Abbildungen der Seite

9. Small Hand.


fair degree of rapidity. It is, however, a wearisome matter to particular sin, they become legal, and fall out of liberty; or, be always copying the same copy-slips over and over again. charmed with the noble and heavenly liberty, they run to There is nothing, indeed, that is more calculated to destroy the negligence and irresponsible living. So the earnest become learner's interest in what he is doing than to be, as it were, violent, the fervent fanatical and censorious, the gentle water, always “harping upon one string ;” and to prevent this, as well the firm turn bigots, the liberal grow lax, the benevolent ostenas to save him the trouble of ruling lines for his copies, we tatious. Poor human infirmity can hold nothing steady." have prepared a series of cheap ruled copy-books, based on the The more true we feel this to be, the more necessary will be method which has been taught in our lessons on Penmanship, seen to be the exercise of a spirit of temperance, and how diffiand furnished with suitable head-lines, which will answer the cult its application to the manifold aspects of human life and double purpose of providing the reader with a variety of subjects duty. In no respect is mankind more in danger of becoming for copying, and save him the trouble of ruling his paper. intemperate than in speech ; for to lay an embargo upon the

In “ Cassell's New Copy-books for the Million," the learner tongue is among the most trying efforts of the spirit of temperwill find everything that can be required for practice. The ance. It is difficult to deny ourselves what often gratifies our series, the contents of which we append, comprises thirteen own pride, and, at the same time, damages the prestige of books, price 2d. each, or the thirteen for 28., and may be pro- another. From this propensity have sprung family fends, procured direct from the publishers of the POPULAR EDUCATOR, longed law-suits, and party divisions innumerable. It would be and from all booksellers.


of the province of this essay to specify all the evils which 1. Initiatory Exercises.

7. Round Hand.

have resulted to society from intemperance in other provinces 2. Letters and Combinations. 8. Round and Small Hands. of character, but it must surely be admitted that no moral code 3. Short Words.

can be perfect which does not inculcate temperance as well as 4. Capitals.

10. Text, Round, and Small Hand. justice. True, indeed, it is, that there is nothing high-sounding Text Hand.

11. Introduction to Ladies' Hand. in it, and it is not likely to enlist in its advocacy those who are 6. Text and Round. 12. Ladies' Hand.

nothing, if not extreme. But it had of old amidst its advocates 13. Commercial Sentences.

the wisest and most illustrious of the philosophers; and it is

made more authoritative on us by its enforcement on the page ESSAYS ON LIFE AND DUTY.-IV. of Inspiration. The pleasures of temperance are steady in their

development, but they are very lasting and real. When nature The success of life and the happiness of life, as well as the is kept in proper equipoise of action, there is freedom from those usefulness of life, depend to a very large extent upon the and every kind. Instead of keen sensational pleasures, succeeded

nervous depressions which are incident to excitements of any cultivation of the spirit of temperance. Men of intemperate by times of leaden indifference and dulness, there is a quiet speech and judgment, of intemperate likes and dislikes, are apt to risk alike reputation and influence. The counsel to be glow of interest and energy in the exercises of the mind, which temperate does not, indeed, suit those whose passions predomi. experienced travellers prefer, after all, the temperate zone

bring with them a cheerful sense of healthful recreation. As nate over their judgment, but all wise and thoughtful persons neither the frigid cold of the far North, nor the glaring light and will see at once that there is no virtue which has so much to do heat of the tropics--so the most experienced student of life will with the force and excellency of character as temperance. It is prefer the temperate zone of character as the one most cona word difficult strictly to define, but it is evidently a holding ducive to the health and longevity of the virtues. of the mean between extremes in lawful things. Temperance implies the right in the thing itself, as there are some things thus related to the other virtues in a vast variety of ways,

Temperance keeps the body cool and the mind clear, and is which it would be wrong, under all circumstances, to be in any presenting to us that which is of inestimable value-a sane way connected with. To be temperate in swearing, stealing, or mind in a sound body. There is an insanity which results not lying, would be manifestly a caricature of the word; there can only from the excessive use of ardent spirits, but from the be no temperance in that which is essentially evil. Can it then, intemperate exercises of pride and passion, and multitudes the reader may say, be possible to be temperate in right? is it not counselling us to stop short in that course of duty which would have been preserved in health and reason if they had must get more right as we go on? Strange as it may seem at be seen that the exercise of this virtue is related to varieties

received and acted on the maxim, “Be temperate !" It must first sight to the student, there is a temperateness needed even and differences of temperament. Some are in little danger of in the virtues themselves, without which their very existence as virtues must be endangered. Amiability is one of the most excess of anger ; others need fear no excess of pride. Solon's

celebrated maxim, beautiful excellences of character; and yet, if amiability is

Know thyself,” should be well pondered ; pashed to the extreme, there may be no righteous indignation for then, when the danger is clearly apprehended, the remed at wrong, no earnest hatred of oppression, and no practical separate constitution. As the subject becomes clearly under

can be best applied, according to the specific difficulties of each effort to remove it. Contentment is another praiseworthy grace stood, it will be seen that, instead of temperance being the mere of character ; but content may run into indifference and sloth, and the God-given powers of the mind may be suffered to lie negation of things, it is rather the right enjoyment of them. fallow, and even to rot.

The dangers incidental to human character do not come in one These instances are only adduced az illustrations of a law direction only; and in the multitudinous aspects of life and duty which applies to all the virtues; push any one of them, how it is as wise as it is right to be temperate in all things. ever honourable in itself, to an extreme, and it becomes a vice. It will thus be seen what a careful nurseryman each

OUR HOLIDAY. man ought to be of the vineyard of his own nature ; and also

CRICKET.-II. what the Scriptures mean when they say, :Drunken, but not the following are the Laws of the game of Cricket, including the with wine." It is easy to be intoxicated with pride and am latest revisions by the Marylebone Club, which is the

recognised bition : either of these two powers has, indeed, its proper authority on the subject. sphere, and their elimination from human life cannot take

Besides forming the standard of place without serious detriment to character. In all ages of appeal in disputed cases, they will be found by the learner to the world men have been found to love and advocate extremes; throw light on points which were but briefly touched upon in some have been Epicureans, denying

themselves no pleasure, and our previous paper :some Stoics, denying themselves all; and, doubtless, the disciples

THE LAWS OF DOUBLE-WICKET. of extremes attract more notice, and are often credited with 1. The Ball must weigh not less than five ounces and a hall, nor greater earnestness ; whoreas it should

be remembered that, as more than five ounces and three quarters. It must measure not less it is more difficult to preserve the just balance, so is it more than nine inches, uor more than nine inches and one quarter iu cir honourable and worthy of praise.

cumference. At the beginning of each innings either party mas call One of the clearest American thinkers says, " Men under for a new ball. take to be spiritual, and they become ascetic; or, endeavouring widest part

2. The Bat nuust not exceed four inches and one quarter in the to hold a liberal view of the comforts and pleasures of society, 1 " 3. The Stumps must

be three in number, twenty-seven inches out of

It must not be more than thirty-eight inches in length. they are soon buried in the world and become slaves to its the ground ; the buils eight inches in length; the stumps of equal and faking; or, holding a scrupulous watch to keep out every of sufficient thickness to prevent the ball from passing through.

4. The Bowling Crease must be in a line with the stumps, six feet site party; and in case any person shall be allowed to run for another, eight inches in length; the stumps in the centre; with a return crease the striker shall be out if cither he or his substitute be off the ground it each end, towards the bowler, at right angles.

in manner mentioned in laws 17 and 21, while the ball is in play. 5. The Popping Crease must be four feet from the wicket, and 32. In all cases where a substitute shall be allowed, the consent of parallel to it; unlimited in length, but not shorter than the bowling the opposite party shall also be obtained as to the person to act as creuse.

substitute, and the place in the field which he shall take. 6. The Wickets must be pitched opposite to each other by the 33. If any fieldsman stop the ball with his hat, the ball shall be conumpires, at the distance of twenty-two yards.

sidered dead, and the opposite party shall add five runs to their score; 7. It shall not be lawful for either party during a match, without if any be run, they shall have five in all. the consent of the other, to alter the ground by rolling, watering, 34. The ball having been hit, the striker may guard his wicket with covering, mowing, or beating, except at the commencement of each his bat, or with any part of his body except his hands; that the 23rd innings, when the ground shall be swept and rolled. This rule is law may not be disobeyed. not meant to prevent the striker from beating the ground with his bat 35. The Wicket-Keeper shall not take the ball, for the purpose of near the spot where he stands during the innings, nor to prevent the stumping, until it have passed the wicket; he shall not move until the bowler from filling up holes with sawdust, etc., when the ground ball be out of the bowler's hand; he shall not by any noise incommode is wet,

the striker; and if any part of his person be over or before the wicket, 8. After rain the wickets may be changed, with the consent of both although the ball hit it, the striker shall not be out. parties.

36. The Umpires are the sole judges of fair or unfair play; and all 9. The Bowler shall deliver the ball with one foot on the ground disputes shall be determined by them, each at his own wicket; but in behind the bowling crease, and within the return crease, and shall bowl case of a catch which the umpire at the wicket bowled from cannot four balls before he change wickets, which he shall be permitted to do see sufficiently to decide upon, he may apply to the other umpire, only once in the same inuings.

whose opinion shall be conclusive. 10. The ball must be bowled. If thrown or jerked, the umpire shall 37. The umpires in all matches shall pitch fair wickets, and the call "No ball."

parties shall toss up for choice of indings. The umpires shall change ll. He may require the striker at the wicket from which he is wickets after each party has had one innings. bowling to stand on that side of it which he may direct,

38. They shall allow two minutes for each striker to come in, and 12. If the bowler shall toss the ball over the striker's head, or bowl ten minutes between each innings. When the uinpire shall call" Play," it so wide that, in the opinion of the umpire, it shall not be fairly the party refusing to play shall lose the match, within the reach of the batsman, he shall adjudge one run to the party 39. They are not to order & striker out unless appealed to by the receiving the innings, either with or without an appeal, which shall be adversaries ; put down to the score of "wide balls." Such ball shall not be reckoned 40. But if one of the bowler's feet be not on the ground behind the as one of the four balls; but if the batsmau shall by any means bring bowling crease, and within the return crease, when he shall deliver the himself within reach of the ball, the run shall not be adjudged. ball, the umpire at his wicket, unasked, must call "No ball."

13. If the bowler deliver a “no ball," or a "wide ball," the striker 41. If either of the strikers run a short run, the ampire must call shall be allowed as many runs as he can get, and he shall not be put out “One short." except by running out. In the event of no run being obtained by any 42. No umpire shall be allowed to bet. other means, then one run shall be added to the score of no balls" or 43. No umpire is to be changed during a match, unless with the *wide balls," as the case may be. All runs obtained for “ wide balls

consent of both parties, except in case of violation of the 42nd law; to be scored to "wide balls." The names of the bowlers who bowl then either party may dismiss the transgressor. “wide balls,” or “no balls," in future to be placed on the score, to 44. After the delivery of four balls, the umpire must call “ Over,” show the parties by whom either score is made. If the ball shall first but not until the ball shall be finally settled in the wicket-keeper's or toach any part of the striker's dress or person (except his hands), the bowler's hand; the ball shall then be considered dead ; nevertheless, umpire shall call " Leg bye."

if an idea be entertained that either of the strikers is out, a question 14. At the beginning of each innings the umpire shall call “Play." may be put previously to, but not after, the delivery of the next ball. From that time to the end of each innings no trial ball shall be allowed 45. The umpire must take especial care to call “No ball” instantly to any bowler.

upon delivery; “Wide ball," as soon as it shall pass the striker. 15. The Striker is Out if either of the bails be bowled off, or if a 46. The Players who go in second shall follow their innings if they stump be bowled out of the ground;

have obtained eighty runs less than their antagonists, except in all 16. Or if the ball, from the stroke of the bat, or hand, but not the matches limited to only one day's play, when the number shall be wrist, be held before it touch the ground, although it be hugged to the limited to sixty instead of eighty. body of the catcher;

47. When one of the strikers shall have been put out, the use of the 17. Or if, in striking, or at any other time while the ball shall be in bat shall not be allowed to any person until the next striker shall play, both his feet shall be over the popping crease, and his wicket pat

come in. down, except his bat be grounded within it;

NOTE:--Complaints having been made that it is the practice of some 18. Or if, in striking at the ball, he hit down his wicket;

players when at the wicket to make holes in the ground for a footing, 19. Or if, under pretence of running, or otherwise, either of the the committee are of opinion that the umpires should be empowered strikers prevent a ball from being caught, the striker of the ball is out; to prevent it. 20. Or if the ball be struck, and he wilfully strike it again;

THE LAWS OF SINGLE WICKET. 21. Or if, in running, the wicket be struck down by a throw, or by the hand or arm (with ball in hand), before his bat (in hand) or 1. When there shall be less than five players on a sile, bounds Home part of his person be grounded over the popping crease. But if shall be placed, twenty-two yards each, in a line from the off and both the bails be off, a stump must be struck out of the ground; leg stuinp. 22. Or if any part of the striker's dress knock down the wicket; 2. The ball must be hit before the bounds to entitle the striker to a

3. Or if the striker touch or take up the ball, while in play, unless run, which run cannot be obtained unless he touch the bowling stump at the request of the opposite party ;

or crease in a line with his bat, or some part of his person, or go 24. Or if with any part of his person he stop the ball, which, in the beyond them, returning to the popping crease as at double wicket, opinion of the umpire at the bowler's wicket, shall have been pitched according to the 21st law, in a straight line from it to the striker's wicket, and would have hit it. 3. When the striker shall hit the ball, one of his feet must be on

25. If the players have crossed each other, he that runs for the the ground and behind the popping crease, otherwise the umpire shall wicket which is put down is out.

call "No hit." 25. A kall being caught, no runs shall be reckoned.

4. When there shall be less than five players on a side, neither byes 27. A striker being run out, that run which he and his partner were nor over-throws shall be allowed, nor shall the striker be caught out attempting shall not be reckoned.

behind the wicket, nor stumped out. 28. If a “ Lost ball " be called, the striker shall be allowed six runs ; 5. The fieldsman must return the ball so that it shall cross the play but if more than six shall have been run before “Lost Ball" shall have between the wicket and the bowling stump, or between the bowling been called, then the striker shall have all which have been run. stump and the bounds. The striker may run till the ball be so

29. After the ball shall have been finally settled in the wicket- returned. keeper's or bowler's hand, it shall be considered dead; but when the 6. After the striker shall have made one run, if he start again he bowler is about to deliver the ball, if the striker at his wicket go must touch the bowling stump and turn before the ball cross the play, outside the popping crease before such actual delivery, the said bowler to entitle him to another. Inay put him out, unless (with reference to the 21st law) his bat in 7. The striker shall be entitled to three runs for lost ball, and the hand, or some part of his person, be within the popping crease. same number for ball stopped with hat, with reference to the 28th and

30. The striker shall not retire from his wicket and return to it to 33rd laws of double wicket. complete his innings after another has been in, without the consent of 8. When there shall be more than four players on a side, there shall the opposite party.

be no bounds. All hits, byes, and overthrows shall then be allowed. 81. No substitute shall in any case be allowed to stand out or run 9. The bowler is subject to the same laws as at double wicket. between wickets for another person without the consent of the oppo- 10. Not more than one minute shall be allowed between each ball.

We come now to the practical part of the game, concern otherwise the ball may reach your stumps before you can return ing which a few hints will be useful to the beginner. A to the wicket, and you will be "run out.” good cricketer can only be made by practice, but it will If practice is necessary to the batsman, it is still moro essential assist the learner to have right principles before him at the to make an expert Bowler. The learner should practise bowling outset.

at a mark, either in a field or in an outhouse. He should acquire The Batsman, at starting, should stand in the position shown both the fast and the slow styles, for it is of the greatest service in Fig. 1-his right foot firmly planted on the ground, and his in actual play to be able to vary the character of the bowling,

left in readiness to move freely to deliver a slow ball after a fast one, and vice versa. Nothing
either to the one side or the other, is more embarrassing to the batsman than the uncertainty this
as may be required in striking causes as to the kind of ball he is abont to receive. The bowler
the ball. Ho grounds the end of should acquire, also, the knack of twisting the ball in its delivery,
his bat at a spot within the pop- to which we have previously alluded. The ball should be held
ping crease, and about the length in the fingers only, and not grasped in the palm of the hand.
of the bat from the wicket; and, It matters not whether the
in order that he may guard his stylo of delivery be “round.
wicket well, he is entitled to ask arm,” or “under-hand"—that
the umpire stationed near the is, whether with a swing of the
opposite wicket to give him tho arm from the shoulder,or bowled
correct line for the middle stump; in the ordinary meaning of the
that is, to inform him when his word. The learner should adopt
bat is so placed as to cover this that mode which gives him the
stump, looking from the bowler's greatest command of the ball
end. He marks this spot by an in- and its direction. The round.
dentation with the bat, and is then arm style is more generally
in roadinoss for the ball. One suited to fast, and the under.
general rule must be laid down for hand to slow bowling; but this
playing either fast or slow balls. ralo has its individual excep-

If they appear to becoming straight tions. A few years ago, very
Fig. 1.-THE BATSMAN IN into the wicket, they must be little bowling other than in the

blockad, or stopped, and the player round-arm style was seen in the

should not attempt to strike them. cricket field. The under-hand In blocking, the bat is lifted only a short distance from the fashion was regarded with some ground, and the ball is struck downward, so as to bring it to a degree of contempt. Now, how. dead stop if possible. For this purpose the handle of the bat ever, it has come again into should be sloped well forward, by which means the front of the vogue, and may be seen pracbat is made to cover the ball, and prevent its rising from the tised almost, if not quite, as

Fig. 3.—THE BOWLER. ground. Otherwise, in blocking, the ball may receive just such a frequently as the more modern tip as will cause it to pass from the edge of the bat into the hands round-arm delivery. Fig. 3 represents the attitude of the of "point" or "cover-point," who will be on the look out for it. bowler when about to deliver the ball in round-arm style.

The position known as “the draw,” which is engraved in our Next in importance to batsman and bowler, in the duties he second figure, is something betwoon a block and a hit, partaking has to perform, comes the Wicket-keeper. His duty is to stop of the nature of both. It is the mode of meeting a ball when, the ball, if he can, immediately it passes the wicket, and, if the after being pitched, it rises from the ground and is apparently batsman be not sufficiently guarded, or within his bounds, to coming straight in towards the top of the wicket or the bails. knock the bails off before the striker can recover his proper The bat is held straight before the wicket (Fig. 2), but the position. He should also receive the ball after the fielders have surface of the bat, instead of meeting the ball full, is turned secured it, and it is his place to throw it at the stumps before

slightly to one side, so that the ball, the batsman can complete his intended run. Therefore, the fielder when it meets the bat, is turned off who may stop the ball, instead of throwing it at once to the at an angle, and a run is frequently wicket, should deliver it as quickly as possible into the hands of the result.

the wicket-keeper; otherwise, if he miss his aim and the ball If the ball, when delivered, ap- pass by the wicket, the batsman may run again, and make as pears to be coming somewhat wide many more towards the score as if the ball had been again hit. of the wicket, the batsman may The hands of the wicket-keeper should be protected by padded play it freely, either by a “hit," a gloves, especially if the bowling be of the fast order. The "cut," or a "drive." But it is fro- watchful and ready attitude of quently difficult to tell what line the the wicket-keeper are depicted ball is really taking, for, if you are in Fig. 4. playing against an expert bowler, Balls which pass the wicketyou will probably find the balls come keeper should be secured by towards the wicket with a twist from Long-stop, who is stationed at the spot at which they were pitched, some distance behind him for and, instead of pursuing a straight that purpose, as indicated in the course, turning in to the stumps. diagram of the relative positions The great art of bowling, indeed, is of the players, given in our preto be able to give this twist to the vious paper. The other duties ball, as well as to direct it straight of long-stop and the rest of the

at the wicket. Nothing but prac. fielders may be described in Fig. 2.-" THE DRAW." tice, and quickness both of eye and general terms. They must be on

hand, will teach the young bats- the vigilant look-out when the man to guard effectually against this danger.

ball is delivered, that they may In striking, hit the ball, if possible, between the line of the catch it or stop it as soon as fielders, or wherever you see the field most open and unprotected. possible, if it should chance to Strike low, so that you may not afford the opportunity of a be struck that way. Quickness

Fig. 4.-THE WICKET-KEEPER. catch to one of your watchful opponents. Do not be too eager of eye, a firm hand for a catch, to make runs ; let your object rather be to protect your wicket and good legs, the power to throw a ball straight to the wicketas long as possible, waiting your opportunity for a good hit now keeper, and judgment not to over-throw it, are the essentials to and then at a ball delivered with less care than usual. Do not a good fielder. Such a player is often able to render his side attempt a run after the ball is in the hands of one of the fielders, quite as good service as either the expert bowler or the batsman. LESSONS IN BOTANY.—XIII.


Here, then, the calyx, not growing to the fruits or carpels, SECTION XXIV.–BOSACEÆ, OR THE ROSE TRIBE (continued). the examples of botanical transformation which we have already

although surrounding them, can readily be separated. But after Let us now examine a rose, not so much for the sake of learning seen, the reader will not be surprised at the information that, any new points respecting the flower, as for the sake of gradually in certain members of the rose order, the calyx not only surmaking ourselves acquainted with the structure of such fruits rounds the carpels, but actually attaches itself to them; thus as apples and pears.

becoming, what we should term in ordinary language, a portion Perhaps we had better commence with the fruits, as a rose of the fruit. This is the case with apples and pears, which are flower has little to teach us. After the petals of a rose have all composed each of five carpels, recognisable by the five seed. fallen away, there remains, as everybody knows, a sort of vessels closely enveloped in a fleshy calyx. What we term the




bulbous-looking thing, which, if split open, contains little hairy | eye of an apple is nothing but the remains of the calyx enprominences termed seeds in ordinary language. In reality, closing withered stamens. these are fruits containing the seed, and the external envelope A precisely similar structure is observable in the pear (Fig. 130), in which they are contained is nothing more than a calyx. the quince, and the mountain ash; the fruit of the last-named This peculiar conformation will be readily demonstrated by con- indeed, resembles common apples in every respect except size sidering the various parts of a rose flower, and the changes and colour. The hawthorn is also a rosaceous plant, belonging which these parts undergo. If we open a rose flower, we see to the sub-order Pomeæ ; hence the structure of the fruit, hips numerous stamens but no pistils. On looking still more at and haws, should resemble the structure of an apple. On a tentively, the tops of pistils become evident, that is to say, their casual examination this does not seem to be the case, for whereas stigmas, but their styles are hidden. If a vertical section of the apple contains internally some parchment-like cavities, the the flower be now made, the stigmas will be seen to proceed fruit of the hawthorn contains some things which resemble seeds from ovaries affixed, as already described, to the calyx, and enveloped by a long covering ; this long covering, however, is no hidden by the envelopment of the latter, which surrounds them other than a thickened condition of the parchment-like comparton all sides, only little throat-like openings being left.

i ments of the apple.



vern, rule.

The apple tribe (sub-order Pomec) is thus seen to be nearly 4. Several words, as doch, ja, schon, vielleicht, wohl, and zwar, etc., allied to the roses proper; the almond tribe (sub-order Amygda- are often used with a signification different from their primary lea), containing almonds, peaches, apricots, nectarines, plums, one, or where no corresponding one is employed in English, ete., is still more nearly allied, however little one might antici. as :-Sind Sie vielleicht trant ? are you (perhaps) sick? Werten pate such resemblance from a casual examination of the fruit. Sie wohl morgen abreisen? is it true, shall you depart to-morrow? The reader will remember that in the sub-order Pomeæ, the Er wird uns schon finden, he will already (doubtless) find us. Wenn ovary, or lower portion of the united carpels, is inferior; that is er frant ist, so fann er nicht kommen, if he is sick, (then) he cannot to say, the calyx grows around it, adheres to it, and appears come. Er lieft nicht, und zwar, weil er fein Buch hat, he does not above it. In the rose proper no such adherence takes place; read, (and indeed) because he has no book. Gehen Sie ja nicht, do hence the ovary may be said to be superior ; in Amygdaleve, or not go by any means. Es dürfte (see note) wohl so fommen, it the sub-order of Rosacec, containing almonds, plums, nectarines, might indeed so happen (come). Wollen Sie schon gehen? are you etc., the ovary is also superior; hence the truth of our remark, going already ? Jawohl, yes (certainly); or, yes, indeed. Ich that this sub-order was more nearly allied to roses proper than glaubte, er könnte uns schon heute besuchen, I thought he could (already) is the sub-order Pomea. If the flowers of peaches, plums, visit us to-day. Er glaubte, er fönnte sich wohl jeßt an ibm rächen, he nectarines, etc., be examined, they will be found to be made up thought he could now (indeed) avenge himself upon him. of a corolla of five petals, a calyx of five sepals, and numerous 5. The causative adverbs, deßhalb or deswegen (therefore), tadurch stamens arising from the sides of the calyx; these are all (thereby), etc., are frequently introduced into a leading sentence, characteristics of the rose tribe. Instead, however, of many where the corresponding English word is omitted, as :-Or ift carpels, like the roses proper, the members of the almond tribe teghalb unzufrieden, weil sein Freund nicht hier ist, he is (therefore) dishave each only one, which ripens into the sort of fruit termed contented because his friend is not here. by botanical writers a drupe, a term which has been fully ex. 6. Schuldig with sein signifies" to be indebted; to owe;” the plained. For another specimen of the rose tribe we refer the word denoting the amount being put in the accusative ($ 132.3), reader to Fig. 131.

as :-Er ist mir nur einen Gulben schultig, he owes me but one florin. Let us now examine the chemical and physiological character. Verdanten also signifies “to owe,” but only in the sense of "to istics of the Rosacea. The sub-order Rosece, containing the roses be obliged for, to ascribe to," as :-3ch verdanke mcine Genesung ter proper, does not include one noxious plant. On the contrary, reinen Luft der Schweiz, I owe my recovery to the pure air of Switthe strawberry yields us a delightful article of food, and the zerland. fruit of some species of rose is made into conserves. The leaves

VOCABULARY. of this sub-order are usually astringent, and so in like manner Aségeben, to deliver. are the petals ; those of the garden roses are frequently used by Aus führen, to carry

Führen, to conduct, Sicher, safe, safely. guide.

Stand, m. position (3). medical men for the preparation of astringent draughts. Need


Gegenstand, m. sub- Studi'ren, to study. we call attention to the fragrance of roses ? That fragrance

Befehl', m. command. ject.

Uebersek'en, to trans. depends on the presence of a volatile oil, which admits of being Beherróschen, to go- Gern, willingly (1). late. extracted from the flower petals. It constitutes the otto or

Grund, m. ground. Ungern, unwillingly. attar of roses. The sub-order Pomeæ is also harmless, if we except the seeds Erfah'rung, f. experi- Leiʻtenschaft, f. pas

Eduart, m. Edward. Beilen, to heal. Unnüß, useless, fruit

less. and flowers of certain species which contain a minute amount


ence, knowledge. of prussic acid; not sufficient, however, to be injurious. The Erfla'rung, f. expla- leihen, to lend.

Vollen ben, to finish,

complete. fleshy part of pomaceous fruits is frequently an agreeable article


Nachen, m. boat, skiff. Borschlag,m. proposal. of food, containing much sugar in the sweet varieties, and various

Fähig, able.
Nöthig, necessary.

Warm, warm. acids, of which the malic is the principal. In the sub-order Fami'lie, f. family." Nun, now.

Wunde, f. wound. Amygdaleæ (Figs. 132 and 133), the amount of prussic acid, Folgen, to follow. Rauh, rough. 3eichnung, f. drawing. which becomes accumulated for the most part in the leaves, petals, and seeds, is often very great; nevertheless, the poisonous

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. principle rarely extends to the fleshy pericarp or edible portion er fommt nicht, und zwar, weil er He does not come (and indeed) of the fruit. The seeds of the bitter almond, and the leaves of

frant ift.

because he is sick. the common cherry laurel, furnish examples of the great acou.

Mein Onkel fisicht und mein Neffe My uncle is fond of fishing, and mulation of prussic acid in certain members of this beautiful

jagt gern

my nephew of hunting. sub-order, which is also further distinguished from Rosew and Id möchte gern wissen, wie viel Uhr I would like to know what Pomece by yielding gum, which the two latter never do.

es ift.

o'clock it is. Other plants belonging to the order Rosacece are represented Freiheit, Gerechtigkeit, unb WahrLiberty, righteousness, and by Figs. 134 and 135.

beit sollten alle Menschen gern truth all men should love.

haben. LESSONS IN GERMAN.-XXIII. Wieviel' bin ich Ihnen (Multig? How much do I owe you ? SECTION XLIII.-IDIOMATIC PHRASES.

Er verbanft' sein Leben der Schnel'. He owes his life to the fleetness ligfeit seines Pfertes,

of his horse. 1. Siern, gladly, freely, fain, etc. (comparative lieber, rather ; see Es ift Niemand im Stande, die There is no one able to prede$ 106. 1), with an appropriate verb, forms the equivalent of our

Dauer seines Lebens voraus ju termine the duration of his phrase, "to be fond of, to like," etc., as :--Er trinft gern Wein,


life. he is fond of (drinking) wine. Er raucht gern, he is fond of Wohl läßt der Pfeil fich aus dem The arrow may indeed be drawn smoking; or, he likes to smoke. Gr trägt gern schöne Kleirer, he

Herzen ziehen, doch nie wird der out of the heart, yet the inlikes (to wear) fine clothes. Ich möchte* gern wissen, ob mein Freund

Berles'te mehr gesun'en.

jured (one) will never recover. noch lebt, I would fain know whether my friend is still living. Wohl beif're Männer thun's dem Better men do it not after the Ich möchte lieber gehen, als bleiben, I would rather go than stay.

Tell nicht nach. (Schiller.) manner of Tell (as Tell did). With baben it may often be rendered by " dear," as :--Ich habe

(Schiller.) meine Freunde gern, I hold (have) my friends “dear."

Es war ein gutes Jahr, der Bauer It has been a good year; the 2. Nöthig haben signifies "to need, to have need of," as:-haben

fann schon wieder geben. (Schil. peasant can even (now) give Sie dieses Buch nöthig? do you need (have you need of) this book ?


again. (Schiller.) Gr bat Gelb nöthig, he needs money; or, has need of money. 3. 3m Stante fein signifies “ to be able;" literally, " to be in

EXERCISE 82. the position or situation," as ---Sind Sie im Stande, zu schreiben? 1. Sehen Sie meinen Schwager gern? 2. Ja, ich sehe ihn gern. 3. are you able to write ? In this construction the verb dependent Der Oheim möchte gern Eure Zeichnungen schen. 4. Ich habe gern Freunte upon im Stande sein is often omitted, and the pronoun es is intro in meiner Nähe. 5. In meiner Jugend ftudirte ich sehr gern, aber nur duced (Seot. XXXV. 6), as :-->ch bin es nicht im Stande, I am not thue ich es ungern. 6. Er spricht gern von seinen Reisen und seinen Grfah able.

rungen. 7. Wenn Sie die Bücher nöthig haben, so leihe ich Ihnen dieselben

von Herzen gern. 8. Er trennt sich ungern von seiner Familie. 9. It * For conjugation of dürfen, fönnen, mögen, etc., in the subjunctive, habe gern ein warmes Zimmer. 10. Könnt ihr ms rimer über riesen see $ 83 (2). See also remarks connected with these conjugations. Strom fahren? 11. Nein, wir sind es nicht im Stante, benn ticiet

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