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Nacher ist zu klein. 12. Wenn sie fähig sind, diese Zeitungen zu überseßen,
EXERCISE 84. fi thun Sie et. 13. Da ich die englische Sprache vollformen verstehe, so 1. Ich hätte mir schon manchen Verbruß erspart, wenn ich, statt zu will ich gern Ihren Vorschlag annehmen. 14. Wenn er fähig ist, die widersprechen, geschwiegen hätte. 2. Ich möchte wissen, was Sie gethan Arbeit gut zu machen, so soll er zu mir kommen ; ist er eß aber nicht im hätten, wenn Sie an meiner Stelle gewesen wären. 3. Wenn das Schidsal Stanbe, so wäre es unnük. 15. @r glaubte nicht, daß ich im Stande sein mich nicht heimgesucht hätte, würde ich schwerlich zu tiefen Ansichten gefomfönnte, all seine Befehle auszuführen. 16. Wenn tu teine Leidenschaften men sein. 4. Er hätte glüdlich sein können, wenn er die Gelegenheit zu gans zu beherrscen weißt, so bist du zu beneiden. 17. Mein Freund | benutzen verstanden hatte. 5. Hätte das Wasser tie Brücke mit fortgerissen, Gruard war so schwach, daß er nicht im Stande war, allein zu geben, und so wäre ter Zöllner verloren gewesen. 6. Hätte ich zu Dir kommen können, er bat mich teßwegen, daß ich ihn führen möchte. 18. Er glaubte, daß so würde ich gewiß nicht hier geblieben sein. 7. Es würden nie große Niemand im Stante sein könne, auf diesem rauhen Papiere zu schreiben. Männer aufgetreten sein, wenn fie sich durch Schwierigkeiten und Unannehm19. Gr ḥatte gestern Gelb nöthig, deßhalb bat er mich, taß ich ihm welches lichkeiten hätten aufhalten lassen. 8. Wenn ich das hätte erreichen wollen, gehen möchte. 20. Er ist mir zwar schon einige Thaler schuldig, aber ta er was ich wünschte, so hätte ich fleißiger und anhaltenter arbeiten müssen. 9. Belt nöthig hatte, so gab ich ihm welches. 21. Es ist Niemand im Stante Wenn er gerufen hätte, würde ich ihn gehört haben. 10. Wir wollen quézugehen, weil es zu stark regnet. 22. Er wird bald im Stante sein, nicht ausgeben ; es möchte regnen. 11. Wenn Sie mir etwas Näher: frin Wert zu vollenden. 23. &r fann sein Wort nicht halten, und zwar über diese Angelegenheiten mittheilen wollten, so würden Sie mich verdus folgenten Gründen.
pflichten. 12. 68 wäre meine größte Freude, alle Menschen glücklich zu EXERCISE 83.
fehen. 13. Id hätte ohne Verstand sein müssen, wenn ich mich auf 1. If he had not been able to perform the work, he woald not in ter Ferne; o wie gerne wår, ich noch im Vaterland ! 15. Wenn er
diese Sache hätte cinlassen wollen, 14. Verschwunden ist der Strand have undertaken it. 2. Will he be able to fulfil his promise ? wäre, wie ich ihn wünsche, und wenn er allen meinen Anforterungen ent3. He has not been able. 4. We ought not to promise more than we are able to perform. 5. Are you able to deliver a
sprochen hätte, so würde ich ihn behalten haben.
EXERCISE 85. better explanation upon this subject? 6. I am indeed able, but I have no time now. 7. Does the boy go for my stick freely ?
1. Had your friend not become ill, he would certainly have 8. If he goes, (then) he does it unwillingly; I would rather go embellished the feast by his presence. 2. If you were more prumyself. 9. Do you like to see your relations? 10. Yes, I do dent you would not have met with this inconvenience. 3. I like to see them. 11. When you have need of those books, then would have settled your business if you had mentioned it to me. I will lend you them freely. 12. He needed money yesterday, 4. His brother would have been better received if he had had therefore he desired me that I would give him some. 13. There- letters of recommendation. 5. He would have better friends if fore, it is useless to ask for more, when you already owe so he were more agreeable. 6. You would have had more difficul. much. 14. Who would not freely heal the wounds of a wounded ties if you had not followed the advice of your friends. 7. I heart!
should not have the least doubt that you would have succeeded SECTION XLIV.-CONDITIONAL MOOD.
if you had acted more prudently. 8. We should set sail for
Holland if we had a fair wind. 9. He would be the first among The conditional mood is used, where a condition is supposed our merchants if he were more sociable. 10. If I had had the which may or may not be possible. It is also sometimes used power, I should have acted in another manner, because I should in exclamation and interrogation, as :-Wenn sie noch lebte, wäre not have had so much patience. 11. What would be the u glüdlich, if she were still living, I should be happy. Ich hätte felicity of man if he always sought his happiness in himself? die Sache anders gemacht, I should have arranged the matter dif. 12. You would be richer if you were more enterprising. 13. If ferently. Wäre er toch noch am Leben! oh, that he were still alive! I had not lost my purse I should still have it. 14. He would Wäre es möglich, Bater? could it be possible, father ? (See 144.) not have so much money if he had been idle. 15. The greater VOCABULARY.
the difficulty, the greater pleasure there is in overcoming it. Anfraterung, f. claim. Ersvaʻren, to spare,, Schwieʻrigfcit, f. diffi- 16. If he had not crossed the bridge, the toll-gatherer would
not have demanded payment. demand. avoid, save.
culty. An'gelegenheit. f. trans- fernc, f. distance. Strant m. strand, action, affair. Feft, n. feast.
LESSONS IN MUSIC.-VII. An'haltend, persever- Fort'reißen, to carry Un'annchmlichkeit f.dising, continual. (tear) away.
agreeableness. EVERY art is best taught individually. It is true that there An'licht, f. view, opi. Gegenwart, f. pre- Verbrubé, m. vexation. are some advantages to the singer in collective teaching. The nion.
Verschönern, to “sympathy of numbers ” both aids and encourages him. But. lluftreten, to
step Heimsuchen, to visit. bellish, improve. his progress will depend entirely on individual attention and
Hier'bleiben, to remain Verpflichten, to oblige. endeavour. In most classes the few make progress and lead, Besal'ten, to keep, re- here.
Verschwin'ten, to va- while the many—some from timidity, and others from idleness tain. Mittheilen, to impart, nish.
and inattention-hang upon the leaders, and soon begin to clog Prüde, f. bridge.
communicate. Widersprechen, to con. their movements. As, however, singing for schools and conGin'lasien, to engage. Schweigen, to
gregations must be generally taught in classes, the object of Entsprechen, to
Zöllner, m. toll-ga- | the teacher must be to combine the spirit and sympathy of Schwerlich, hardly. therer.
numbers with as careful an attention to individual progress as
possible. He should also occasionally separate the laggers RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.
from the more forward, and (without blaming or discouraging 3d würde das Buch noch haben, I should still have the book if them) cause them to retrace their steps and go by themselves, wenn ich es nicht verloʻren hätte. I had not lost it.
while the others are advancing freely and rapidly in a new class. Tu würdest jegt Freude empfinden, Thou wouldst now feel plea- For these purposes, the pupil should be led to expect a rigid
Wenn Du deine Schul'tigkeit sure if thou hadst done thy personal examination at the close of each stage of progress, and gethan' ýätteft.
a division of the class as the result. Several lesson hours should Er würde' bei'sere Freunde haben, He would have better friends be devoted to this examination. It might be conducted in a mennt er aufrichtiger wäre.
if he were more sincere. separate room, while the rest of the class are practising. In Wir würten Welt haben, wenn wir We should have money if we adult classes, most of the questions might be announced to the sparsamer wären.
were more economical.
class, and the answer given in writing at the time, and they 3hr würtet Trauer ftatt Freude You would have sorrow, instead wonld only require separate examination in connection with the
haben, wenn das Kind geftoróben of joy, if the child had died. exercises. The examiner would then decide by the result of mare.
the two examinations. A register of each examination should Su mütten Flüger handeln, wenn sie They would act more prudently be kept by the teacher, and a memorial of it given to the pupil. mehr Berstand' hätten.
if they had more understand. To aid both the self-teacher and the class-teacher, the following ing.
questions and tests of progress are given :-Let no one consider Gr vürte ein großck Vermögen be. He would possess a large for himself worthy to pursue the course further until he has tho
fin'en, wenn er weʻriger träge tune if he had been less roughly fulfilled these requirements. Things to be done are getzesen wäre.
marked by an asterisk. These especially must not be omitted.
QUESTIONS AND TESTS OF PROGRESS ON THE “ FIRST belongs to a note placed alone immediately after an accent STAGE."
mark? What is the meaning of the horizontal stroke ?-tho [The questions are to be answered from book over and over again dot after a note ?—the comma 2-the dot and comma --the
inverted comma ? until they can be also answered from memory.]
What means an empty aliquot ?
8. How do you indicate a slur ? LESSON 1 (page 27).
9. Explain the meaning of the following signs :-D.C., D.S., S., 1. What were the reasons that encouraged “our friend” to F., f., P., F., pp., < >, and / or over a note. think that he had a voice? What kind of road to music do 10. How would you indicate “expression” in writing or we offer ? What are the conditions of admission to it?
printing words ?-loud ?--soft ?-abrupt ? 2. What is the difference between high and low in music ? 11. Take a book of hymns or songs, and mark ten pieces for
3. What must be chosen and fixed before the notes which expression. [This is a really important and useful exercise of may be introduced into a tune are distinctly ascertained ? What judgment and taste.] is this arrangement of notes called, and by what primary laws is 12. What are the vibrations of the TENOR C-the standard it regulated ? On what grounds do we call it the scale of all note of pitch ? Draw a diagram of the standard scale. What nations and of all times ?
is meant by G sharp ? B flat? 4. What is a musical interval? Is it a distance in time? in * 13. Pitch the key-note A-6-7-8-D, and take the chord space ? in what?
in each case. *5. Draw from memory a diagram of the scale, with the sol-fa
LESSON 6 (page 339). syllable to represent the notes, marking carefully the two shorter *1. Point on the modulator by memory, and afterwards sing distances.
to words the tune GRIFFIN. 6. What is the general character of the 1st, 3rd, and 5th of 2. What is the difference between the sound of the voico in the scale ? How is the voice tuned ?
speaking and in singing ? What is a sound of the singing voice * 7. Sol-fa and point on the diagram, from memory, Exercises called of the speaking voice ? 1, 2, 3, 4. LESSON 2 (page 90).
3. What is the best posture for the singer in reference to his
head ?-shoulders ?-chest?—mouth P-tongae -lips ? 1. Give an account of the first experiments on the sounds of
4. What is the first daily practice for opening and strengtha single string. What note does half a string give 1-two- ening the lungs ? How should the chord and scale be sang, thirds ?-three-fourths ?-four-fifths ?-etc.
and with what two peculiar observances, in this daily practice ? 2. Describe the “syren." What is the relation of a note's
5. What three faults should be especially avoided by the length of string to its vibrations ?
singer? 3. What is the smallest perfect measurement of the scale 6. What habit, in reference to loudness and softness of voice, in plain figures, and according to that how many degrees belong should be carefully formed ? to the great tone -small tone P-tonule?
7. In what respects would you alter your phraseology and 4. What is an "octave" note or “replicate ?"
mode of illustration if you had to set the facts and principles of * 5. Sol-fa and point on the diagram of the scale, from memory, this first “stage" of our course before the minds of the yonng, Exercisos 5, 6, 7, 8. LESSON 3 (page 145).
or persons dull of comprehension ? (It will be a good exercise * 1. Explain the two sets of tetrachords. Arrange them by for you to do so practically. Teach what you know. There is
of mind for you to answer this question. It will be better still memory, taking coins to represent your notes.
no better way of perfecting your knowledge.] 2. By what intervals are the tonules of the scale always sepa- 8. What are the advantages and disadvantages of class rated from one another ? Show this by drawing a circular dia- teaching ? Show the importance of personal effort and examigram.
nation. *3. Draw a modulator from memory. (Notice that the right. hand column takes its dou from the level of son, the left from the high larynx.
* 9. Sing a high note with the low larynx,-a low note with FAH.)
* 10. Sing (taking a very low note for DOH) DOH, ME, SOH, 4. Explain fully the three great advantages of the modulator, DOH', ME', and if you can without straining the voice, sow',,, its picture of interval; its mnemonic (or memory-helping) holding each note with a long and steady breath. (You should power; and its aid to the pattern. 5. What is the effect of a "mental modulator” on the hori- stage of your course ; for you may not yet have got all the
be more anxious about the chord than the scale in the present zontal line of notes ?
notes of the scale quite perfectly in tune.) 6. Give three reasons for learning an "interpreting notation” * 11. Repeat slowly and very distinctly (with good use of of music in connection with the other.
tongue, lips, and teeth), and in one breath, “How doth the little 7. What is accent ? How many sorts of accent are there? 8. What is a measure ?—an aliquot ?
busy bee improve cach shining hour.” Take two more lines in
another breath, and so on. 9. What is the structure of the BINARY MEASURE, and what * 12. Point and sing the tune LEYBURN from memory on the is its character ? TRINARY ? QUATERNARY ? SENARY ?
modulator. 10. Give Dr. Bryce's views of the origin of our sense of Rhythm, and its connection with the heart and lungs ?
LESSONS IN FRENCH.-XXVI. LESSON 4 (page 211).
SECTION XLV.-THE PASSIVE VERB [$ 54]. * 1. Sol-fa and point on the modulator, from memory, Exer- 1. The passive verb is conjugated by adding to the verb etre cises 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14.
in all its tenses, the past participle of an active verb. See LESSON 5 (page 273).
model, $ 54. 1. What are the three different senses in which the word time 2. This participle must agree in gender and number with the is used in ordinary musical language ? Give examples of each. subject ($ 134 (2), Sect. XLI. 6].
2. What is the peculiarity in the swings of the pendulum ? Ces vieillards sont respectés, Those old men are respected. What regulates the speed of a pendulum ?
Ces enfants sont aimés de tout le Those children are loved by exis 3. Describe the “metronome.” With what is it proposed
body. that each swing of the metronome should correspond in the 3. The genius of the French language seems to prefer the binary, trinary, and quaternary measure ?—in quick senary active to the passive voice. Many expressions which are in the measure ? 4. How would you use the string pendulum ?
passive in English, are accordingly rendered into French by the
active or reflective ($ 128 (5), § 113 (1)). 5. In learning to keep time,” what is the double object to Cette maison est à louer ou à That house is to be let or sold be gained ? Will beating time help you? 6. Describe the views of Rousseau, Dr. Burney, and Dr. Ma sour' est à plaindre,
My sister is to be pitied. Bryce on “ beating " time.
Cet homme est à craindre, That man is to be feared. 7. What is the standard by which the length of notes is Cet homme s'appelle H. (Sect. That man is called H. measured in the sol-fa notation? What proportion of time XXXV. 2],
Cet homme se trompe [Sect. That man is mistaken.
She is loved, esteemed, and respected by everybody. 17. What XXXVII, 2],
has been told you ? 18. We have been told that your brother On dit que cela est ainsi (Sect. It is said that it is so.
is respected by everybody. 19. Madam, are you Mr. S.'s XXXIV. 2)
sister? 20. No, Sir, I am not. 21. Madam, are you pleased On vous a dit cela (Sect. XXXIV.2). We have been told that.
with your son's conduct ? 22. No, Sir, I am not, for he is 4. In an answer to a question (see Sect. XXIII. 12], the blamed by everybody. 23. What is that stout man called ? pronoun le corresponds in signification with the English word so 24. They say he is called H. 25. What is your brother's or it, espressed or understood. Le refers then to a noun not
name? 26. He is called James. 27. Have you been told that determined (not preceded by an article or a possessive adjective), my brother has arrived ? 28. We have been told so. 29. Are to an adjective, to a verb, or even to a whole sentence.
the goods which your brother has bought for sale ? 30. They Ces enfants sont-ils aimés ? Are those children loved ?
are not for sale ? 31. Has the bookbinder had a coat made ? Il ne le sont pas, They are not (80).
32. He has had a coat made. 33. Is his other coat worn out? Ces demoiselles sont-elles sæurs ? Are those young ladies sisters ? 34. The coat which he bought last year is worn out. Elles ne le sont pas, They are not
SECTION XLVI.-IDIOMATIC EXPRESSIONS. 5. When le refers to a determined noun, it often corresponds in signification to the pronoun he, she, or they, which may or may [Sect. XXXIX. 1, 2], the pronoun en will of course keep its
1. In the compound tenses of the verb s'en aller, to go away not be expressed in the English sentence. Le must then assume the gender and number of the noun to which it refers.
general place, after the other pronouns and before the auxiliary.
It must never come between the auxiliary and the participle. Etes-vous la scor de mon ami ? Are you the sister of my friend?
Je m'en suis I went away.
We went away. Je la suis, I am (she).
You went away. Leur conduite est-elle approuvée ? Is their conduct approved ?
êtes allés, Elle n'est approuvée de personne. It is approved by nobody.
Il s'en est allé, Ho went away.
Ils s'en sont They went away. Cette dame est-elle estimée et re. Is that lady esteemed and respected ?
allés, spectée ?
Les dames s'en sont allées,
The ladies aro gone away. Elle n'est ni estimée ni respectée. She is neither esteemed nor respected. Les messieurs s'en sont allés, The gentlemen are gone away. Ces marchandises sont à vendre. Those goods are to be sold (for salo). Ces enfants sont bien à plaindre. Those children are to be pitied.
2. The verb aller, when referring to articles of dress, answers A-t-on dit quelque chose à mon Has anything been said to my bro. to the English to fit, to set. frère ? ther? Mon habit va bien,
My coat fits or sets well,
3. Seoir [4, ir.; see table, $ 62] answers to the English to Savez-vous comment cela s'appelle ? Do you know how that is called ? Madame, êtes-vous maitresse ici ? Madame, are you mistress here !
suit, to become. Je ne le suis pas, Monsieur. I am not (so), Sir.
Ce chapeau ne vous sied point, That hat does not bocome you. Êtes-vous la maîtresse de la maison? Are you the mistress of the house ? Je la suis. I am (she).
4. Essayer ($ 49] corresponds in signification to the English
to try on. VOCABULARY.
J'ai essayé mon gilet, il me va I have tried on my waistcoat, it fits S'appeler, 1, pec., to be Diligent, -e, diligent. Paresseux, -se, idle.
me well. called ($ 49 (4)]. | Ecolier, m.,
bien, scholar. Pun-ir, 2, to punish. Auteur, m., author. Gros, -se, large, stout. Rarement, seldom. 5. Être is often used in French for appartenir, to belong Blåm-er, 1, to blame, Jardin, m., garden. Relieur, m., bookbinder. [$ 106 (3)]. Car, for. Lou-er, 1, to let, to Souvent, often,
To whom does that house belong? Conduite, t., conduct. praise. Us-er, 1, to wear out. À qui est cette maison ?
Whose house is that? Croi-re, 4, ir., to believe. Mère, f., mother. Ven-dre, 4, to sell.
Elle est à mon cousin,
It is my cousin's.
RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. 1. Votre mère est-elle aimée de sa spur? 2. Elle est aimée de son frère et de sa sœur. 3. Les Italiens sont-ils aimés des À quelle heure vous en êtes-vous At what hour did you go away?
alle ? Français ? 4. Vos écoliers ne sont-ils pas blâmés ? 5. Ils sont Je m'en suis allé à neuf heures. I went away at nine o'clock. blåmés quelquefois. 6. Sont-ils souvent punis ? 7. Ils sont vous en êtes-vous allées trop tôt, Did you go away too soon, ladies ? rarement punis. 8. Par qui êtes-vous puni quand vous êtes
Mesdames ? paresseux ? 9. Je ne suis jamais puni. 10. Sa conduite a-t-elle Nous nous en sommes allées trop We went away too late. été approuvée ? 11. Elle a été approuvée de tout le monde. tard. 12. Elle a été approuvée par* ses amis. 13. Cet auteur est-il Cette robe vous va-t-elle bien ? Does that dress fit you well? estimé ? 14. Il est estimé de tout le monde. 15. Le jardin du Elle ne me va pas bien.
It does not fit me well.
Does that coat become you very well! relieur est-il à vendre ou à louer ? 16. On dit qu'il est à louer. Cet habit vous sied-il fort bien ? 17. Le menuisier a-t-il fait faire un habit? 18. n en a fait Je l'ai essayé, mais il ne va pas I have tried it on, but it does not fit
bien. faire deux. 19. Les habits que vous avez achetés sont-ils usés ? Il lui va bien (indirect regimen). It fits him well. 20 Ils sont usés, j'en ai fait faire d'autres. 21. Dit-on que nos
Il me gêne, il me serre trop. It hurts me, it presses mo too much. amis sont aimés de tout le monde ? 22. On ne le dit pas, car on Cette robe ne lui va pas bien. That dress does not fit her well. ne le croit pas. 23. Les dames que nous avons vues à l'église ces livres sont-ils à vous ou à moi? Are those books yours or mine? hier au soir, sont-elles seurs ? 24. Elles ne le sont pas, on dit Ils ne sont ni à moi ni à vous. They belong neither to me nor to you, qu'elles sont cousines. 25. On dit que l'officier qui vient À qui sont-ils donc ?
Whose are they, then ? d'arriver s'appelle S.
Les livres de qui avez-vous ap- Whose books have you brought ? EXERCISE 86.
J'ai apporté ceux de mon frère. I have brought my brother's. 1. Are you blamed or praised ? 2. I am neither blamed nor
VOCABULARY. praised. 3. Is not your cousin esteemed by everybody? 4. She
Mieux, better. is esteemed by nobody. 5. What has been said of my brother? Beau-frère, brother-in- | Foncé, -e, dark. 6. Nothing has been said of him. 7. Do you know if your Botte, f., boot.
Gên-er, 1, to hurt, to Neuf, -ve, new. press.
Où, where. brother's house is to be let? 8. I have been told (on m'a dit)
Clair, -e, light.
waistcoat. Serr-er, 1, to press. that it is to be sold. 9. Is not an idle person to be pitied ? 10. Court, -e, short. Grand, -e, large. Ten-ir, 2, ir., to hold. The idle man is to be pitied. 11. Is your son sometimes punished Etroit, -e, narrow, tight. Large, wide.
Vers, towards, about, at school ? 12. He is always punished when he is idle. 13.
EXERCISE 87. Are your scholars praised when they are diligent? 14. They are praised when they are diligent, and they are blamed when
1. Vos bottes ne vont-elles pas bien ? 2. Elles ne me vont they are idle. 15. Is that lady esteemed and respeeted ?
16. pas bien, elles me serrent trop. 3. Sont-elles trop étroites ?
4. Elles sont trop étroites et trop courtes, elles me gênent. 5. The prepositions de and par are used indifferently after many Le cordonnier s'en est-il allé? 6. Il ne s'en est pas encore allé. passive verbs.
7. À quelle heure les compagnes de votre seur s'en sont-elles
allées ? 8. Elles s'en sont allées vers six heures de l'après- Vous faut-il cinquante france ? Do you want or must you have fifty midi. 9. L'habit que vous tenez, est-il à vous ou à votre frère ?
francs? 10. Il n'est ni à lui ni à moi, il est à mon beau-frère. 11. Lui Il me faut cinquante-cinq francs. I must have or I need fifty-five franc. va-t-il bien? 12. Il lui va fort bien, et il lui sied bien. 13. Combien de argent faut-il à votre How much money does your father Où l'a-t-il fait faire ?
père ? 14. Il l'a fait faire en France ou en
Il lui en faut beaucoup.
He wants much (of it). Allemagne. 15. À qui sont les livres que lit Mademoiselle votre scur? 16. Ils sont à moi. 17. Votre gilet va-t-il mieux Nous avons ce qu'il [R.3) nous faut. Wo have what we want.
VOCABULARY. que celui de votre beau-frère ? 18. Il me va beaucoup mieux. 19. Votre habit ne vous gêne-t-il pas ? 20. Il ne saurait (cannot) Aller trouver, to go to | Désir-er, 1, to wish, to Main de papier, f., e me gêner, il est de beaucoup trop large. 21. Avez-vous essayé centime, m., 100th part Dette, f., dott.
quire of paper.
Modiste, millinar. votre habit neuf ? 22. Je l'ai essayé, mais la couleur ne me
24. Elle est trop foncée.
of a frane. sied pas. 23. Est-elle trop claire ?
Envoy-er, 1, ir. [$ 49 Ouvrage, m., work. Chirurgien, m.,surgeon. (2)], to send.
Payer, i, pec. [$ 49 25. Les couleurs foncées ne me siéent jamais.
Combion, how much, Fin-ir, 2, to finish.
(2)], to pay. EXERCISE 88.
Fort, very, very much. Peine, f., trouble. Davantage, more.
Quand, when. 1. Are your friends gone away? 2. They are not yet gone away, they are still here. 3. At what hour did your mother
EXERCISE 89. go away? 4. She went away early this morning. 5. Did your 1. Que faut-il faire aujourd'hui ? 2. Aujourd'hui il faut little sister go away late ? 6. She went away too soon. 7. travailler. 3. A-t-il fallu travailler fort pour finir l'ouvrage à Does your sister's new dress become her? 8. It does not temps ? 4. Il a fallu travailler toute la journée. 5. Quand become her. 9. Why does it not become her? 10. Dark faut-il écrire à notre ami ? 6. Il faut lui écrire aujourd'hui. colours never become her. 11. Do light colours become your 7. Me faut-il aller trouver mon père ? 8. Il vous faut aller le brother's wife? 12. They become her very well. 13. Are trouver, il désire vous parler. 9. A-t-il besoin de quelque your new boots too narrow or too wide ? 14. They are neither chose ? 10. Il lui faut des livres, des plumes, et de l'encre. too narrow nor too wide, they fit very well. 15. Does your 11. Ne lui faut-il pas aussi de l'argent? 12. Il lui en fant brother's waistcoat fit him? 16. It fits him, but it does not beaucoup pour payer ces dettes. 13. Vous faut-il encore quelque become him. 17. Light colours never become him. 18. Does chose? 14. Il ne me faut plus rien, j'ai tout ce qu'il me faut. your coat press you ? 19. It does not press me, it is by far too 15. Ne faut-il pas du papier à votre sour? 16. Il ne lui wide. 20. Whose house is that? 21. It is my father's and en faut pas davantage.* 17. Que faut-il envoyer au chirur. brother's. 22. Whose books have you brought this morning ? gien ? 18. Il faut lui envoyer de l'argent, il en a grand besoin. 23. I have brought my brother's and my sister's. 24. Whose 19. La modiste a-t-elle tout ce qu'il lui faut ? 20. Elle n'a pas dresses are those ? 25. They are my mother's, my sister's, and tout ce qu'il lui faut. 21. Combien vous faut-il ? 22. Il me my cousin's. 26. Are not those German books yours? 27. They faut cinq francs. 23. Ne vous faut-il pas davantage ? 24. 11 are not mine, they are my friend's. 28. Are those pens yours or ne me faut pas davantage. 25. Que lui faut-il pour sa peine ? mine? 29. They are neither yours nor mine, they are my 26. Il demande un franc vingt-cinq centimes. brother's. 30. Does this hat fit you ? 31. Yes, Sir, it fits me,
EXERCISE 90. but it does not become me. 32. Is your hat too small ? 33. It is too large. 34. Are your gloves too large ? 35. They are too learn your lesson. 3. Is it necessary to write to your brother
1. What must we do? 2. You must bring your book and small, I cannot put them on.
to-day ? 4. It is not necessary to write to him. 5. Has it SECTION XLVII.--UNIPERSONAL VERBS AND THEIR USES. been necessary to speak to your father ? 6. It has been neces. 1. The verb falloir [3, ir.], to be necessary, is always conjugated sary to speak to him. 7. Is it necessary to go to D. to-day? unipersonally. See table, $ 62.
8. It is necessary to go there (y). 9. Must I go to your sister? Il faut, il a fallu, It is necessary, it was or has been 10. You must go to her, she wishes to speak to you. 11. How
much money must your brother have ? 12. He must have ten Il faut étudier tout les jours, It is necessary to study every day. francs fifty centimes. 13. How many books does your sister 2. As falloir has always a unipersonal pronoun for its nomi- 15. What will you send to the surgeon ? 16. We must send
want? 14. She must have many books, she reads (lit) moch. native or subject, a pronoun in the indirect regimen (dativeme, te, lui, nous, vous, leur), placed before the verb, will be him our horse ; his own (le sien) is sick. 17. Must he not have equivalent to the pronoun used as nominative to the English Must he have much ? 20. He must have a quire. 21. Do you
paper ? 18. He must have some; he has letters to write. 19. verbs must, to be obliged, etc.
want anything more? [See No. 13, in the French exercise above.] Il me faut écrire un thème, I must write an exercise.
22. I need something more. 23. I need nothing more. Où nous faut-il aller ? Where must we go ?
Must you have one hundred francs ? 25. I must have ten 3. Falloir is used in the signification of to want, to need, to be dollars. 26. What does the surgeon want? 27. He must have under the necessity of having.
money to (pour) pay his debts. 28. Has the tailor all that he Il me faut un livre, I need a book.
wants ? 29. He has not all that he wants. 30. The milliner Il lui faut de l'argent, He is in want of money.
has received all that she wants. 31. What must you have for 4. When must is used in the last acceptation, and has a noun do we want? 34. What must I do? 35. You must write a
your trouble ? 32. How much do you want ? 33. How much as its nominative, the noun in the corresponding French sentence letter. 36. What must she write? 37. She must write four should be in the indirect regimen preceded by à.
pages. 38. She must go to church. Il faut un livre à ma scur, My sister must have a book (needs a
book). RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.
READING AND ELOCUTION.—XIII. Pour apprendre une langue il faut To learn a language it is necessary to
ANALYSIS OF THE VOICE (continued), étudier.
study. Il faut aller à l'église et à l'école. It is necessary to go to church and to
VIII. -CORRECT INFLECTION (continued. school.
Both inflections, the Rising and the Falling, in connection. Il faut rester à la maison.
It is necessary to remain at home. Il me faut lire un bon livre.* I must read a good book.
Rule 1.--When negation is opposed to affirmation, the former Il lui faut aller voir sa mère. She must go and see her mother, has the rising, the latter the falling inflection, in whatever order Que nous faut-il faire ? What must we do?
they occur, and whether in the same or in different sentences, Que leur faut-il lire ?
What must they read ?
What do they want or need?
He did not call me, but you.
He was esteemed not for wéalth, but for wisdom.
Study not for amusement, but for improvement, Another construction of these sentences will be found in Sect.
This adverb can never be placed before a substantive.
He called you, not mé.
Rule on the Monotone. He was esteemed for wisdom, not for wéalth.
The tones of grand and sublime description, profound reverStudy for improvement, not for amúsement.
This proposal is not a mere idle cómpliment. It proceeds from the ence or awe, of amazement and horror, are marked by the sincerest and deepest feelings of our hearts.
monotone, or perfect level of voice. Howard visited all Europe, not to survey the sumptuousness of Note. A monotone is always on a lower pitch than the prepalaces, or the stateliness of témples ; not to make accurate measure- ceding part of a sentence; and to give the greater effect to its ments of the remains of ancient grandeur; not to form a scale of the deep solemn note-which resembles the tolling of a heavy bell curiosities of modern árt; not to collect medals or collate manuscripts ; | -it sometimes destroys all comma pauses, and keeps up one bat to dive into the depths of dùngeons; to plunge into the infection continuous stream of overflowing sound, as :of hospitals; to survey the mansions of sorrow and pain; to take the gauge and dimensions of misery, depression, and contempt; to remem
His form had not yet lost ber the forgotten, to attend to the neglècted, to visit the forsáken,
All her original brightness, nor appeared and to compare and collate the distresses of all men in all countries.
Less than archangel ruined, and the excess
Of glory obscured. As when the sün, nēw-risen, Note.—A similar principle applies to the reading of concessions and of unequal antitheses or contrasts. In the latter,
Lõoks through the horizontal misty air,
Shorn of his béams, or from behind the moon, the less important member has the rising, and the preponderant
In dim eclipse, disastrous twilight shods one the falling inflection, in whatever part of a sentence they
On half the nations, and with fear of change oecur, and even in separate sentences, as :
Perplexes inonarchs. Science may raise you to éminence. But virtue alone can guide you And I sāw a gröat white throne and Him that sāt on it, from whose to happiness.
fãce the heavens and the earth flod away; and there was found no plāce I rather choose
Upon my secûre hour thy uncle stole,
With jāice of cursed hébenon in a vial,
And in the porches of mine éars did pour Exception.- When negation is emphatic or preponderant, it
The lēperous distilment; whose effect takes the falling inflection, as :
Hölds such an énmity with blood of man, He may yield to persuásion, but he will never submit to fòrce.
That swift as quicksilver it courses through
The natural gates and alleys of the body, We are troubled on every side, yet not distròssed; perplexed, but
And, with a sūdden vigour, it doth posset not in despair ; pórsecuted, but not forsaken; cast dówn, but not
And curd, like eager dröppings into milk, destroyed.
The thin and wholesome blood; so did it mine ; Rule 2.-In question and answer, the falling inflection ends
And a most instant tētter bārked about, as far below the average level of the sentence, as the rising ends
Most lāzar-like, with vile and loathsome crūst, above it. In this way, a certain exact correspondence of sound
All my smooth body. to sound, in the inflections, is produced, which gives to the full
Rule on “ Harmonic" Inflections. downward slide of the answer a decisive and satisfactory intona
“Harmonic" inflections--or those which, in emphatic phrases, tion, as a reply to the rising slide of the question, as :
are intended to prevent the frequent occurrence of emphasis in Are they Hébrews ?-So am 'I. Are they 'Israelites ?--So am I. the same phrase from becoming monotonous to the ear-are What would content you, in a political leader ?–Tálent ? Nò!- applied in clauses of which every word is emphatic, and are 'Enterprise ? NO!-Courage ? No!-Reputation ? Nò !_*Virtue ? marked by a distinct and separate inflection, as :No!—The man whom you would select, should possess not one, bat all of these.
He has been guilty of one of the most shameful acts || that ever doRule 3. -- When a question consists of two contrasted parts, gràded the nature || or the Na'me || of m'ax. connected in syntax by the conjunction or, used in a disjunctive
Note.In such cases the inflections usually alternate, in order sense, the former has the rising, and the latter the falling in to give the more vivid and pungent force to vehement emphasis. fiection, as :
Rule on Repeated Words, Phrases, and Sentences. Does he mean you, or me ?
Words, phrases, and sentences which are repeated for effect, Is this book yours, or mine?
rise higher, or fall lower in inflection, besides increasing in force, Did you see hím, or his bròther?
at every repetition. Are the people virtuous, or vicious; intelligent, or ignorant; áffluent, From these walls a spirit shall go forth, that shall survive when this or indigent?"
edifice shall be, " like an unsubstantial pageant, faded.” It shall go Note.- When or is used conjunctively, the second inflection fórth, exulting in, but not abusing, its strength. It shall go forth, does not fall, but rises higher than the first, as :
remembering, in the days of its prosperity, the pledges it gave in the
time of its depression. IT SHALL GO FOʻRTK, uniting a disposition to Would the influence of the Bible-even if it were not the record of correct abuses, to redress grievances. IT SHALL GO FOʻRTH, uniting a divine revelation-be to render princes more tyrannical, or subjects the disposition to improve, with the resolution to maintain and defend, more ungovernable; the rich more insolent, or the poor more dis- by that spirit of unbought affection, which is the chief defence of «rderly; would it make worse parents or children-húsbands or wives nations. --másters or sérvants-friends or neighbours? Ort would it not What was it, fellow-citizens, which gave to Lafayette his spotless make men more virtuous,t and consequently more happy, in every fame?-The love of liberty. What has consecrated his memory in the situation ?
hearts of good men ?—THE LOVE OF LIBERTY. What nerved his youthRule on the Circumflex, or Wave.
ful arm with strength, and inspired him in the morning of his days
with sagacity and counsel ?--THE LIVING LOVE OF LIBERTY. The circumflex, or wave, applies to all expressions used in a To what did he sacrifice power, and rank, and country, and freedom peculiar sense, or with a double meaning, and to the tones of itself ?—TO THE LOVE OF LIBERTY PROTECTED BY LAW. mockery, sarcasm, and irony, as :
You may avoid & quarrel with an if. .. Your if is the only peacemaker: much virtue in an if,
LESSONS IN PENMANSHIP.-XXVI. From the very first night-and to say it I am bold
With this lesson, which is accompanied by copy-slips headed I've been so very hot, that I'm sure I've caught cold! by the remaining capital letters of the writing alphabet, from Go bang a calfskin on these recreant limbs!
S to Z, we complete our elementary series of Lessons in Pen. What a beautiful piece of work you have made by your carelessness! manship, having enabled the self-teacher, by an easy and careThe weights had never been accused of light conduct.
fully graduated succession of steps, to advance from the formation
of the first elemrntary stroke that enters into the composition * In successive questions, the rising inflection becomes higher at found capital letters and figures, as well as small letters. We
of the small letters, to writing sentences in which are to be every stage, cinless the last hus, as in the above example, the falling have now dona as much for him as it is possible to do by verbal inflection of consummating emphasis.
+ The last or is need disjunctively, and forms an example to the instruction, and it remains for the lcarner to acquire an easy, Rule, and not to the Note.
flowing style of writing, and facility and rapidity in the use of