.

maker.

Né, from naitre, 4, ir., Venu, from venir, 2, but she has bought no engravings. 18. Has that little girl

Maçon, m., mason.

to be born.

ir., come. broken my cups ? 19. She has broken them on purpose. 20. Does that lady receive her income every month ? 21. She

EXERCISE 79. receives it every six months. 22. Is the house which you have

1. À quelle heure votre sæur est-elle venue ? 2. Elle est bought large? 23. I have bought no house. 24. Did you venue à huit heures moins un quart. 3. Ces demoiselles sontreceive a letter from your father yesterday? 25. I received a elles nées à Rouen ou à Caen? 4. Elles ne sont nées ni à letter from him four days ago. 26. Have you spoken to those Rouen ni à Caen, elles sont nées à Strasbourg. 5. L'horloger ladies ? 27. I have spoken to them. 28. Have you given them est-il chez lui ? 6. Non, Monsieur, il est allé à son magasin. flowers ? 29. I have given them some (en). 30. Are the books 7. A-t-il été à Paris cette année ? 8. Oui, Madame, il y a été. which you have bought bound ? 31. No, Sir, they are in 9. Y a-t-il acheté des marchandises ? 10. Il y a acheté de la paper covers. 32. Have you examined that house ? 33. I

bijouterie. 11. Avez-vous été trouver mon père ? 12. J'ai été have not examined it. 34. Your brother (en) has examined le trouver. 13. Votre chapelier a-t-il sorti aujourd'hui ? 14. several (plusieurs).

Il n'a pas sorti, il est malade. 15. Le maçon est-il à la maison ? SECTION XLII.-USE OF THE AUXILIARIES ($ 46). 16. Non, Madame, il est sorti. 17. Quand est-il sorti ? 18. Il 1. The active verb (S 43 (2) (3)], that is, the verb which has est sorti il y a une heure. 19. Votre chapelier est-il arrivé or may have a direct regimen or object, always takes avoir as aujourd'hui ou hier ? 20. Il est arrivé hier à quatre heures du its auxiliary [$ 46 (1)].

matin. 21. Notre tailleur a-t-il été voir son père aujourd'hui ? Nous avons écrit à notre banquier, We have written to our banker.

22. Il est parti pour Lyon. 23. L'orfèvre de mon cousin n'est

il pas parti pour l'Espagne ? 24. Non, Monsieur, il est retourné 2. Almost all neuter verbs, i.e., verbs which cannot have a

en Allemagne. 25. Ma scur a été à l'église ce matin, et elle direct object, take the auxiliary avoir, when they express action. est allée à l'école il y a une demi-heure. Nous avons couru, marché, parlé, We have run, walked, spoken.

EXERCISE 80. 3. The compound tenses of a few neuter verbs, expressing action, are, however, conjugated with être:-Aller, to go; arriver, he is out. 3. Have you been out this morning ? 4. No, Sir, I

1. Is the physician at home? 2. No, Sir, he is not at home; to arrive; choir, tomber, to fall; décéder, mourir, to die; naître, have not been out; I am sick. 5. Is your sister's little girl to be born; venir, to come ; parvenir, to succeed; devenir, to out? 6. Yes, Sir, she is out; she is at my brother's. 7. At become; revenir, to return.

what hour did the hatter arrive? 8. He arrived last evening À quelle heure êtes-vous venu ? At what hour did you come ?

at nine. 9. Did the jeweller go to Paris or Lyons this year? Je suis né en France, I was born in France.

10. He went to Paris six months ago, but he is back (de retour). Look carefully at the last example, and mark that, when the 11. Did you go to my brother or to my sister ? 12. I have not person spoken of is living, the French use the present and not had time to go to them. 13. Where was that gentleman born ? the past of the auxiliary with the past participle of naître, to be 14. He was born in England-in Exeter or in Portsmouth. born :-Cette dame est née en Angleterre, that lady (is) was born 15. Was not your sister born in Paris ? 16. No, Sir, she was in England. Mon frère est né en France, my brother (is) was born in Madrid, in Spain. 17. Did you tell me that your born in France.

brother has bought a good house ? 18. He has bought a very 4. A few neuter verbs ($ 46 (3)] take avoir, when they express good house in London. 19. Do you know at what time the action, and être, when they express situation.

watchmaker arrived ? 20. He arrived this morning at a quarter Votre frère a-t-il sorti aujourd'hui ? Has your brother gone out this before five. 21. Has he brought much jewellery ? 22. He has

morning?

not brought much jewellery, but he has brought many watches. Votre frère est-il sorti ? Is your brother gone out ?

23. Has he been in France or in Germany? 24. He has been 5. The past indefinite of the verb être [4, ir.] (J'ai été, etc.) is in France, in Germany, and in Switzerland. 25. Is your sister used instead of the preterite indefinite of aller (Je suis allé), in (à la maison), Sir ? 26. No, Sir, she is out; she is gone to when speaking of a place where one has been.

church. 27. Did she go to school yesterday? 28. She went Le médecin a été à Paris,

Tho physician has been at Paris. to school and to church. 29. Is she there now ? 30. No, Sir, J'ai été à l'église ce matin, I went to church this morning. she is back. 31. Is the hatter arrived ? 32. Yes, Sir, he is

many times.

arrived. 33. When did he arrive? 34. He arrived yesterday, 20. J'ai l'intention de l'emmener. 21. Qu'avez-vous apporté de at nine o'clock in the morning.

France ? 22. Nous avons apporté de magnifiques soieries, des

draps fins et des chapeaux de Lyon. 23. Avez-vous amené SECTION XLIII.-IDIOMATIC EXPRESSIONS. 1. Combien de temps corresponds with the English expression 25. Vos frères nous ont apporté des livres.

votre fille à pied ou à cheval? 24. Je l'ai amenée en voiture, how long. Combien de temps avez-vous de- How long did you live in Italy?

EXERCISE 82. meuré en Italie ?

1. How long did your son live in London ? 2. He lived there 2. Combien de fois answers to the English how often, how ten years. 3. How far is the physician gone? 4. The physician

is gone as far as Cologne. 5. Has he taken his son with him ?

6. He has not taken him. 7. How have you brought your two Combien de fois y avez-vous été ? How many times have you been little girls ? 8. I brought one in a carriage, and my wife carried

there?

the other. 9. Is she too little to walk ? 10. She is not too small 3. Jusqu'où is used for how far, what distance, etc.

to walk, but she is ill. 11. Have you brought your horse? Jusqu'où avez-vous été ? How far hare you been ?

12. We have brought two horses. 13. Have you brought the 4. Jusqu'à quelle heure, till what hour, means also how late.

books which you have promised me? 14. I have forgotten to

bring them. 15. Has that lady brought her eldest son ? 16. Jusqu'à quelle heure avez-vous How late did you wait ?

She has brought all her children. 17. How did they come ? attendu ?

18. They came in a carriage. 19. Which way did your brother 5. D'où means whence ; par où, which way, in what direction. come from Germany ? 20. He came by Aix-la-Chapelle and D'où venez-vous, mon ami ? Whence do you come, my friend ?

Brussels. 21. Do you intend to take your son to school this Par où votre ami est-il allé ? Which way is your friend gone ?

afternoon ? 22. I do not intend to take him there, it is too cold.

23. Is that child too ill to walk ? 24. He is too ill to walk, 6. Mener ($ 49), porter, to take, to carry; amener, apporter, and I intend to carry him. 25. Why do you not take him in a to bring, to take with one ; emmener, emporter, to take, to carry carriage ? 26. My brother has taken my horse away. 27. Have away. We use mener, amener, emmener, for to take, to bring, you brought the physician ? 28. I have not brought him, no to take away, in the sense of conducting, leading, guiding, on foot one is ill at our house. 29. Will you take this book to church? or in a vehicle. Porter, apporter, emporter, mean to carry, to 30. I have another, I do not want it. 31. Have you taken my bring, to carry away, eto.

letter to the post-office ? 32. I have forgotten it. 33. How late Menez votre sour à l'école, Take your sister to school.

did you write ? 34. I wrote until after midnight. 35. Whence Portez ce livre à votre seur, Take this book to your sister. do your sisters come ? 36. They come from Paris.

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.
Jusqu'où votre frère est-il allé ? Hore far is your brother gone ?
Il est allé jusqu'à Paris.
He is gone as far as Paris.

HISTORIC SKETCHES.-XII.
Combien de temps va-t-il y rester? How long is he going to stay there ?
Il va y rester jusqu'au printemps. He is going to stay there until spring.

THE PROTECTOR OF THE COMMONWEALTH. Combien de temps avez-vous de- How long did you live in London ? At the Royal Palace of Whitehall, on the 3rd of September, 1658,

meuré à Londres ? Nous y avons demeuré six ans. We lived there six years.

a man lay dying. Eight days before he felt so confident of life Jusqu'où avez-vous été ? How far did you go?

that he told his wife not to think he should die, as he felt sure Nous avons été jusqu'aux Champs We went as far as the Champs Ely. of the contrary. Now he was speechless, sinking; and the last Elysées. sées.

thing about which he had seriously troubled himself was a Jusqu'à quelle heure avez-vous How late did you write ?

curious metaphysical one. “Tell me," he said to Sterry, a écrit ?

minister who stood by him, " is it possible to fall from grace?" J'ai écrit jusqu'à minuit. I wrote until midnight.

" It is not possible," said the minister. “Then," exclaimed the D'où viennent ces Allemandes ? Whence come those German ladies ?

dying man, “I am safe; for I know that I was once in grace." Elles viennent d'Aix-la-Chapelle. They come from Aix-la-Chapelle.

And then he prayed, “Lord, though a miserable and wretched Par où sont-elles venues ? Which way did they come ?

creature, I am in covenant with thee through thy grace, and Elles sont venues par Bruxelles. They came by Brussels. Menez-vous cette petite fille à Do you take (lead) that little girl to may and will come to thee for thy people. Thou hast made me l'école ?

school?

a mean instrument to do them some good, and thee service. Je ne l'y mène pas, je l'y porte; elle I do not lead her there, I carry her Many of them set too high a value upon me, though others

est trop petite pour marcher, there; she is too small to walk. would be glad of my death. Lord, however thou disposest of Amenez-vous vos enfants ? Do you bring your children ? me, continue and go on to do good for them. Teach those who Portez-vous une lettre à la poste ? Do you take a letter to the post-office? look too much upon thy instruments, to depend more upon thyJ'emmène mon cheval, j'emporte I bring away my horse, I bring away self, and pardon such as desire to trample upon the dust of a ma moutre.

my watch.

poor worm, for they are thy people too." VOCABULARY.

The attention of all England was riveted on the sick room at Ainé, -e, eldest. Ici, here.

Promis, from pro- Whitehall, with keen and sincere interest. From the lips of Apport-er, 1, to bring. Loin, far,

mett-re, 4, ir., pro. many went forth earnest prayers that God would be pleased to Bruit, m., noise. Magnifique, magnifi- mised.

spare the invalid's life; in the hearts of many there were fears Drap, m., cloth.

Quitt-er, to leave.

and misgivings as to what would come in the event of that Elève, m., pupil. Midi, noon.

Soieries, f.pl., silk goods. prayer being rejected; in other hearts there were joy and exulta. Fils, son.

Minuit, midnight. Voiture, f., carriage.
Fin, -e, fine.
Pied, m., foot.

tion over the death of a sinner; while in others, that should Voyageur, m., traveller. have been kindly disposed, there was a certain sort of assurance EXERCISE 81.

that there is something in the misfortunes of our greatest friends 1. Le jeune homme est-il allé loin ? 2. Il n'est pas allé bien which is not displeasing to us. A frightful wind-storm ragel, loin, il n'est allé que jusqu'à Paris. 3. Vos enfants font trop rooting up trees in the park, and tearing off the roofs of houses de bruit, pourquoi ne les emmenez-vous pas ? 4. Ils sont in London. The friends of the dying argued that God was malades, ils ne pouvent marcher. 5. Comment les avez-vous giving warning of his intention to take to himself the great soul amenés ici ? 6. Je les ai amenés en voiture. 7. À quelle heure of the sufferer ; his enemies argued that “the princes of the amenez-vous le médecin ? 8. Je l'amène tous les jours à midi. powers of the air" were holding fearful revels amid the storin9. Combien de fois par jour menez-vous vos élèves à l'église ? driven clouds in honour of the prospect of seizing on a great 10. Je les mène à l'église deux fois par jour. 11. Combien de offender's soul. fois y avez-vous été ? 12. J'y ai été plusieurs fois. 13. Par où The dying man was Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of Eng. ces voyageurs sont-ils venus ? 14. Ils sont venus par Amiens land and Ireland, the man who for ten years had governed the et par Rouen. 15. D'où apportez-vous cette nouvelle? 16. Je kingdom in a right kingly way, and made it stronger and more l'apporte de Cologne. 17. D'où avez-vous amené ces superbes respected by all foreign powers than it had been since the days

- 18. Je les ai amenés d'Angleterre. 19. Si vous of Henry V. and Agincourt; the man who had subverted the

France, avez-vous l'intention d'emmener votre fils ? subverters of the monarchy, and had yet annihilated monarchy

cent.

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