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ginian admiral, with the thirty thousand persons whom he had descended this river, and went along the coast of Asia to the on board his vessels, is acknowledged to be authentic ; opinions bottom of the Persian Gulf. The expedition of Alexander opened only differ as to the point where his maritime course terminated. the eyes of the Greeks, but produced at that time no results of Some will have it that, after having cleared the Pillars of any consequence to the science of geography. What was gained Hercules, he went as far as the Gulf of Guinea, while others by his exploratory voyage was lost by the dismemberment of his limit his exploratory voyage to the mouth of the Senegal river. empire ; and the historians of the period relapsed into their Gosselin fises the limit at Cape Nun.

former ignorance. Pytheas, a citizen of Marseilles, performed a voyage to the By degrees, however, geography assumed the dignity of a north before the time of Alexander the Great. He discovered science. Eratosthenes, who flourished about 250 B.C., composed Albion, or Great Britain, and always sailing in a northern direc- a treatise on the subject. He was a native of Cyrene in Africa, tion, he reached the mysterious place called Ultima Thule, which and the keeper of the Alexandrian Library. By means of he saw covered with ice, enveloped in mist, and, as it were, instruments erected in the museum of the city of Alexandria, immersed in a horrible chaos. But what was Thule This is he found the obliquity of the ecliptic, to within half a degree a question which has puzzled all historians and geographers. of the truth. He was the first who attempted to determine the Some have considered with good reason that this country was circumference of the earth by the actual measurement of an arc Jutland or the coasts of Norway called Thulemark; or perhaps of one of its great circles. By means of sun-dials he found that Iceland, as Pytheas sailed through the Scandinavian seas, and Syene, near à cataract of the Nile, which was situated, as he his remarks relating to the coasts of the Baltic have been ac- thought, on the same meridian as Alexandria, was immediately knowledged exact. Others have claimed this appellation for under the tropic of Cancer, so that at the time of the summer the Shetland Isles on the north of Scotland.

solstice the sun was vertical to the inhabitants of Syene, and Aristotle, the great Greek philosopher and naturalist, main the gnomon had no shadow at noon. Thus, having measured tained that the earth was of a spherical form, and he even the angle of the shadow of the gnomon at Alexandria, also at stated the measure of its circumference at 400,000 stadia (a the time of the summer solstice, he found the distance of the Greek itinerary measure, equal to about 600 feet). Indications sun from the zenith at noon to be 7° 12', or one-fiftieth part of of the existence of Madagascar have been noticed in his writings. the circumference of a great circle, viz., 360°. He then comAs to Ceylon, he mentions it under the name of Taprobane, and puted the distance between the two places, Alexandria and that a long time before the age of Ptolemy. The limits of the Syene, and found it 5,000 stadia. Accordingly, he multiplied world according to Aristotle were, on the east, the Indus; on this number by 50, and found the measure of the earth's cirthe west, the Tartessus, or the Guadalquivir ; on the north, the cumference to be 250,000 stadia. Making allowance for the Riphxan Mountains, Albion, and Ierne (Ireland); on the south, errors which he committed, for want of the delicate instruments Libya, in which he places the river Chremetes, which rises out of observation which we possess in modern times, this was a of the same mountains as the Nile, in order to disembogue itself tolerable approximation to the truth. Syene, indeed, was not into the Atlantic Ocean—an idea which leads to the supposition on the same meridian as Alexandria, but on one nearly 3° east that he confounded the Nile with the Niger. He admitted that of the meridian of that city; and instead of being exactly on the Caspian Sea was a great inland lake, having no communica- the tropic, it was about half a degree north of that line. Eration with any other sea.

tosthenes affirmed the spherical figure of the earth, and asserted The conquests of Alexander the Great led to the most distinct that the immensity of the ocean would not prevent vessels from and extended notions of the ancient world. The most remark- going to India by continually shaping their course westward. able geographical fact of his reign was the exploration of the Hipparchus, who flourished about ninety years later than Induz. Å dieet of 800 vessels, under the command of Nearchus, Eratosthenes, laid the foundation of astronomical geography

Ab-in

Bah

by endeavouring to determine the latitudes and longitudes of This vowel is sometimes under & grave accent, thus-à là, places by observations on the heavenly bodies. He constructed voilà; but its sound is not materially affected thereby. a catalogue of the fixed stars, and taught the projection of the 33. Â, â.—Under the circumflex accent, this vowel has the sphere on a plane surface. Agatharchides, president of the long sound represented by a in the English word mark, and is Alexandrian Library, who flourished rather before Hipparchus, named ah. It has, besides, a little more than the sound just wrote a treatise on the navigation and commerce of the Red spoken of, for the sound must be prolonged, and to do this conSea, and an account of Ezypt and Ethiopia. He was the first veniently, the mouth must be opened a little wider than in utter. who gave a correct description of the Abyssinians; he mentions ing its short sound, represented by a in the English word fat. the gold mines wrought by the ancient kings of Egypt on the coast of the Red Sea, the process of working them, and the the English word are, but give it the sound of ah prolonged, in

Be careful, however, not to pronounce A d like the sound of sufferings of the miners. He speaks, also, of the tools of copper the following examples, namely :found in these mines, supposed to have been used by the native

ENGLISH, PRESCH. PRox. ENGLISH. Egyptians before the conquest of that country by the Persians.' FRESCH. Peos.

Age Ah-zh Age.

Câpre Kah-pe Caper. The voyages of Eudoxus of Cyzicus added new information to

Ame

Soul.

Grace Grah-s Favour. what was already gained respecting the East. He visited Egypt

Bâche Bab-sh Arning.

Mile

Mah-1 Male. in the reign of Ptolemy Physcon, about 130 B.C.; and besides Båfre Bah-fr Gormandising. Masse Mah-s Stake in betting). making two voyages to India, he afterwards accomplished the Båt

Pack-saddl.

| Pale Pah-1 Pale. circumnavigation of the African continent. Strabo, who gives i

34. E, e. Name, ay; sound, like the letters ay in the an account of his voyages and discoveries, attempts repeatedly to throw discredit on the truth of his statements ; but they have, English word day.

Pronounce aloud the word day until you have a distinct idea been confirmed by those of later times.

of the single sound of the combination of the letters ay; and then pronounce the word without the d, namely:

day, ay, LESSONS IN FRENCH.—IIL

and thus you have the sound of the vowel e, which deserves the SECTION I.-FRENCH PRONUNCIATION (continued).

greatest attention, because of its importance in the French lanIII. NAME AND SOUND OF THE VOWELS.

guage. It is used more than any other letter, namely:-in five 32. A, a.–Name, ah; sound, like the letter a in the English different ways, and hence it has five different names, namely :word mark.

e silent, e mute or unaccented, é acute, è grave, é circumflex. Pronounce this English word mark aloud several times, with

35. E, e, SILENT.–When final, and unaccented in words of strict reference to the sound of the French letter a, until you more than one syllable, e is silent, as in the following words :are sure of having its correct sound.

FRENCH. PROX. ENGLISH. French. Prox. ENGLISH. The sound thus obtained always belongs to the French letter

Abaque A-bak Abacus. Domestique Do-mes-teek Domestie. a in the alphabet; that is, whenever the French alphabet is

Abatage A-ba-tazh Killing. Passage Par-sazh Passage. repeated, always give the first letter the sound of a in the English Algarado Al-ga-rad Insult. Possible Po-see-br Possible. word mark, that is, ah.

Approche A-prosh Approach.' Spectacle Spek-ta-ki Sight. But the French a does not always and invariably have this Article A-teek! Thing. Terrible Ter-reebl' Avful. sound whenever and wherever it is used in a French word. Ballotte Ba-lot Ballot. Véritable Vay-ri-tabl' Genuine.

Its sound depends upon its position in a word, and upon the In the following words the e is silent:accent under which it is placed, either by itself, as constituting

Celui

pronounced Sub-lwee. a single word, or within a word of one or more syllables.

Cela

Suh-lah. The letter a has, then, another sound, which we illustrate by

Prierai

Pree-ray. the sound of the letter a in the English word fat. Pronounce Again, in the following words, the e in the middle of each this English word fat aloud several times, with strict reference word is silent :to the sound of the French letter a, until you are sure of having Autremont, Entrevoir, Paiement, etc. its correct sound. The French letter a has, therefore, two distinct sounds, viz.:

In the word contenance both e's are silent; ordinarily, the e A short sound, as in the English word sat.

before a and o is silent, as in Jean and Georges. A long sound, as in the English word mark.

SECTION VI.-IDIOMATIC USES OF "AVOIR.” In these lessons, the English letter a will be used to illustrate the short sound of the French vowel a; and ah will be used to

1. The verb avoir is used idiomatically in French, with the illustrate the long sound of the French vowel a.

words quelque chose, chaud, froid, faim, honte, peur, raison, A has the short sound represented by a in the English word tort, soif, sommeil. fat, when it is a word by itself, and generally when it begins or J'ai quelque chose,

Something is the matter with me. ends a French word. There are exceptions to this rule; but

Il a chaud,

Ho is trarm. they will be readily noticed by the reader in the spelling by

Elle a faim,

She is hungry.
Nous avons honte,

We are ashamed. means of English letters, designed to illustrate the pronunciation

Vous avez peur,

You are afraid. of a given French word.

Ils ont tort,

They are trong. A has the long sound represented by a in the English word

Avez-vous raison ?

Are you right? mark, when it is pronounced as the first letter of the French

J'ai sommeil,

I am sleepy. alphabet, and also when under the circumflex accent, which will 2. A noun, whether taken in a general or in a particular sense, be illustrated hereafter.

is in French commonly preceded by the article le in its different Exercise yourself upon the short sound of the French vowel forms ($ 77 (1) (2)]. a, in the following examples. Pronounce every French word in the following table aloud, and, when possible, always study your

Le pain est nécessaire, Bread is necessary.
Il a le pain,

He has the bread
French lessons aloud :-

3. A noun, preceded by the article le, retains that article after FRENCH. Pron. ENGLISH. FEESC.. Pros. ENGLISH. Abaca A-ba-ka Kanilla hemp. Caresse Ks-ress Endearment.

ni, nor, neither; but a noun taken in a partitive sense (Sect. IV. Alarme A.larm Alarm.

Dame
Married woman.

1), takes after ni neither article nor preposition.
Bal Bal
Bal.
Masque Mark Mask.
Je n'ai ni l'arbre ni le jardin, I have neither the tree nor the garden.

We have neither tree nor garden. The above examples are introduced to illustrate the short Nous n'avons ni arbre ni jardin, sound of the French vowel a. In the first word (abaca), be 4. A nonn, taken in a partitive sense, and preceded by an careful not to pronounce it ay-bay-kay, but give each a in each adjective, takes merely the preposition de ($ 78 (3)]. syllable the sound of a in the English word fat. In the next 5. The following adjectives generally precede the noun :word, do not say ay-lahrm; remember to give the sound of a in

Benu,
hand- Cher, dear.

Jeune, young.

Petit, small. the Englirh word fat. Trill the r in the last syllable of the word

Grand, great, Joli, pretty. Vieux, old. a-larm. It will be perceived the final e of this word (a-larme) is Bon, good. large.

Demo

Mauvais, bad. Vilain, ugly. not sounded,

Brave, worthy. Gros, large. Meilleur, better.

some.

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

3. The possessive adjectives mon, m., ma, f., my; ton, m., ta, A vez-vous quelque chose ?

Is anything the matter with you? f., thy; son, m., sa, f., his, her, agree in gender with the object Je n'ai rien (literally, I have nothing). Nothing is the matter with mo. possessed, that is, with the noun following them [$ 21 (1) (2)]. Votre frère a-t-il chaud ?

Is your brother warm ?
Il n'a ni froid ni chand.
He is neither cold nor warm.

Mon pupitre, m.,

My desk.
Votre seur a-t-elle faim ou soif ? Is your sister hungry or thirsty ?

Avez-vous ma lettre? f., Have you my letter?
Il a son fusil, m.,

He has his gun.
Elle n'a pas faim, mais honte. She is not hungry, but ashamed.
Votre ami a-t-il sommeil ?

Il a sa cravate, f.,

He has his cravat. Is your friend sloepy ? Mon ami n'a ni sommeil ni peur. My friend is neither sleepy nor afraid. 4. Before a feminine noun in the singular, commencing with Avez-vous raison on tort? Are you right or wrong?

a vowel or an h mute, the masculine form, mon, ton, son, is used Arez-vous du lait ou du vin ? Have you milk or wine !

[$ 21 (3)]. Je n'ai ni lait ni vin. (R. 3.) I have neither milk nor wine. Arez-vous le lait ou le vin ?

J'ai mon épée, f.,

I have my sword.
Have you the milk or the wine !
Je n'ai ni le lait ni le vin.

C'est son habitude, f., It is his or her habit.
(R. 3). I have neither the milk nor the wine.
Avez-vous de beau drap et de bon Have you handsome cloth and good

Le général a son armée, f., The general has his army. calé ? coffee?

5. The adjectives notre, our; votre, your; leur, their, are used VOCABULARY.

without variation before a noun of either gender in the singular Au contraire, on the Fusil, m., gun. Peur, f., fear, afraid.

[$ 21 (1)]. contrary. Froid, m., cold. Poivre, m., pepper.

Notre argent, m.,

Our silver. Bouton, m., button. Gros, large.

Quel, what, which.

Votre canne, f.,

Your cane. Capitaine, captain. Honte, f., shame, Raison, f., reason, right.

Leur terre, f.,

Their land. Cousin, m., corsin. ashamed.

Rien, nothing. Chaud, m., heat, warm. Mais, but,

6. The possessive pronouns le mien, m., la mienne, f., mine;

Sel, m., salt. Fair, 1., hunger, hun | Marteau, m., hammer. Sommeil, m.,

le tien, m., la tienne, f., thine; le sien, m., la sienne, f., his or

sleep, Menuisier, m., joiner. sleepy.

hers, can never be prefixed to nouns. The article preceding Ferblantier,m., tinman. Petit, small, little. Tort, m., wrong.

these pronouns, and forming an indispensable part of them, EXERCISE 9.

takes the gender of the object possessed ; mien, tien, sien, vary 1. Qui a sommeil ? 2. Mon frère a faim, mais il n'a pas som

for the feminine-nôtre and votre used as pronouns have the

circumflex accent. meil. 3. Avez-vous raison ou tort? 4. J'ai raison, je n'ai pas tort. 5. Avez-vous le bon fusil de mon frère ? 6. Je n'ai pas

J'ai votre livre et le mien,

I have your book and mine. le fusil. 7. Avez-vous froid aujourd'hui ? 8. Je n'ai pas froid;

Elle a sa robe et la mienne,

She has her dress and mine.

Vous avez votre plume et la nôtre, You have your pen and ours. au contraire, j'ai chaud. 9. Avez-vous de bon pain ? 10. Je n'ai pas de pain. 11. N'avez-vous pas faim ? 12. Je n'ai ni

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. faim ni soif. 13. Avez-vous honte ? 14. Je n'ai ni honte ni Votre ami a-t-il le marteau ? Has your friend the hammer? peur. 15. Avons-nous du poivre ou du sel ? 16. Vous n'avez Il l'a, elle l'a.

He has it, she has it.

He has it not. ni poivre ni sel. 17. Quel livre avez-vous ? 18. J'ai le livre de Il ne l'a pas. mon cousin. 19. Avez-vous le marteau de fer ou le marteau N'avez-vous pas l'encrier d'argent? Have you not the silver inkstand! 20. Je n'ai ni le marteau de fer ni le marteau Avez-vous votre fusil ou le mien ?

Nous ne l'avons pas. d'argent ?

We have it not.

Have you your gun or mine? d'argent, j'ai le marteau de bois du ferblantier. 21. Avez-vous Je n'ai ni le vôtre ni le mien. I have neither yours nor mine. quelque chose ? 22. Je n'ai rien. 23. Avez-vous le gros livre son épouse a-t-elle sa robe ou la Has his wife her dress or yours ? dn libraire ? 24. Je n'ai ni le gros livre du libraire, ni le petit vôtre ? livre du menuisier ; j'ai le bon livre du capitaine.

Elle n'a ni la sienne ni la vôtre. She has neither hers nor yours. EXERCISE 10.

Ne l'avez-vous pas ?

Have you it not?
Votre frèro ne l'a-t-il pas ?

Has not your brother it?
1. Are you sleepy, Sir ? 2. No, Sir, I am not sleepy, but I
am hungry. 3. Have you pepper or salt? 4. I have neither

VOCABULARY. pepper nor salt; I have cheese. 5. Is your brother thirsty or Assiette, f., plate. Crayon, m., pencil. Torent, m., relation, hungry? 6. My brother is neither thirsty nor hungry. 7. Is

Biscuit, m., biscuit. Cuisinier, m., cook. Flui, m., dish. your sister right or wrong? 8. She is not wrong, she is right.

Bæuf, m., beef.

Fourchette, f., fork. Poisson, m., fish. 9. Is the good joiner afraid? 10. He is not afraid, but ashamed. Commode, i., chest oj Mouton, m., mutton, Sofa, m.,

Boucher, m., butcher.
Matelot, m., sailor. Porcelaine, f., china.

sofa, 11. Have yon milk or cheese? 12. I have neither milk nor

drawers.

sheep.

Tout, all. cheese; I have butter. 13. Have you the fine cloth or the Couteau, m., knife. Miroir, m.,looking-glass Veau, m., veał, calf. good tea ? 14. I have neither the fine cloth nor the good tea. 15. Is anything the matter with you, my good friend ? 16.

EXERCISE 11. Nothing is the matter with me, my good Sir. 17. Have you

1. Avez-vous la fourchette d'argent ? 2. Oui, Monsieur, je 20 bread? 18. Yes, Madam, I have good bread, good butter, l’ai. 3. Le cuisinier a-t-il le bæuf ? 4. Non, Monsieur, il ne and good cheese. 19. Is the carpenter sleepy ? 20. The car: l'a pas. 5. Quel mouton avez-vous ? 6. J'ai le bon mouton et penter is not sleepy, but the tinman is hungry. 21. Have you le bon veau de boucher. 7. Votre parent a-t-il la commode ? the tinman's wooden hammer? 22. I have not his wooden 8. Non, Monsieur, il ne l'a pas. 9. A-t-il mon poisson ? 10. hammer. 23. Which hammer have you? 24. I have the steel Qui a tout le biscuit du boulanger ? 11. Le matelot n'a ni son hunmer. 25. Have you a good cloth coat ? 26. No, Sir, but pain ni son biscuit. 12. A-t-il son couteau et sa fourchette ? I have a silk dress. 27. Has the tailor the good gold button ? 13. Il n'a ni son couteau ni sa fourchette, il a son assiette. (R. 28. Yes, Sir, he has the good gold button.

4.) 14. Quel plat a-t-il ? 15. Il a le joli plat de porcelaine.

16. Avez-vous le mien ou le sien ? 17. Je n'ai ni le vôtre ni le SECTION VII.-PRONOUNS AND PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. sien, j'ai le nôtre. 18. Avez-vous peur, Monsieur ? 19. Non,

1. The pronouns le, him, it; la, her, it, are, in French, placed Madame, je n'ai pas peur, j'ai faim. 20. Quelqu'un a-t-il ma before the verb.* These pronouns assume the gender of the montre d'or? 21. Non, Monsieur, personne ne l'a. 22. Qu'aveznoun which they represent.

vous, Monsieur ? 23. Je n'ai rien. Voyez-vous le couteau ? m., Do you see the knife?

EXERCISE 12.
Je le vois,

I see it.
Voyons-nous la fourchette? f., Do we see the fork?

1. Have you the silver pencil-case ? 2. No, Sir, I have it not. Nous la voyons,

We see it.

3. Have you my brother's plate ? 4. Yes, Madam, I have it. 2. The vowel of the pronouns le and la is elided before a verb 5. Has the butcher the good biscuit? 6. He has it not; he cominencing with a vowel or an h mute ($ 146].

has the good beef, the good mutton, and the good veal. 7. Avez-vous le bâton ? m.,

Have you my knife and my fork ?* 8. I have neither your Have you the stick ?

knife nor your fork. 9. Who has the good sailor's biscuit ?

I have it. Avons-nous la canne ? f.,

10. The baker has it, and I have mine. 11. Have you mine

Have we the cane ? Nons l'avons,

We have it.

also ? 12. I have neither yours nor his. 13. Are you hungry? Except in the second person singular, and in the first and second * The possessive adjective must in French be repeated before every persons plural of the imperative, used affirmatively.

noun ($ 21 (4)].

Je l'ai,

14. I sin wt hungry, I am thirsty and sleepy. 15. Are you about to copy is composed; and he must also be exact in determut whamed | 18. No, Sir, I am not ashamed, but I am cold. mining the relative position of the points in which these lines 17. Is your relation right or wrong P 18. My relation is right, meet or intersect. When to these directions we have added the sir, 19, Itaa ho my china dish or my silver knife i 20. He following-namely, that the learner must also carefully observe his neither your china dish nor your silver knife; he has your the lengths of the lines which form the angles, we have given Akiima plate, *I, Hlas any one my silver pencil-case ? , 22. No in very few words the instructions that he chiefly requires to intis bus it, but your brother has your cloth coat. 23. Have you | enable him to draw forms, such as ornamental scrolls, flowers, wine or his 94. I have yours,

leaves, single figures, etc., in delineating which he can have no assistance whatever from the rules of linear perspective. Knowing

from practical experience the necessity of repeating instruction, LESSONS IN DRAWING.-II.

whilst personally engaged in teaching, we trust the pupil will

consider our repeating in various ways the more important and The simple example of straight lines, as shown in Figs. 20, 21, essential regulations which guide the mind, and consequently *, 28, will now claim the attention of the pupil ; in these the the hand, as intended to convey a deep impression of their positions of the lines must be indicated by points, marked in the importance. examples by the letters a, b, c, d, etc., taking great care that Before commencing a drawing it should invariably be the their distances from, and their positions with regard to, each ! practice of the pupil, when he has placed his copy before him,

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other shall be correctly arranged before a line is drawn ; let the whether it be a drawing or the object itself, to look carefully letters be a guide as to the order of arrangement. For example, over it for a few minutes, and examine its contours—that is, mark the distance between a and b (Fig. 20), taking care they the bendings of the curves, and the forms which a combination shall be horizontally placed, and that cand d are respectively of these curves present. By this close examination of the subperpendicularly arranged under a and b. In drawing the line ject his mind will receive such an impression of it that, as he a e any number of points between a c may be placed, and so comes to understand its form, first as a whole, and the details with regard to the line b d; e and s must be placed so as to afterwards, the hand, which is only an instrument, will readily allow a straight line to be drawn between them to pass through execute the suggestions which the mind has received. There e and d.The above remarks apply to Fig. 21. In Fig. 22, are many who make the great mistake of supposing that the which is supposed to be a profile or side view of four steps, hand is to receive all the attention in training; on the contrary, mark the line of the inclination of the steps-namely, the dotted let the mind fully understand the subject, and then the hand will line ab: it will not be difficult to arrange the remainder of need less practice in order to fulfil its requirements. In short, this subject, if the pupil has well practised the examples given educate the mind, and the education of the hand will follow. in Tigs, 20 and 21.

Fig. 24, a purse, is almost entirely an example of curved lines, In every example that the learner copies, he must examine like the vine leaf (Figs. 18, 19), but in this there is more uni. and mark with care the character and extent of the angles or formity—that is, the opposite sides have a reversed resemblance openings made by the meeting or internection of any of the lines, to each other. The pupil must notice the position of a and whether traight or curved, of which the example that he is b, c and d, also a and c; 6 and d, and so on, with every other angle or remarkable change which a line takes in its curva- direct lines and curves, advising the pupil not to shade his tare. Perhaps after this remark it will be better to leave the drawings for the present, until he has gained sufficient con. popil to himself whilst copying this subject, as by this time fidence in outline. he must be, we hope, able to anticipate much that would be only The value and importance of a correct and ready method of a repetition of the principles already laid down.

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drawing the simple forms of objects cannot be over-estimated. We have given a vine leaf as a further illustration of this He who is master of this enviable power can apply it to any method of arranging a drawing—that is, marking in its charac- branch of art he pleases. The greatest impediment to the teristio points and angles. (See Figs. 18 and 19). Fig. 18 is the progress of many a pupil is most likely to arise from his imfirst part of the work, which must be carried out as follows:- patient desire to arrive, without a moment's delay, at the power Commence at some important and leading feature of the object; of making a drawing. Irregular and misdirected efforts in say the centre, at a; mark in b; observe the inclination of copying drawings of cottages and stamps of trees appear to be a to b; join a b; mark in c; also observe the distance of a a much more pleasant task than the performance of exercises from b; join a c. The line a de will be found not a direct so arranged as to lead the student from the knowledge of one line, d is the point where it varies ; mark d first and e next; principle to an acqnaintance with another; nevertheless, the join a d and d e; a f g is a similar line; also a hi. These are latter is essential to him who wishes to be master of drawing. the great and leading characteristic lines and points, which The training of the hand and the eye which such exercises are it would be advisable to mark in the order we have written calculated to impart, will make the copying of a large number

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them. The secondary parts are i k c, i m n o p g. The of simple figures as easy as it is to mako alphabetical characters points q and s, t and u, must be arranged with an eye to c, by the conjunction of “straight strokes, pot-hooks, and hangers.” b, and e. These are the minor divisions, all of which must bé The simple figures we are setting before the learner in these respectively joined together by straight lines, or in some special early lessons constitute in fact the alphabet of drawing, and cazes by a curve, as from r to t, or v to e. Partially rub out the with these, if he would make himself a sound draughtsman, crtangement—that is, “ faint it,” and then draw the finished he must become well acquainted; for just as the combination outline as in Fig. 19, which may be, in the detail, further of letters, syllables, and words, forms in the printer's hands "marked in," as the points 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, etc. Let the student either a poem or an auctioneer's catalogue, so does the applicompare both figures as he proceeds.

cation of the elements of linear drawing constitute, in the As the above instructions apply to all flat objects, whether com- hands of the artist, an historical picture, a portrait, a landscape, posed of straight or curved lines, we again urge most earnestly a design for an ornamental framework, or the plan and elevation the strict observance of this practice, as so much depends upon of a building. it for the understanding and successfully carrying out of all that Unacquainted with these elements, how much industry, and we shall have to advance hereafter in these lessons.

even talent, has many a youth thrown away! Let us take an We have added in Figs. 16 and 17, and some smaller copies instance of such a youth. He makes his earliest essays, it may in ontline (which are without numbers, as there is no necessity be, at copying some finished production, or some elaborate to make any special reference to them in our remarks), a few engraving. He tries his best to produce a neat and accurate examples for practice, of subjects in the flat, composed of copy, and he endeavours to give the details of his original

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