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link. The term describes its office. The word is in the is not a nominative case. Cases pertain to nouns, moods to sentence links the subject with the predicate. The whole may verbs. be exhibited thus :

But here we meet with an instance of the complexity and

obscurity that have been brought into English grammar by Subject.


attachment to Latin forms. Our nouns in their actual con. Alfred


dition have but one case, the genitive; or, if the nominative be Copula. Attribute.

allowed to be a case, then two cases are the utmost that our Alfred


nouns can be said to have. Why should more be assigned to

them? It may be doubted, indeed, whether what is called the By ordinary grammarians what we have termed the subject is nominative can be properly termed a case, for it differs from called the nominative case. The employment of such a term is the Latin nominative, which is formed from & stem common to objectionable, for it is incorrect by not being sufficiently com- all the cases through which the noun passes; whereas in English prehensive. Take, for instance, the proposition, To ride is the nominative is the stem itself. However this may be in healthful. To ride is the subject of the proposition, and the English, nouns now possess no more than two cases. This fact subject, therefore, to the verb is. But is to ride a nominative is in no way affected by the allegation that the Anglo-Saxon, case? Ask the grammarians, and they will tell you that it is the mother of the English, has several cases. It is with the the infinitive mood of the verb ride. If an infinitive mood, it daughter, not with the mother, that we are here concerned.

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LESSONS IN PENMANSHIP.-III. in making this letter will afford an excellent test of his progress,

and show him whether or not he be holding his pen in the proper We now place before our readers the letter 1, the last of the way and sitting in the proper position. If he find no difficulty four letters that are formed either by the simple bottom-turn in repeating the letter 1 several times, and can do it with ease, itself, or by some slight modification of it. Proceeding by a making a straight and well-formed stroke with an equal pressure regular system of gradation, the self-teacher has been led first of the pen from top to bottom until it begins to narrow, he to make the bottom-turn within the horizontal lines that contain, may be sure that his position is correct, and that he is holding as we stated in our last lesson, what may be termed the body his pen properly; but if, on the other hand, he find, after a few of any letter that has a head, loop, or tail extending above or trials, that the down-strokes of his letters are uneven and crooked, below these lines; and then, after making the simple bottom owing to the shaking of his hand, and he feel pain in the ball turn, he was shown how to turn this stroke into the letter i by of the thumb and the thick muscles on the opposite side of the placing a dot above it, to form the letter u by the combination palm of the hand, he may be sure that his position and the way of two bottom turns, and to make the letter t by beginning the in which he holds his pen is stiff, constrained, and unnatural, thick down-stroke a little above the upper horizontal line, and and requires amendment. To effect this, he must once more crossing it just above the same line by a fine hair-stroke. He turn to the directions given for holding the pen, etc., in our first must now proceed to make the letter 1, beginning the down. lesson in Penmanship, and carefully regulating the position of stroke at the line e e, which is placed at a distance above the his hand and body by these instructions, he will soon discover line a a nearly equal to the distance between the lines a a, b b. the points in which he is at fault, and gradually acquire greater

The chief difficulty that the learner has to encounter in making ease and freedom in writing. the letter 1 arises from the length of the down-stroke, which After accomplishing the letter 1, the learner may proceed to obliges him to bring his pen downwards in the same straight combinations of the letters that he has already made singly, line for a distance nearly half as long again as the letter t. At and for this purpose we have furnished him with copy-slips, first his hand will shake, and, as it is manifestly much easier to showing combinations of the letters u, i and i, t. Let him make a short stroke than a long one, his early attempts at copy these and all the examples that we shall give him in future making the letter I will not be quite so straight and even, lessons again and again, remembering that in no branch of berhaps, as his copies of the shorter letters arising out of the learning is constant practice more necessary, especially to the

-turn. His success, however, greater or less, as it may be, self-teacher, than in Penmanship.


Exercises, as to avoid the necessity of referring to them while

translating. Nothing is better adapted to fix a word in the SECTION III.-GERMAN HANDWRITING.

memory than the process of transcribing it; and by doing this

in the German character, the requisite familiarity with the word The papil should invariably make himself so familiar with the ; and the peculiar chirography or handwriting of the language meaning of the words given in the several Vocabularies and I which is shown below, are both secured at the same time.

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SECTION IV.-THE ARTICLE AND THE VERB. another : thus, in French, apple (la pomme) is feminine, while In German the definite Article has, in the Nominative singular, Ropf) is masculine; in French (la tête) it is feminine ; and in

grape (le raisin) is masculine. In German the word head (der a distinct form for each gender :

Latin (caput) it is neuter. The word hand (die Hand, la main,
Masculine: Der Mann, the man ; Der Vruter, the brother. manus) is feminine in the three languages.
Feminine: Die Frau, the woman; Die Schwester, the sister.
Neuter : Da 6. Haus, the house; Das Glas, the glass.


Some nouns, denoting inanimate objects, are in German, as in Ich habe, I have.

Habe ich? have I ? most languages, called masculine or feminine ; and some, denot. Sie haben,

you have.

Haben Sie? have you ? ing animate objects, are called neuter :

he has.

Hat er? has he?
Masculine : Der Apfel, the apple;
Der Baum, the tree;

Peminine: Die Traube, the grape; Die Nadel, the needle ;
Neuiter : Das Kint, the child; Das Pferd, the horse.

Auch, also, too.

Brod, n. bread.


Bäcker, m. baker. Der, tas, the. Haben Many words that are treated as masculine or feminine in one Bier, n. beer.

Er, es, he, it. Id, language, are regarded as being of the opposite gender in Braucr, m. brewer. Fleisch, n. meat.

Er hat,

Ja, J

Sie, you.

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Meht, oder das Brod? 14. Er hat das Mehl. 15. Hat ter Båder der Kaffee, m, coffee. Müller, m, miller. unt, and.

Wein, ober das Wasser? 16. Er hat das Wasser. 17. lieben Sie den Kind, n, child. Nein, no.

Wind? what?

Bauer ? 18. Nein, ich liebe den Lehrer. 19. Haben Sie Fleisch, oder Korn, n. grain. Nur, only.

Wafier, n. water.

Wein ? 20. Ich habe das Fleisch. 21. Haben Sie das Prob, oder den Märchen, n. girl.

Wein, m. wine. Zuder? 22. Ich habe das Brod. 23. Hat der Vater das Buch, ober den Mehl, n. flour. Thee, m. tea.

Wer ? who?

Kamm? 24. Er hat das Buch.
Der Brauer hat Wein, Sie haben The brewer has wine, you have

Kaffee, und ich habe Wasser. coffee, and I have water.

SECTION II.-PRELIMINARY INSTRUCTIONS IN THE VERBS. Das Pferd hat Heu, das Kind þat The horse has hay, the child has In regard to the exercises which I am about to give, you should Brod, und das Mädchen hat Thee. bread, and the girl has tea.

first learn the vocabulary by heart. If yours is a mechanical EXERCISE 4.

trade, you may repeat the words over again and again while 1. Wer hat Brob? 2. Der Bäder hat Brod. 3. Hat der Bäder engaged in labour. Or you may make the words your own Mehl ? 4. Ja, er hat auch Mehl. 5. W.78 hat der Müller ? 6. Der while walking to and from your employment. Among my perMüller hat Mehl und Korn. 7. Wer hat Fleisch ? 8. Der Fleisder hat sonal friends is a gentleman who acquired the greater part of Fleisch. 9. Haben Sie Bier? 10. Nein, ter Brauer hat Bier. 11. the words of the French language, while rising and dressing in Haben Sie Wein? 12. Nein, ich habe Kaffee. 13. Was hat das Mäd: the morning. Thousands of words have I myself learnt while chen? 14. Das Märchen hat Thee. 15. Hat der Brauer Korn? 16. walking for recreation. Nein, er hat nur Bier und Wein. 17. Was hat 1.18 Kind? 18. Es Having thoroughly mastered the vocabulary, take a slate and hat Wasser. 19. Hat es auch Brod ? 20. Ja, es hat Brot und auch write down the Latin into English; then write the English into Fleisch.

Latin. Look over what you have done carefully. Correct

If you look into the exercises you All German verbs are conjugated interrogatively, in the every mistake and error. present and imperfect tenses, like have and be in English ; will find that the English will assist you in writing the Latin, that is, by placing the verb before its subject, without an and the Latin will assist you in writing the English. When auxiliary :

you have got both the Latin and the English into as correct a

state as you can, copy them neatly into a note-book. Having Haben Sie das Buch? Have you the book ? Lesen Sie das Buch ? Read you the book? (Do you read the book?) with the rule or the direction, and also the example. Leave

done so, read them carefully over, and compare each instance 3ft er hier? Is he here?

nothing until you understand the reason. All the examples or Wohnt er hier? Resides he here? (Does he reside here?)

illustrations that I give, as well as the chief rules, should be Hatte er den Brief? Had he the letter?

committed to memory. Schrieb er den Brief? Wrote he the letter? (Did he write the letter ?) ascertain that you aro master of the first. It would be useful

Before you proceed to a second lesson, War er hier? Was he here?

to write out the rules in one consecutive view, in order that, Wohnte er hier? Resided he here? (Did he reside here?)

having them all at once under your eye, you may study them in CONJUGATION or THE PRESENT TENSE SINGULAR or lieben. their connection and as a whole, so as to see their bearing one Assertively.


upon another, and the general results to which they lead. Such Ich liebe, I love; liebe ich? love I? (Do I love ?)

a practice would have a very beneficial effect on your mind, by Sie lieben, you love ; lieben Sie? love you?' (Do you love ?) habituating it to arrangement and order, and might be expected Gr liebt, he loves ; liebt er? loves he ? (Does he love?) to afford you valuable aid, both in other studies and in your

business pursuits. Carefully avoid haste and slovenliness. Do DEFINITE ARTICLE MASCULINE AND NEUTER IN THE NOMINA- your best in all that you undertake. “Well," not "much," TIVE AND ACCUSATIVE.

should be your watchword. Repeated reviews of the ground THE MASCULINE FORMS.

passed over are very desirable. Every Saturday you should go Nominativ. Accusativ. Nominative.

Objective. carefully over what you have done during the week. At the Der Bater liebt den Sohn, The father loves the son.

end of every month the work of the month should be reviewed. Der Sohn liebt den Vater, The son loves the father.

On arriving at a natural division of our subject-as for instance,

when we have treated of the nouns—you should go over, and put THE NEUTER FORM.

together in your mind the substance of what has been said Nominativ.

Accusativ. Nominative. Objective. thereon. "Let us not be weary in well doing : for in due season
Das Kind liebt das Märchen, The child loves the girl. we shall reap, if we faint not.” (Gal. vi. 9.)
Das Mädchen liebt das Kind, The girl loves the child.


Curro, I run. The chief parts are curro, I run; correre, to run ; Bauer, m. peasant. Lehrer, m. teacher. Vater, m. father.

cucurri, I have run; cursus, run. The English representative, or the Buch, n. book. Lieben, to love.

Wagen, m. carriage. element in English derived from the parts, is curr; also curs or cours. Glad, n. glass. Mann, m. man. Zuder, m. sugar. Con, from cum, means with; dis signifies in different directions; ex Kamm, m. comb. Oter, or.

signifies out of. RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

EXERCISE 1.-LATIN-ENGLISH. Der Brauer þat ten Wein, Sie The brewer has the wine,

Curro and its parts give rise to several English words, as current baben ten Kafie, und ich habe das you have the coffee, and I (“ the current coin of the realm"); currency ("the circulating Wasser.

have the water.

medium"). Another example is found in the phrase "account

current." Der Vater liebt tas Kind, und The father loves the child,

EXERCISE 2.-ENGLISH-LATIN. das Kind liebt das Mädchen. and the child loves the girl.

Find English words derived from some part of curro ; find English Das Kind þat den Apfel, und das The child has the apple, and words derived from curro, with in prefixed; also with con prefixed ; Mädchen hat das Kind.

the girl has the child.

also with dis prefixed; also with ex prefixed. Haben Sie den Hut ?

Have you the hat ?
Nein, das Kind hat ten Hut. No, the child has the hat.

Remark.—In order to make my meaning quite clear, I will
Was hat tus Märchen?
What has the girl ?

myself do this exercise in part. From cursus comes the Eng. Das Märchen hat den Kamm. The girl has the comb.

lish word course; from in and curs comes incursion ; from ex

and curs comes excursion. If the reader is acquainted with, or EXERCISE 5.

is learning French, he will do well, as he passes on, to find out 1. Lieben Sie tas Kind, oder den Mann? 2. Ich liebe das Kind, 3. French words corresponding to, and derived from, Latin words; Haben Sie den Zucter ? 4. Mein, tas Kind hat ten Zuder. 5. Liebt tas as in courir, French to run; cours, a course.

By comparison Kino das Mitchen? 6. Iil, und das Märchen liebt das Kind. 7. Wer he may occasionally find that the same sound or word has a hat dat Hlas?' 8. Das Kind hat dae Wlad. 9. Hat ter Brauer ten different meaning in French from what it has in Latin or in Wagen? 10. Nein, der Bauer hat den Wagen. 11. Wer hat das Bier? English. Thus, concursus in Latin means a coming together, 12. Der Brauer hat das Vier und den Wein. 13. Hat der Müller tas | as to a meeting, a concourse of people; but the corresponding

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French, concours, signifies co-operation. So concurrence in Eng- gations are determined or characterised by the vowel which lish is agreement, but in French competition. By practising precedes the termination re in the infinitive mood; thus:comparisons such as this, you will not only meet with many

The first conjugation ends in are, as amāre, to love. eurious facts, but be assisted to understand the nature of lan

The second conjugation ere, as docēre, to teach. guage itself, as well as receive good mental discipline. If it

The third conjugation ere, as regěre, to rule. seems strange to you that the same letters curr or curs should

The fourth conjugation » ire, as audire, to hear. bear dissimilar meanings, a little reflection on the matter will soon take away your surprise. Let us go at once to the pri- We say then that the first conjugation is known by having a mary meaning of curr. Its primary meaning is to run. Now, long before re of the infinitive; the second by having e long; men may run into, or run out of, or run together, or run about the third by having ě short; the fourth by having i long. The for different purposes. For instance, they may run together in

same fact may be put before you in a different way; thus, å harmony, and then they concur ; or they may run together in long is characteristic of the first conjugation; è long, of the rivalry, and then they are in what the French call concurrence, second ; ¢ short, of the third ; i long, of the fourth. In general

it that is, competition.

may be remarked, that in the first conjugation à long preI have thus, my fellow-student, opened out before you an vails ; in the second, è long prevails; in the third, ě short immense field. It is only a hint or two that I can give; but if prevails; and in the fourth, i long prevails. you follow these intimations, you will in time become not only

Now, curro, of which I have spoken before, is of the third a Latin scholar, but a good linguist.

conjugation. The person-endings in it will not therefore be the In the former part of this lesson I had to employ the word in amo are o, as, at; amus, atis, ant. In the tables or paradigms

same as they are in the verb amo, I love. The person-endings curro, and in so doing I used particularly the form curr. This form is called the stem of the word. The stem of a word is (patterns), which I am about to give, the person-endings are that which contains its essential letters, or the letters which are

printed in italics, as amo, amas, amat; you will therefore easily necessary to make it what it is. Thus, curr is found in every recognise them, and ought in all cases to repeat them until you form into which the verb curro passes. Observe that the second have imprinted them on your memory. ris added merely to strengthen the word, or give force in pro

FIRST CONJUGATION. munciation. You find this stem, cur or curs, for instance, in the English words current, incur, concourse, concurrence, discourse. Observe again, that many of our Latin words have come to us through the French. They have, therefore, entered Singular.


Singular. the English in the form which they had received in the French. -6,



-dmur, This is exemplified in concourse and discourse, where an o has

thou -átis,


-mini, ye been introduced by the French pronunciation, as these words

-ánt, they -átur,

-ántur, they come to us immediately from the French words concours and

EXAMPLE.--Amare, to love ; stem, am. discours. The stem of a word is found generally by cutting off the


Singular. final vowel or syllable. In curro you obtain the stem curr by

1st per. Amó,

1st per. Amor, I am loved taking away the o. The o in reality is the sign of the first

Amás, thou lovest

Amáris, thou art loved person singular, or I. The word for 1 is not prefixed in Latin, 3rd Amát, he loves

3rd Amátur, he is loved except when it is required for emphasis, because the termina


Plural. tions of the verb show clearly what person is meant—that is, 1st per. Amámus, we lore 1st per. Amámur, we are loved whether it is the first person, I, or the second person, thou, or

2nd Amátis,

Amúmini, you are loved the third person, he. In the English there is a necessity for

Amánt, they love 3rd Amántur, they are loved. the constant use of the personal pronoun, because the endings Observe, then, that in order to form any person, you must first of the verb are not so different from each other as in the Latin. get the stem, by cutting off the last syllable. Then to the stem Thus, in English, we say, I run, thou runnest, he runs, we run, thus obtained, add the proper person-ending. Suppose you you run, they run. Here, out of six persons, the verb has the have to deal with the verb laudo, I praise ; and suppose you same termination for four-namely, I run, we run, you run, they want to express in Latin the English they praise ; the way to run. But for the pronouns I, we, you, they, the reader or proceed is—throw away the o in laudo ; by so doing, you get listener would not be aware from the use of the verb which laud; now, they praise is in the third person plural; the personperson was intended. In the Latin, however, the verb has a ending of the third person plural is ant, as shown above; sub. peculiar ending for every person. After this explanation, we join ant to laud, and you have laudant, which means they praise. will call these terminations person-endings. These person. Or if you have to put laudas into English, by looking at the endings vary with the tense and the voice; that is, they are table you find that its termination--namely, as--is the person, diferent in the past tense from what they are in the present ending of the second person singular, and consequently laudes tense; and they are different in the passive voice from what means thou praisest. I have entered into this full and minuts they are in the active voice. At present we will confine our explanation once for all. If you take pains to make yourseli selves to the present tense and the active voice. In curro, the master of it, you will not require its repetition. But take care person-endings of the present tense, indicative mood, active not merely to consult the tables I give; you must commit them voice, are as follow :

to memory, and never pass on until you have made them in PERSON-ENDINGS.

each case your own. Having learnt the form or example, learn

the vocabulary, and then put tho Latin exercise into English, Singular.


and the English exercise into Latin. Do this also from memory;

imus, 2nd thon


but after you have done it, compare your translation with tho 3rd -unt, they. table or example, and correct it accordingly.

Discover and write down the English representatives of tho Adding the person-endings to the stem, we have the following Latin words here used; that is to say, the English words example :

derived from these Latin words. For instance, from delecto, ACTIVE VOICE.—INDICATIVE MOOD.

I delight, we have delight, delightful, delightfully; from orno,

I adorn, we have ornament, ornamentally, adorn, adornment ; PRESENT TEXSE of the verb curro, I run.

from educo (which properly means I draw out), we have to 1st person curro, 1st person currimus,

educate, educator, education. Do the same after every separate curris, thou runnest

curritis, you run

exercise. currit, he runs 3rd

currunt, they run.

What I have called “the characteristic" of the verb, may be These person-endings vary also in another way, which I called the sign of the conjugations. Thus, of the first conjuproceed to explain. Latin verbs are commonly divided into gation à long is tho sign, and č is the sign of the third. The four classes, which bear the technical name of conjugations. are Latin signs. Of the corresponding part of the EThis division may not be the best, but it is that which is cus- verb, to is the sign; that is, the preposition to is in gen: tomary, and therefore I retain it. These four classes or conju- English sign of the infinitive mood.

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1st person



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under Egyptunder evidently signifying farther to the south than Délecto, 1 I delight. Orno, 1 I adorn. Vexo, 1

I grieve, the latter country. The ancients generally believed that Africa Educo, 1 I educate.

Salto, 1

I dance. Vítupero, 1 I blame. and Asia, or rather Ethiopia and India, were united by land Laudo, 1 I praise. Tento, 1 I try. Vulnero, 1 I wound. still farther to the south, and they consequently considered the EXERCISE 3.-LATIN-ENGLISH.

Ethiopians and Indians as near neighbours. This is the ground Laudo. Vituperns. Ornat. Educamus. Vexátis.

on which both Virgil and Lucan have supposed the Nile to take

Vulnerant. Tentat. Tentat saltáre. Vulneráris. Vexátur. Laudámur. Ornas. its rise on the frontiers of India. Educantur. Vexáris. Vulnerámini. Delecto. Delectas. Delectat. At the Homeric epoch the Greeks generally considered that Delectámus. Delectatis. Delectant. Delector. Delectáris. Delec. the earth existed in the form of a disc. This disc was supposed to tatur. Delectámur. Delectámini. Delectantur.

be centrally divided by the Euxine or Black Sea, the Ægean Sea, EXERCISE 4.-ENGLISH-LATIN.

and the Mediterranean Sea into two parts, the one north and the I praise. Thou praisest. Ho praises. We praise. You praise. other south; these parts were at a later period designated by They praise. I am praised. Thou art praised. He is praised." We Anaximander under the names of Europe and Asia, names which aro praised. You are praised. They are praised. They delight. Thou had been previously understood in a more restricted sense. The adornest. You are grieved. They are educated. He dances. You are river Phasis in Colchis, or Pontus, on the east, and the Pillars blamed. We try. You are tried. He is wounded. I am educated. of Hercules, or Strait of Gibraltar, on the west, were supposed

Now, before you go forward in this exercise, and in every to mark the limits of the world. The country of the Cimmerians, other, ask yourself, and ascertain that you give the right who were afterwards confounded with the Cimbri ; and of the answers to the following or similar questions, namely: Of what Macrobians, so called because they were supposed to be longerconjugation is the verb amo? of what tense is amo ? of what lived than other mortals ; Elysium, a happy country which had person is amo? of what number is amo? of what mood is amo ?

no existence but in the fantasies of the mind; the Fortunate of what voice is amo I Do the same with all the rest.

Isles, which at a later period, under the names of Atlantis and
Meropis, were the object of the philosophic fictions of Plato and

Theopompus; the country of the Arimaspi, who saw so clearly

because they had oniy one eye; of the Gryphons, who guarded

the precious metals of the Riphean mountains ; Colchis, the NOTIONS OF THE POETS.

country of magic, peopled with monsters and prodigies ;-all HOMER, who wrote his poems in the tenth century before the these and many other ingenious fables, the offspring of the Christian era, appears to have been acquainted with Greece, the imaginations of the poets Homer and Hesiod, or rather of the Archipelago, the island of Crete, and the coast of Asia on the people among whom they lived, were mixed up with notions shores of the Mediterranean. Within these limits he appears purely geographical, and constituted the world at that period a to have travelled, and he was, no doubt, personally acquainted scene of marvels, a receptacle of agreeable delusions on the one with some of the scenes which he describes. His works, how. I hand and formidable mysteries on the other. evor, show that the geographical

During the historic ages of knowledge of the Greeks was at

Greece cosmological systems were that time more limited than that

multiplied to an endless extent. of the Egyptians in the time of

Thales said that the earth was a Moses, who lived seven centuries

sphere; his disciple Anaximander before him. On the south, the

Border of Might

taught that it was & cylinder. Greeks only know the valley of

Leucippus said that it was a drum, tho Nile, and that part of Africa Region

and Heraclides that it was a boat. which extends from Egypt to the


Many and curious were the notions wost as far as Cape Bon, and the

the ancient philosophers held con

Tamara commencement of the Atlas chain

cerning the globe until voyages of of mountains; and on the east,

discovery were begun. Herodotus the Syrian desert, Asia Minor,

So, Papubles

made a great step in the descripMesopotamia, and Persia. They

tive geography of certain regions, possessed only very confused no

especially in the east of Europe. tions of the Adriatic Sea, of Sicily,

Yet, notwithstanding his voyages und of the south of Italy; and

into the three parts of the old with the greater part of the Italian

world, he fills his narrative with peninsula they were wholly un

childish tales and dreamy details. acquainted.

He only knew the names of Arabia, Previous to the Homerie epoch,

Iberia (or Spain), Gallia (or France), the Greeks believed in the exist.


the islands of Albion (Great Brience of nations who inhabited the

tain), and the Cassiterides (or Scilly countries situated behind the ne


Isles). He had correct notions on gions where the sun appeared to

Africa, and particularly on Egypt then to rise and to set. They

but the western part of this conti imagined that these nations lived THE WORLD ACCORDING TO THE GREEKS AT THE

nent was unknown to him beyond in perpetual darkness and they

Tripoli. His details on India, called them (memerians, a word


besides their uncertainty, are inevidently derived from the He

termingled with fables taken from brew Cimeisin (pronounced himerinis), and signifying dart. the legends or popular creeds of the extreme East. Among the Rex. la proportion as they became acquainted with more tales more or less ingenious, we must not forget the ants that regions that were enlightened by the sun (that is, as the limits were as large as fores, and that collected heaps of gold mixed of the knorn world were extended by rorage and discovery). with sand! they transported the Cimmerians and their dark abodes to a Herodotus appears to have been unacquainted with western greater distanzen. In those early times the Cimmerians were 'Europe. He does not speak of Massilia Marseilles), a city supposed to inhabit the borders of the Black Sea, near the founded by the Phoceans about 600 B.C., more than a century Thracian BarboresItaly, and the distant countries on the east before he was born. Rome, which had been increasing in and west, where the world is supposed to terminate. The grandeur for about three hundred years before his time, is not people who were supposed to live the farthest north were called even mentioned by name Of Italy he only kne* the south of Horretas, because they were placed beyond Berus, or in the that part anciently called Magna Græcis. The extreme west of retirem: smithose who live the farthest south were called 'Africa was equally unknown to the Grebs ret the Phænicians Ethiopians literally, seaderst- eesuse they were situated more had made discoreries in the Atlantic Cyan, sad the periplus dirir under the sun's rans; their country lar south of Expt, ranji or wasting royage ef Hazzo was executed conand was afterwards called Brigia sud Eto, c Ethiopia siderably before Herodotus The African rogsge of the Cartha

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