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in the lower surface of the frond upper-4.22 Til be seen many rows of dark stripes. These :. zenu, and they contain the sporules of the plant,
54es inerefore may be got by opening the sporidia. en r-garded by the naked eye, look almost liko
examined under a microscope, however, their outling y recognised. The difference between a sporidium Ejundia) and a real seed may be thus explained. - - ly one part (the embryo or germ) from which the
int can spring; whereas a sporule does not refuse to -"7m hy side which may present itself to the necessary -ons of earth and moisture. nougn the sporules are thus easily discoverable in the fern
cae botanical student must not expect to find them seautiy in other members of the cryptogamic tribe, in nuas members of which not only does their position var, is their presence is totally undiscoverable.
SECTION 111.-ON THE ORGANS OF VEGETABLES. weber of the vegetable world which bears a neods, belongs to the phanerogamous Vegetable organs admit of the very natural division into
word punto, to the woomingly for propagation. Hence we may speak of them as nutritive
MOM, and a fow others, and reproductive organs. Nutritive organs consist of leaves,
tormed sporutus or spores. hereafter to be described; whilst the reproductive organs of
have in chans and ex thom preceding lesson, the potato is not a root, but a tuber; an onion Although the lubtor may be is not a root, but a bulb.
A root may be defined as a filamentous or thread-like (Latin bain what thou woulua are like Alumne, a thread) offset from the descending axis of the plant,
- which, bx tha went on wloaf at difforing from the stem itself in certain relations of a botanical platu the meaning of these forum byr struoture, and cach filament ending in a soft absorbent tuft
denominated the spongiole, the function of which consists in say, stole-beaming, which expression requires the previous explaabsorbing moisture, and conveying it into tho structure of the nation of the word stole. A stole, then, is a little stem which plant. Hence the chief and primary use of the root is that of springs from the axilla (literally, arm-pit), or point at which nutrition; but it also serves as a means of enabling the plant to the leaves spring from the stem. The strawberry (Fig. 4) affords take firm hold of the earth in which
al common and well-marked illustrait grows. Representations of various
tion of this kind of root. roots are shown in Figs. 5,6,7,8, and 9.
A bulb is an underground bud, from In most cases, the part at which
the upper part of which the stem the stem ends and the root begins is
arises, and from the lower part of well defined. It is denominated the
which the root descends (Fig. 7). The collar. Althongh the general cha
onion furnishes us with a very familiar racteristic of the root is to seek the
example. ground, as the characteristic of the
Tubers or tubercles are expansions stem is to seek the air, nevertheless
of underground stems, usually constems frequently assume a tendency to
taining much fecular or starchy matter, become roots, and roots to become
and studded with eyes or buds. The stems. A very remarkable example
potato and the dahlia (Fig. 8) furnish of the former tendency is furnished
us with very familiar examples of a by the banyan tree, or ficus religiosa,
tuber. a native of India. This tree has a
The Stem may be eitherannual, biennatural tendency to shoot down pro
nial, or perennial. It is termed annual longations from its stem,
when it becomes developed which, taking root, cover
in the spring and dies the ground with an arbour
before the winter, as, for like growth of most fan
instance, is the case with tastic appearance. The
wheat; biennial, when it opposite tendency is re
lives two years; of this cognisable in certain varie
kind is the carrot, which ties of the elm, which shoot
during the first year only up sprouts from the root
produces leaves, and hav. over large tracts of ground
ing lived two years flowers. in the vicinity of the
and dies. Perennial stems y much
are those which live many to the annoyance of the
years, as is the case with farmer, whose land is thus
trees in general. considerably damaged. Al
gards their hardness, though the essential cha.
trunks or stems are usually racteristic of a stem is to
divided into herbaceous ascend into the air, yet 3. RHIZOME AND ROOT-LEAVES OF
4. STOLONIFEROUS ROOT OF
(Latin, herba, grass), subcertain forms of stem in
ligneous, and ligneous some vegetables exist underground ; of this kind are ginger, | (Latin, lignum, wood). Herbaceous stems are those in which and the so-called orris-root. Stems of this kind are known woody fibre is almost altogether absent, and which are therefore in botany by the appellation of rhizomes (Fig. 3).
soft and juicy; of this kind is the stem of parsley, hemlock, etc. Usually the root is attached by the collar to an ascending Subligneous stems are those in which woody fibre, although stem, from which latter proceed the leaves; in certain plants, present, does not exist in the smaller shoots; of this kind are however—for instance, the primrose-there is no ascending sage and rue, the bases of the stems of which are hard and stem, but an horizontal, underground one (the rhizome) takes woody, and therefore continue for many years, whereas the
its place, and from this the leaves immediately grow ; such, smaller branches and their extremities annually perish, and as leaves are then termed "radical,” that is to say, proceeding often become renewed. from the root, and the plant itself is said to be acauliferous, Shrubs are ligneous plants, the stems of which throw off an from the Greek privative a, without, and the Latin word caulis, undergrowth of stems and flowers at their base, and which a stem.
never attain any considerable dimensions. Of this kind, for Sometimes the root is said to be " stoloniferous,” that is to example, are rose-trees.
That is, a combination of the letter & with the usual sound of SIY TUENCY-IV.
the last syllable of the Engli-h word mother. 31.4 i-EFFETRONICA: qaratinad).
De like dua.
That is, a combination of the letter d. with the usual sound of DE - Uompso liegt ar ahv ilmektust the sand and use the last syllable of the same word, mister
Jr like her. . sommern let me in the foliowing extruet
That is, a combination of the letters sh, with the same sound - tagad ting of the unaooented per fare a mests express them- mentioned in the first example; like the sound of tia last
tu pur utterance of the syllable of the word pleas-ure, as asnat pronounced, but without
it mare la pronunciation of the the sound of the y, which is sometimes beard; ie, pleasure, *****h so as is the low-bred and ignorant and not picas-yure. de** WWunded and sometimes not;
Le like I with preso walidity for foreigners, who, always! That is a combination of the letter 1, with the same sound - Det beture they are able to follow a mentioned in the first example. she saws are inclined to believe that the
Me like mull For 44 4y other people. The trath is That is a combination of the letter on, with the same sound . -- Buiten wurm in general, do not speak faster mentioned in the first example : or like the sound of mu in the
bi ponversation, and in familiar readiag, first syllable of the English word snutter. How 64often as they can do it, and thus
Xo like suk. i vedla wutouco than does a foreigner, who gives
That is, a combination of the letter with the sound men. te to every unaccented e he meets with. tioned in the first example; or like the sound of nu in the English
setelave, an I tho phrase je n'ai pas reçu tout le word aut. Pronounce nu in the word aut, and you have the bi fol shounoad by a foreigner and a Frenchman correct pronanciation of the French word ne.
A-tu-nan-ce-je ne pa re-cu tou le re-te-m-; ! hrill and Frenchman will pronounce, cont-nans—iné
So like suhe in. 1, sounding in the first word two syllables
That is, eractly like the pronunciation of cs as given in the ide in the others would sound four; and in the sentence first example.
Te like tuh. bon, ito ayllables, whero the others would sound ten.'" Tiul custom of clipping or shortening words as much
That is exactly like the sound of the last syllable of the 1
www, ordinary reading and common conversation, is English word wa-ter. pohy douted in the following sentence, namely :
Que like but ,
That is, like the sound of the last syllable of the English "Hand vous serez le mémo, vous me trouverez le on me.
word baker, pronounced rather carelessly. houtence contains thirteen syllables in prose, namely:
1 Take, if you please, another ilustration, Til: the sonnd of us ini se-rez-le-mêms-vous-me-trou-ve-rez-le-même. In postrs, sound of the French word nie. This will gire the correct sound
in the Engësh wori aut, as exp aired above, in illustrating the I would have two syllables. However, in familiar reading of e mate or unaccented. Tuinversation, it is pronounced in eight syllables only, tiz:
The sound of e mate or unaccented resembles the sound of the filmd vou-srel-mêm-loum-trour-rel-mêm. The suppression of letter e of the word the, which is heard in pronouncing quickly da can precisely the reason why foreigners imagize that the these two words viz.—the ai is. Apply the sound of this e, thus Woche speali so very quickly.
37. B, e, Mute or UNACCENTED. — sme s?: 531 like 'propoaned, to the e in the following words, viz.:-, de, je, me, wand of the letter u in the Engih vodo, like the Or lasts, the sound of e mute or unaccented is based upon the w of the last syllable er in the words or as1 nater, when sound of the English a pronounced naturally. Let the organs when quickly. True mute or unaccented " is a mere emission of the voice tion, whilst the lips are protraded as if to port or whistle. Ther,
within the mouth maintain as nearly as possible the same posiwithout any distinct sound. It either seeseeds a consonaat. by whilst the mouth is in this position, endeavour to pronounce thw articulation of which it becomes seasible, or does after a the English a again ; this, in a majority of cases, will give the bowel, of which it may be considered the prolongation" It is confessedly difficult to illastrate the sound of this towel this last-mentioned plan alond, and the car will soon detect the
correct sound of e muts or unaccented. Practise frequently on by the aid of Engish letters, yet it is worthy an honest attempt riciousness or correctness of the sound. is it may be acquired from a teacher. by sort ***; more or less difficult to acquire this sonnd; but perseverance
Most pupils find it it w.ns, all learners are not good imitators: 1 it can be is. Will, in dae time, orervome every obstacle. 1.ai: i ty analogous English sounds, it seems quite remable
Ia illastrating the sound of e mute or unaccented, the follow. i. --pose that thruagh this process many more stei strual and stand and are it that if they were left arms to the ing sigas will bə used. sometimes one, again the other, viz. :-ul,
and the apostrophe, thus:ul.tfal pobey of station Let us tri
| Before the par attesats to praeguste the Freasi Furls
Je by shule, or by j. So by suk, or by s'. used for exampjee ei him obserte Dat esrefers the soul of SECTION VIII. DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES AND the last syllable of the following words, when attered as they
PRONOUNS. usually are in common courersation, sesely:
1. The demonstrative adjectives ce, m., cette, f., this or that, Myth-er, Brother, Sorer, Sis-tar, Vs-ter. are alw::53 placed before nouns; they agree in gender with these Tako any one of the above English words, riz:he first,
nonas $ 20 (1) Ther, Pronounce it naturally and alond with a fil roica
Arez rys e parapluie ? mn.,
Hars you this or that umbrella !
How you not this or that bottle! wayoral times, until the common sound of the last syllable is
Narez-vous pas ette bouteille? L., articular is familiar to the ear. Take each of those words and ,
2. Bxfore a word masculine singular, commencing with a thus praotino, by pronouncing aloud carefully, bat naturally, rowel or ) mate, cet takes the place of $ 20 (1)]. obnovying withio mme time the sound of the last syllable.
Narez vous pas et argent? Have you not this or that money? Now, by what combination of letters would you represent Vous avez ea est hoanear, You have had this or that honour, that soundp By w, as in the first syllable of the English nl wwmuy oy hy why Manifestly the latter. Below are a few difference existing in English between the words this and that,
3. When it is dremel necessary to express in French the Ivanal words, which you will now proeved to pronounce alone, the adverby ci and li may be placed after the nouns (S 20 (2)]. trying to the vowel in each example the last syllablo of t'i je n'ai pas ce parasol-ci, j'ai ce I hire not this parasol, I have that word www.Pronoumaa wwel of the following Fronch words
parasol lady awabpupuy, mi oxelmation mark wova placed
4. Ta demonstrative pronunc celui, m., celle, f., this or that, Aromenil to represent nians, bat are norer joined with thein like miljotivos $ 37(1):
J'ai mon parapluie et celui de votre I have my umbrella and your brothor's 28. The stranger has no poultry, but he has money. 29. Your frère,
-i.e., that of your brother. brother is hungry and thirsty, afraid and sleepy. 30. Is any ono Tous avez ma robe et celle de ma You have my dress and my sister's ashamed? 31. No, Sir, nobody is ashamed.
32. Is your -i.e., that of my sister.
brother right or wrong? 33. My brother is right, and yours is 5. The pronouns celui, celle, with the addition of the words ci
34. Your sister has neither her satin hat nor her and ld, are used in the sense of this one, that one, the latter, the velvet hat. 35. Has the baker the mahogany chest of drawers? former (§ 37 (+)]. They agree in gender with the word which i 36. He has it not, he has the mahogany sofa. 37. Has the they represent.
tinman my plate ? 38. He has not your plate, he has mine. Tous arez celui-ci, mais vous n'avez You have this one (the latter), but pas celui-là, you have not that one (the former).
SECTION IX.-THE PLURAL OF NOUNS ($ 8). 6. The pronouns ceci and cela are used absolutely, that is, the addition of s to the singular.
1. The plural in French is generally formod, as in English, by without a noun, in pointing out objects.
Un homme, une femme,
A man, a woman. Yous n'avons pas ceci, nous avons cela, We havo not this, we have that.
Deux hommes, deux femmes, Two mon, two women. Ceci ou ceh,
This or that.
The form le of the article becomes plural by the addition of s, RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.
and may be placed before plural nouns of either gender. Avez-vous le livre de cet homme ? Have you that man's book ?
Les hommes, les femmes,
The mon, the women. Je n'ai pas son livre, j'ai lu mien. I have not his book, I have mins. Le cuisinier a-t-il ce parapluie ? Has the cook that umbrella ?
2. 1st EXCEPTION TO RULE 1.- Nouns ending in s, x, s, Il n'a pas ce parapluie-ci, il a ce He has not this umbrella, he has remain unchanged for the plural. parapluie là. (R. 3.) that umbrella.
Lo bas, les bas,
The stocking, tho stockings. Arxz-vous celui de votre frère ? Have you your brother's?-i.e., that Li voix, los voix,
Tho voice, the voices. of your brother.
Le nez, les nez.
The nose, the noses. Je n'ai pas celui de mon frère, j'ai I have not my brother's, I have my
3. 2nd EXCEPTION.—Nouns ending with au and eu, tako x for celui de ma soeur. (R. 4.) sister's;-i.e., that of my brother, the plural.
that of my sister. Arez-vous celui-ci ou celui-là ? Have you this one or that one ?
Le bateau, les bateaux, Tho boat, the boats. Je n'ai ni celui-ci ni celui-là. I havo neither the latter nor the former.
Le lieu, les lieux,
The place, the places.
4. 3rd EXCEPTION.—The following nouns ending in ou take J'ai celle-ci. I have this (one).
x for the plural :-bijon, jewel ; caillou, pebble; chou, cabbage; Arez-fous ceci ou cela? (R. 6.) Have you this or that?
genou, knee; hibou, owl ; joujou, plaything. VOCABULARY.
Les bijoux, les cailloux, les choux, The jouels, the pebbles, the cabbages. Arloise, I., slate. Encrier, m.,
inkstand. | Parapluie, m., um- Les liboux, les genoux, les joujoux. The owls, the linees, the playthings. Balai, m., broom. Fromage, m., chesse. brella.
5. 4th EXCEPTION.—The following nouns ending in ail change Bois, m., wood. Jardinier, m., gardener. Plomb, m., lead,
that termination into aux for the plural :--bail, lease ; corail, Bouteille, f., bottle.
Plus, no longer.
coral; émail, enamel; soupirail, air-hole; sous-bail, under-lease; Etranger, m., stranger, Malle, f., trunk. Salière, f., salt stand, travail, labour. foreigner.
Parasol, m., parasol. Volaille, f., poultry. Les baux, les coraux, les émaux. Tho leases, the corals, the enamels.
Les soupiraux, les travaux, les The air-holes, the labours, the under-
leases. 1. Votre frère a-t-il son encrier d'argent ? 2. Il ne l'a plus,
6. 5th EXCEPTION.- Nouns ending in al form their plural il a un encrier de plomb. 3. Avons-nous la lettre de l'étranger ? 4. Oai, Monsiour, nous avons celle de l'étranger. (R. 4.) 5.
Le cheval, les chevaux,
The horso, the horses.
The general, the generals. satin. 6. Le menuisier a-t-il votre bois ou le sien? 7. Il n'a ni le mien ni le sien, il a celui du jardinier. 8. Avez-vous mon
Bal, ball ; carnaval, carnival; chacal, jackal; régal, treat, bon parapluie de soie ? 9. J'ai votre parapluis de soie et votre follow the general rale. parasol de satin. 10. Avez-vous ma bouteille ? 11. Je n'ai pas tor, form their plural irregularly.
7. 6th EXCEPTION.-Ciel, heaven; wil, eye; and aïeul, ancesvotre bouteille, j'ai la malle de votre sour. 12. Le domestique 2-t-il cette salière ? 13. Il n'a pas cette salière-ci, il a celle-là. Les cieux, les yeux, les aïeux, The heavens, the eyes, the ancestors. 14. Avez-vous le bon ou le mauvais poulet? 15. Je n'ai ni For further rules see § 8, § 9, and g 10, of Part II. celui-ci ni celui-là. 16. Quel poulet avez-vous ? 17. J'ai celui
RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. da cuisinier. 18. Le boulanger a-t-il de la volaille ? (Sect. IV. 1.)
the English the general's 19. Le boulanger n'a pas de volaille, il a du lait. (Sect. V. 5.) Les Anglais ont-ils les chevaux du Have
horses ? 20. Arez-vous votre fromage ou le mien ? 21. Je n'ai ni le Les généraux n'ont pas les bijoux. The gonerals have not the jevels. vôtre ni le mien, j'ai celui du matelot. 22. Quelqu'un a-t-il Les enfants ont-ils les cailloux ? Have the children the pebbles ? faim ? 23. Personne n'a faim. 24. Avez-vous quelque chose ? Les yeux de l'enfant.
The child's eyes. 25. Non, Monsieur, je n'ai rien. 26. Avez-vous le sofa d'acajou Les tableaux de cette église. The pictures of that church. de mon menuisier ? 27. Non, Monsieur, jo ne l'ai pas. 28. J'ai Avez-vous les oiseaux de ce bois ? Have you the birds of that wood ? son joli miroir et son bon crayon.
Avez-vous les encriers d'argent də Havo you my sister's silver inkstandı? EXERCISE 14.
J'ai les bijoux d'argent et d'or de I have the gold and silver jewels of 1. Has your brother that lady's umbrella ? 2. My brother
the foreignor. has that lady's umbrella ? 3. Have you this parasol or that Les rois n'ont-ils pas les palais de Have not the king the marble one? 4. I have neither this (one) nor that (one). 5. Have
palaces ? you the stranger's gold watch ? 6. No, Sir, I have the baker's.
VOCABULARY. 7. Who has my slate? 8. I have your slate and your brother's. Baril, m., barrel. Général, m., general. Meunier, m., millor. 9. Has the cook a silver salt stand? 10. The cook has a silver Bas, m., stocking. Gilet, m., vaistcoat. Morceau, m., pieco. salt stand, and a silver dish. 11. Has the cook this poultry Bijou, m., jewel. Grand, adj., larjo, groat. Oisean, m., bird. or that? 12. He has neither this nor that. 13. Has he this Chocolat, m., chocolate. Jardin, m., garden. Paire, f., pair. bread or that? 14. He has neither this nor that, he has the Chou, m., caobage. Joujou, m., plaything. Petit, adj., small. baker's good bread. 15. Have you my cotton parasol ? 16. I Dans, in,
Légume, m., vegetable. Poivre, m., pepper, have not your cotton parasol, I have your silk parasol. 17. Eulant, m., child. Marchand, m., merchant. Qu', que, vhot. Has the gardener a leather trunk? 18. The gardener has a
Fer, m., iron.
Maréchal, m.,Blacksmith. Rien, nothing. leather trunk.
Fils, m., son.
Mauvais, e, bad. 19. Who has my good cheese ? 20. Nobody has your cheese, but some one has your brother's. 21. Have
EXERCISE 15. Fou mine or his ? 22. I have neither yours nor his, I have 1. Avez-vous les marteaux du charpentier ? 2. Nous avons the stranger's. 23. Has the cook this bottle or that broom ? les marteanx du maréchal. 3. Les maréchaux ont-ils doux 24. He has this bottle. 25. Have yon a lead inkstand? 26. marteaux de bois ? 4. Ils ont deux marteaux de for. 5. Les No, Sir, I have a china inkständ. 27. Has the stranger poultry?! généraux ont-ils les chapeaux de soie de l'enfant ? 6. Ils ont
ma soeur ?
i; tt les joujoux de l'enfant. 7. Les enfants ont-ils brother's horses, I have your cousin's hats. 3. Have the blaekUsile votre bois ? 8. Ils n'ont pas les oiseaux de mon smiths good iron ? 4. The blacksmith has two pieces of iron. 1. ints ils ont les chevaux de mon général. 9. Le maréchal 5. Have you two pairs of stockings ?_6. I have one pair of +-t-il une paire du bas de laine? 10. Le maréchal a deux paires stockings and two pairs of gloves. 7. Has your sister the gold
du . 11. Monsieur, n'avez-vous pas froid ? 12. jewels? 8. My sister has the gold jewels and the paper playSun, Monsieur, j'ai chaud. 13. Avez-vous du café ou du things. 9. Have you the cabbages in your garden? 10. We cha rolat? 14. Je n'ai ni café ni chocolat. 15. N'avez-vous have two cabbages in our garden. 11. Have you the silk hats ? piss les choux de mon grand jardin ? 16. J'ai les légumes de 12. The generals have the silk hats. 13. Have you coffee or votre petit jardin. 17. Votre fils, qu'a-t-il ? 18. Mon fils n'a sugar ? 14. We have neither coffee nor sugar. 15. Are your riun. 19. Avez-vous deux morceaux de pain? 20. Le meunier brothers ashamed ? 16. My brothers are neither ashamed nor a un morceau de pain et deux barils de farine. 21. L'épicier afraid. 17. Who has two barrels of flour? 18. The miller has a-t-il du café, du thé, du chocolat, et du poivre ? 22. Il a du two barrels of flour. 19. Have the birds bread ? 20. The thé et du café, et le chocolat et le poivre de votre marchand. birds have no bread. 21. Has the merchant tea, chocolate, 23. Qui a de l'argent ? 24. Je n'ai pas d'argent, mais j'ai du sugar, and pepper? 22. He has sagar and pepper, but he has papier. 25. Avez-vous de bon papier ? 26. J'ai de mauvais neither tea nor chocolate. 23. What has your sister ? 24. She papier.
has nothing. 25. What is the matter with your brother? 26. EXERCISE 16.
Nothing is the matter with him. 27. Is he not cold ? 28. He 1. Have you my brother's horses ? 2. I have not your is not cold, he is warm.
LESSONS IN PENMANSHIP.-IV. rather less than one-fourth of an inch; and Small Hand, on
single lines, and sometimes between double lines threeAs it is impossible for any one who is attempting to teach himself thirty-seconds of an inch apart, or rather less than one-eighth the art of Penmanship to write well without , ractice, we now of an inch. For those who may not have a graduated scale of give three more combinations of pairs of the four letters that the inches, we append a printed scale, showreader has already learned to make, before passing on to other ing the respective widths of the four letters of the alphabet in writing, for whose formation strokes kinds of writing that have been named.
Large Text) inch. are required that differ in shape and character from the first Now, to show our readers how to rule elementary stroke that forms the basis of the letters i, u, t, 1. a page wherein to copy any of the ex
At this stage of our Lessons in Penmanship, it may not be amples that have been or will be given, out of place to say something about the kind of handwriting let us suppose that the learner wishes to
Text Hand inch. that the students of this part of the POPULAR EDUCATOR are prepare paper for copying tl, as in Copy. practising, and to give those who may feel disposed to rule slip No. 10. First rule two lines, one on paper for themselves, in imitation of our copy-slips, a few brief either side of the page, close to the mar
Round Hand A inch. instructions that will enable them to do so.
gin, from top to bottom, taking care that Small Hand 3 inch. First, with regard to the kind or description of handwriting they are parallel to each other—that is to that is set before our readers in our present series of elementary say, at equal distances from each other all the way down. Then copy-slips, it should be said that it is called Large Text, and rule a line across the top of the page, also close to the margin and that it is the largest, plainest, and boldest of the four kinds of at right angles to the parallel lines at the sides of the paper, or handwriting usually practised by learners. The three hands" square with them,” as a joiner would say, and, commencing that yet remain to be named are termed Text Hand, Round from this line, set off with compasses along the side lines disHand or Half - Small or Running Hand. Of these, tances equal to ed, da, ac, cb, in order, as in Copy-slip No. 10, Large Text
on between lines half an inch apart; and repeat this as often as the length of the paper will allow, Text H
ne-third of an inch apart; Round taking care to leave a space of one-fourth an inch between Hand
mty-fourths of an inch apart, or the last of each set of five lines and the first of the next which