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feeding bird. The swallow, which plunges with such reckless in small quantity, and the result of this is that the fish can see impulse through the air, will nevertheless seize a small insect distant objects as well through the air as through the water; as it dashes along with almost unerring certainty. Usually the and this is important, because almost all fish are surface fish; prey is so small, that the wonderful powers of the bird dis- many feed on flies, and most have to be on their guard against played in the chase cannot be observed; but sometimes, when aerial foes. The reader, then, need not be surprised when the the insect has large wings, this dexterity may be seen.

sun-loving shoals of carp or chub all plunge headlong into the The writer has seen a swallow seize, while in headlong flight, depths when he appears on the river bank. the beautiful, scarce swallow-tail butterfly, and shear out its As a singular instance of the adaptation of means to ends, sapid body from between the wide wings, and let them float it is found that all animals, whether reptiles, birds, or brutes, severally down; and then, not satisfied with a feast so little which are amphibious, or which spend much time in the water, proportioned to the splendour in which it was dished up, glance have eyes which, though they differ from those of fish, in some round and seize again the several pieces before they had time things have the same relation of the cornea and lens. Thus to reach the ground. How, then, is a long sight and a keen the whale and the dolphin (which are but brutes which have short sight to be obtained from the same eye? This is done taken to the sea), the cormorant and diver, the frog and the mainly by the aid of the bony plates already described. These crocodile, have all spherical lenses and flat corneæ. are so disposed that the edge of one is capable of sliding over Fish and frogs have on the outer layer of the choroid a layer the edge of its next neighbour, so that when the fibres of the of silvery or golden crystals, and this layer, which is continued muscle which unites them contract they compress the eye all round till it occupies the front layer of the iris, gives to the round and make it more tubular, while the humours of the eye, toad so metallic and bright an eye as to countenance the legend thus subjected to pressure, cause the cornea to protrude more, that it has a jewel in its head. So Shakespeareand also the retina to be removed further from the lens. These

“The toad, ugly and venomous, motions aru, in addition to the adjustment for distance, found

Wears yet a precious jewel in its head.” in mammals.

Intimately connected with this pressure upon and alteration of the dimensions of the humours of the eye, is another pecu

LESSONS IN GERMAN.-IV. liarity in the eye of a bird. This is a puckered, purse-like membrane, which is attached to the optic nerve, which in this

SECTION VIII.-INDEFINITE ARTICLE. class enters into the eye by a slit-like opening. This membrane Tue indefinite article is less varied than the definite, having for is sometimes called a marsupium, from its resemblance to a the masculine and neuter nominative but one form, as— purse, and sometimes a pecten, from its supposed likeness to a comb. It stretches to the interior of the eye to a different

Masculine : ein Mann, a man. Neuter : ein Glas, a glass. extent in different birds, and is composed of a tangled mass of DECLENSION OF THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE MASCULINE AND blood-vessels, mixed with pigment granules. Whether this is

NEUTER WITH NOUNS. simply an erectile organ, which can rapidly contract and enlarge


Nenter. suddenly as it is deprived of or injected with blood, or is capablo N. Gin Mann, a man; ein Kind, a child ; of feeding the vitreous humour with liquid strained by it from

G. Eines Mannes, of a man; eines Kindes, of a child ; the blood, and draining it off again as circumstanees require, is

D. Einem Manne, to, fora man; einem Kinde, to, for a child ; not known.

A Ginen Mann, a man ; ein Kind, a child. The eyes of reptiles are so different from one another, ranging in structure between the eye of the bird and that of the fish, OF THE COMPOUNDING OF NOUNS IN GERMAN. that it is better at once to pass on to a description of an eye 1. Nouns are more frequently compounded in German than adapted to sight in water.

in English; and accordingly one word in German often requires A fish, living as it does in an atmosphere which is many hun- for its full translation several in English, as :dred times denser than air, and by no means so transparent, Wirkungsfreis, sphere of action (action sphere); must have an eye suited to look at near objects. It must

Sdwimmvogel, web-footed bird (swimming fowl); therefore be able to concentrate the rays of light rapidly; yet

Lastthier, beast of burden (burden animal); it is under this disadvantage, that as it is only when passing

Zugthier, draught animal ($ 2.7); from a rare into a dense transparent convex substance that

Hausthier, domestic animal (house animal). diverging rays are bent towards one another, and the original rays pass through a dense medium, the cornea and aqueous

VOCABULARY. humours can play no part in the bending of the rays towards Bant, n. ribbon. Kaufmann, m. mer. Schmied, m. blackone another, for they are of about the same density as water. Ein, a, an.


smith. The whole duty of refraction must thus be done by the lens. Eisen, n. iron. Lastthier, n. beast of Schwert, n. sword. This is very dense, and of the sheets of which it is made up the Empfehlungebrief

, m. burden.

Stoc, m. stick, cane. inside are denser than the outside, while it is so convex both

letter of recom. Oberhof'richter, m. Tuch, n. cloth. before and behind as to become a perfect globe.

mendation. Both the consistence and shape of the round lens may be Feind, m. enemy.

judge of the supe. Tuch'hantler, m. dra. rior court.

per. seen by squeezing it out of the eye of a cooked fish, even by Geset'buch, law. Papier'handler, m. pa- Wagner, m. carriage. those whose taste for comparative anatomy is only stimulated book.


maker. at the dinner-table.

Gewehr', n. gun. Pflug, m. plough. Zugtbier, n. draught In connection with this kind of lens we have a shallow eye. Kameel', n. camel.

animal. In other words, if the cornea, through which light enters, be turned upwards, the back of the eye on which the retina is

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. spread resembles a saucer, and not a cup as it does in animals Der Wolf ist ein Raubthier. The wolf is a beast of prey. and birds.

Der Zim'mermann ist ein Hant. The carpenter is a mechanic. This is so much the case, that even though the hard capsule werfer is shallower than in brutos, there is still left a large space Der Hammer ist ein Werfzeug. The hammer is a tool (an isbetween this and the choroid, and even this latter has between

strument). two of its layers a horse-shoe shaped "gland” composed of Das Bin'devort ist ein Retetheil. The conjunction is a part of blood vessels, something like the pecten of a bird, though in a

speech. different place, and with exactly a converse function.

Der Name eines Dinges ist ein The name of a thing (substance) The hard outer coat is strengthened and held to its form by Dingwort.

is a substantive. a cup-shaped bone or cartilage, which occupies the parts which Das Kind liebt den Großvater. The child loves the grandfather. are left unoccupied by the bird's eye-bones; because while the

EXERCISE 9. latter are used to elongate the eye this maintains a shortened axis.

1. Hat ein Mann, oder ein Kind ben Stock dieses Freuntes? 2. Diciet The cornea, or window, and the watery find behind it being Mann hat ein Schwert eines Feindes, und dieses Kind hat den Stoc cixes uses to collect the rays, are left, the one flat and the other Freundes. 3. Was hat der Jäger ? 4. Er þat einen Hund und cia


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Geinebr. 5. Ber þat ten Pflug des Bauers ? 6. Der Vater dieses Attributive. Predicative. Kinte hat den Pflug. 7. Hat dieser Schmied sas Geld des Kaufmanns ? Das hart.e Cijen ist núžlidy. The hard iron is useful. 8. Nein, er hat nur Gisen von einem Kaufmanne. 9. Haben Sie ten Dieser schön-e Vogel ist weiß. This beautiful bird is white. Bagen bes Baders? 10. Nein, ich habe riesen Wagen von einem Wag. Dieses weiß -e Bapier ist schön. This white paper is beautiful. 11. Haben Sie das Band dieses Mädchens ? 12. Nein, ich habe Einiger roth-e Wein.

Some (a little) red wine. Ind von einem Tuchhändler. 13. Žaben Sie den Rock dieses Freundes ? Einiges roth-e Papier.

Some (a little) red paper. 14. Nein, ich habe diesen Rod von einem Schneiter. 15. Haben Sie das Ieder zufrieden-e Mann ist Every contented man is happy. Bavier tes Sehrers? 16. Nein, ich habe diejes Papier von einem Papier, glüdlich. þintler, und einem Empfehlungebrief von dem Lehrer. 17. Ist das Pferd Jedes glüdlich - < Kind ist zu. Every happy child is contented. ein Zugthier? 18. Ja, und es ist auch ein Lastthier? 19. Ist das Kameel frieden. auch ein Zugthier? 20. Nein, es ist nur ein Lastthier ? 21. Wessen Jener schön-e Baum ist groß. Yonder (that) beautiful tree is Gefeßbuch hat der Sohn des Edelmanns ? 22. Er hat das Gefeßbuch des

large. Oberhofrichters

Jenes groß-e Pferd ist schön. Yonder (that) large horse is


Mancher gut-e Mann ist arm. Many a good man is poor. The adjective has thus far been employed only predicatively, Manches schön-e Mädchen ist eitel. Many a beautiful girl is vain. in which use it is unvaried in form, as

Solcher fein-e Stahl ist fostbar. Such fine steel is costly.

Solches Postbar-e Tuch ist fein. Such costly cloth is fine. Stahl ist hart, steel is hard, Blei ist weich, lead is soft.

Welcher alt-e Mann ist glüdlich? Which old man is happy ? The terms attributive and predicative have, in grammar, a Welches flein-e Kind ist zu. Which little child is contented? strictly conventional sense, and should be distinctly understood. frieden? If we say, The deep river is here (der tiefe Fluß ist hier), the adjec

EXERCISE 10. tive deep is attributive: for the quality, depth, is there referred to as a known and recognised attribute of the river. If we say,

1. Ist dieser junge Mann der Sohn des Capitains ? 2. Nein, er ist der The river is deep here (ter Fluß ist hier tief), the adjective is pre-Sohn des alten Webers. 3. Wer hat das Nadelkissen dieses fleinen Mäd

5. Wer hat das dicative, for we then merely affirm or predicate of the river that deng? 4. Dieses kleine Kind des guten Freundes hat es. it has the quality, depth.

schöne Pferd bei guten Dheims? 6. Der junge Goldschmied hat es. 7. When used attributively, the adjective is variad by the addi- Wer hat den großen schwarzen Hund des Jägers ? 8. Der junge Pruder tion of suffixes.

des Kaufmanns hat ihn. 9. Hat das kleine Kind das scharfe Messer des 1. When not affected by a preceding word, the adjective is guten Bruders ? 10. Nein, es hat den neuen Kamm des guten Mädcheng. inflected according to

11. Hat der junge Freund des alten Uhrmachers das schöne Pferd des alten

Knechtes? 12. Nein, er hat das Pferb des reichen Engländers. 13. THE OLD DECLENSION.

Haben Sie den Fract des guten Schneiders ? 14. Nein, ich habe diesen Masculine.


neuen Frad von dem guten Schneider. 15. Haben Sie das Tuch tijes N. Gut-er Stahl, good steel ; gut-es Eisen, good iron;

armen Webers ? 16. Nein, ich habe Tuch, von dem Weber. 17. 3ft 6. Gute Stahls, of good steel ; gut-e8 Gisens, of good iron; aller alte Wein Stark ? 18. Nein, und nicht aller neue Wein ist schwach. D. Gut-em Stahle, to good steel; gut-em Eisen, to good iron;

19. Der neue Frack ist von Schwarzem Tuche. 4. Gut-en Stahl, good steel ; gut-es Gisen, good iron.

SECTION X.-DECLENSION OF ADJECTIVES (continued). The genitive of the old form is now seldom used ; that of the new form being preferred. Thus, guten Stah18; guten

When preceded by any one of the following words-
Eisens, x., instead of gutes Stahls ; gutes Eisens, ac.

Masculine. Neuter. Masculine. Neuter.
Ein, ein (a or an);

unser, unser (our); 2. When preceded by any of the following words

Mein, mein (my);

Shr, 3hr (your); Masculine. Neuter. Masculine. Neuter.

Dein, dein (thy);

euer, cuer (your); baš (the) ; jeber, jedes (every);

Sein, sein (his, its);

ihr, ihr (their); Dieser, , tiefes (this); jener, jenes (that);

Shr, ihr (her);

kein, kein (no, or not any); Aller, alles (all); mancher, manches (many a);

the adjective has, in the nominative masculine and in the Siniger, einiges (some); folcher, solches (such);

nominative and accusative neuter, the terminations of the old Erlicher, etliches (some); welcher, welches (which);

declension, and, in all the other cases, those of the new, and is the adjective adds, in the nominative masculine and in the said to be of Dominative and accusative neuter, the letter e, and in all the

THE MIXED DECLENSION. other cases en; and is inflected according to



N. Mein gut-er, my good; mein gut-e8, my good;

G. Meines guten, of my good; meines guten, of my good;


D. Meinem guten, to, for my good; meinem guten, to, for my good; N. Der gut-e, the good; das gut-e, the good;

A. Meinen guten, my good; mein gut-ed, my good.
G. Des guten, of the good ; des guten, of the good ;
D. Dem guten, to, for the good; ten guten, to, for the good ;

1. In the preceding list of words, ein, mein, dein, X., it will N. Den guten, the good; das gut-e, the good.

be seen that their form for the masculine and neuter is the same;

and hence that they do not like the previous class, der, dieser, VOCABULARY.

2., and like adjectives of the old declension) indicate the gender udet, all. Jung, young. Schön, beautiful, fine. of the nouns which they precede. The adjective, therefore, by

taking the characteristic terminations (er for the masculine and Engländer, m. Eng. Klein, small, little. Schwach, weak, feelishman. Messer, n, knife.


es for the neuter) assumes the office of pointing out the gender

of its noun, as Gract, m. dress-coat. Na'delkissen, n. pin- Schwarz, black. Geltschmied, m. gold. cushion.

Starf, strong.

Masculine : Gin groß-er Stein, a great stone.
Neu, new.
Uhr'macher, m. watch-

Neuter : Ein groß-es Schiff, a great ship.
Groß, great, large. Dheim, m. uncle. maker.
Gut, good, well. Scharf, sharp. Weber, m. weaver.


Aber, but.
Lamm, n. lamb.

Steil, steep.

Nicht, not.

Stets, always. DECLENSION.

Faul, lazy, idle. Schaf, n. sheep. Thier,n.animal, beast.
Fett, fat.

Schuß. m. protection, Tief, deep.
Attributive. Predicative,

Holländer, m. Dutch. defence.

Treu, true, faithful. aller bart-e Stahl ist núßlich. All hard steel is useful.

Schwein, n. swine. Zufrie'ben, contented, alles nüßlich-e Gisen ist hart. All useful iron is hard.


THE NEW Dach, n. roof.

3hr, your.
Sein, his.

satisfied. Der nuplid-e Stahl ist hart. The useful steel is hard. Keller, m. cellar. Sopha, n, sila. Weiß, white.




Predicative. ADJECTIVES IN THE NOMINATIVE AFTER THE MIXED Ihr groß-c8 Feld ist grún. Their large field is green. DECLENSION.

Kein gut-er Stahl ist gelb. No good steel is yellow. Attributive. Predicative.

Kein gut-e8 Silber ist gelb. No good silver is yellow. (Com. Gin warm-er Red ist gut. A warm coat is good.

pare Sect. IX. 3.) Gin warm- e$ Kleit ist gut. A warm garment is good.

Mein guter Hund ist alt. My good dog is old.
Mein alt-e8 Pfert ist gut. My old horse is good.

1. Ist Ihr guter Freund, der Capitain, nod ein junger Mann? 2. 3a, Dein schön-er Vogel ist weiß. Thy beautiful bird is white. er ist noch jung, aber sein guter Freund, der Hollander, ist alt. 3. Haben Dein weiß-c8 Papier ist i dyön. Thy white paper is beautiful. Sie einen schönen, großen Hund? 4. Nein, ich habe ein schönes, großes Sein bart-er Stahl ist gut. His hard steel is good.

Pferd. 5. Hat Ihr kleines Kind mein neues Messer ? 6. Nein, aber 3hr Sein gut-e8 Gijen ist hant. His good iron is hard.

guter Sohn hat Ihren neuen Stod. 7. Hat der Fleischer ein fettes Soaf? 3hr gut-er Bruter ist llein. Her good brother is small. 8. Ja, und sein guter Sohn hat ein schönes, weißes Lamm. 9. If Ihr 3hr flein-e8 Kind ist gut. Her little child is good. Freund, ter junge Holländer, reich oder arm? 10. Er ist nicht reich, aber linjer groß-er Baum ist schon. Our large tree is beautiful. er ist zufrieden. 11. Ein zufriedener Mann ist auch reich. 12. Ein reicher Unser schön-e8 Saus ist groß. Our beautiful house is large. Mann ist nicht stets ein zufriedener Mann. 13. Ihr großes Haus þat ein Guer alt er Koffer ist schwarz. Your old trunk is black.

steiles Dach und einen tiefen Keller. 14. Von wem baben Sie Ihr neues Cuer schwarz-e8 Band ist alt. Your black ribbon is old. Sopha ? 15. Ich habe es von einem guten Freunde. 16. Das Sowein 3hr grün-er Garten ist groß. Their green garden is large. ist ein faules, fettes Thier. 17. Ein treuer Freund ist ein starker Souş.

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It is needful, therefore, for the learner to become acquainted

with a third elementary stroke before he can proceed to the HITHERTO the attention of the learner has been confined to formation of any new letters, and this he will find in the top letters based on the elementary stroke called the “pot-hook” and bottom-turn shown in Copy-slip No. 12. This stroke enters or "bottom-turn." He may now proceed to copy the next into the composition of six letters of the writing alphabet, as elementary stroke, called the top-turn" or " hanger," as shown the learner will find in future lessons. It consists of a fine in Copy-slip No. 11.

| hair-stroke, commenced at the central line e c, brought upwards This stroke will be found to enter into the composition of towards the right in a gentle curve, and turned at the upper three letters only, and therefore plays by no means so important line a a into a broad down-stroke, which is again narrowed as it a part in the formation of the writing alphabet as the bottom- approaches the lower line b b into a fine hair-stroke that is turn, which, as it has been already said, enters into the turned and carried upwards towards the right. It may be decomposition of no less than nine. It consists of a fine hair. scribed as being formed of the upper half of the top-turn and stroke, commenced on the central line e c, and carried upwards the lower half of the bottom-turn, joined together on the in a direction bending gradually towards the right, as far line c c. as the upper line a a, where it is turned and changed into When the learner can make these strokes with ease, he will a broad down-stroke, which is brought downwards, with an find that he is in a position to form two more letters of the equal pressure of the pen throughout, as far as the lower writing alphabet without any difficulty whatever, while he has line 0.

also advanoed more than half-way towards the formation of the The top-turn may be described as being precisely the reverse seven other letters that are partly made by the aid of these of the bottom turn; or, in other words, the bottom-turn reversed, strokes. He may now proceed to copy the letters n and m, as as may be seen by turning the page upsido down, and examin- shown in Copy-slips Nos. 13 and 14, observing that the letter ing the stroko in ition. It is only used in combination n consists of a combination of these two strokes only, the topwith other la

in forming lottore, for unlike the turn being made first, and the top-and-bottom-turn added to bottom-tum

of the writing alphabet which is it, while in the letter m the top-turn is repeated twice, and formod

even by its repetition or any the letter is then completed by the addition of the top-andmodif



by 5.


is contained 3 times and 1 over. LESSONS IN ARITHMETIC.--V.

Write the quotient 3 under the second figure in the dividend, and prefixing the reDIVISION

maining 1 to the 5, say, 4 in 15 is contained 3 times and 3 over. 1. The process of finding how many times one number is con- Write the quotient 3 under the third figure in the dividend, and tained in another is called Division.

prefixing the remaining 3 to the 6, say, 4 in 36 is contained 9 The number to be divided is called the Dividend.

times, with no remainder, and write down the 9 under the last The number by which we divide is called the Divisor.

or unit's figure of the dividend. The result-viz., the number of times which the Dividend It will be seen that when, to get the first figure of the contains the Divisor—is called the Quotient (Latin quoties, quotient, we say 4 in 5 is contained once, with remainder 1, we "how often ").

really indicate that 4 is contained in 5000 1000 times, with reThe sign - placed between two numbers means that the first mainder 1000, which 1000 we carry on to add to the next three is to be divided by the second. Thus, 19 = 5 means 19 divided of the dividend, which really indicates 300, and so on; as will

be seen by comparing the process with the analysis of the method If the Dividend does not contain the Divisor an exact number in Article 4. of times, it will contain it a certain number of times (the 6. To divide 7499 by 9. Quotient) with a number left over, which will be less than the

9)7499 Divisor. The number left over in this case is called the Remainder.

Thus, when we say that 5 is contained in 19 3 times and 4 over, 19 is the dividend, 5 the divisor, 3 the quotient, and 4 the Here, since 7, the first figure of the dividend, is less than the remainder.

divisor, 9, we take two figures of the dividend, and say, 9 in 74 This fact may be exhibited in the following form :

is contained 8 times, with a remainder 2, and put down th

under the second figure of the dividend (reckoning from the left 19 = 3 5 + 4

hand). Then, proceeding as in the previous example, we say, 2. It will readily be perceived that division is, in reality, only 9 in 29 is contained 3 times and 2 over; and again, 9 in 29 is 2 short method of performing a series of subtractions, in the contained 3 times and 2 over. This last 2 is 2 units, and is same way as multiplication is a convenient method of perform therefore the remainder left after dividing 7499 by 9. It is ing a series of additions. For instance, to find how many times generally written after the quotient, as above. 5 is contained in 19, subtract 5 (the divisor) continually from 19 (the dividend), until the number is exhausted, or a number divisor is a small number (generally one figure), is called Short

This method, which is only conveniently applicable when the less than 5 is left; then, counting the number of these subtrac. Division. tions, we shall get the quotient. Thus, 5 from 19 leaves 14, 5

EXERCISE 8. from 14 leaves 9, 5 from 9 leaves 4. Since 5 has been subtracted 3 times from 19, leaving 4 as a remainder, we see that (1.) Divide 658 by 2; 537 by 3; and 7891011 by 6. 19 divided by 5 has 3 for its quotient, leaving 4 as a remainder. (2.) Divide 4389127 by 8; 407792 by 11 ; and 5349279 by 9.

N.B.-It is evident, from the nature of division, that the (3.) Divide 41239789 by 12; and 54937862 by 5. product of the quotient and divisor, added to the remainder, is (4.) Divide each of the numbers contained in the square in equal to the dividend.

Ex. 4, page 23, successively by 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12. 3. Method of Division.—The method we are about to explain (5.) Divide each of the numbers contained in the square in depends upon the truth of the following principle :

Ex. 4, pago 23, successively by 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12. If the dividend be split up into any number of parts, of (6.) Divide each of the numbers 1010421690, 7689768432134, which the sum is equal to the dividend, then, if we divide each 54932684736856, and 428571428571496, by all the numbers part separately by the divisor, the sum of all the quotients so from 2 to 12 inclusive. obtained will be the quotient required.

7. To divide 9298 by 35. For instance, 18 is equal to the sum of 9 and 6 and 3. The quotients of these, divided respectively by 3, are 3, 2, and 1, number of times which 35 is contained in 92 is 2

Arrange the figures as in the margin; then say, the largest which, added together, make 6, the quotient of 18 divided by 3.

35)9298(265 Similarly, 36 is 28 + 8, and therefore 36 divided by 4 is the times. Write the 2 on the right, to form the first sum of the separate quotients of 28 and 8 by 4, which are 7 and 70—from 92, leaving 22. Annex to this remainder

figure of the quotient, and subtract 2 X 35--i.e., 2 respectively. Hence 7+2, or 9, is the required quotient. It must be observed that if, the quotient of a given dividend the next figure (9) in the dividend, thus making

it 229. and divisor being known, the dividend be increased by annexing any number of ciphers to it, the new quotient is obtained by contained in 229 is 6 (which must be found by trial).

Then say, the greatest number of times that 35 is annexing the same number of ciphers to the quotient. Thus, 23 divided by 4 has the quotient 7; and 28000 divided by 1 Put down the 6 to form the next figure in the is 4000.

quotient, and subtract 6 times 35--i.e., 210—from 4. To divide 5356 bg 4.

229, leaving a remainder 19. To this annex the last figure (8)

of the dividend, making it 198. 5356 = 5 thousands + 3 hundreds + 5 tens + 6 units.

Then say, the greatest number of times which 35 is contained Now 5 contains 4 once, with remainder 1; therefore 5 thousands in 198 is 5. Write down the 5 to form the next figure in the contain one thousand times, with remainder 1 thousand.

Add this remaining 1 thousand to the 3 hundreds, thus making 13 quotient, and subtract 5 times 35–i.e., 175—from 298, leaving hundreds.

23. 265 is the required quotient, and 23 is the remainder. Now 13 contains # three times, with remainder 1; therefore 13 hun.

Hence 9298 = 265 x 35 +23. dreds contain of three hundred times, with remainder 1 hundred.

8. A careful examination of the above process will show that Add this remaining 1 hundred to the 5 tens, thus making 15 tens. what we have really done is equivalent to saying: 35 is con

Now 15 contains 4 three times, with remainder 3: therefore 15 tens tained in 92 hundreds two hundred times, with a remainder 22 contain 4 thirty times, with remainder 3 tens, or 30.

hundred; then, subtracting 200 times 35--1.2., 7 thousandAdd this remaining 30 to the 6 units, thus making 36 units.

from 9298, we have 2298 left. Now $6 units contains 4 nine times. Therefore 1 thousand, 3 hundreds, three tens, and 9 units are the

Next we say: 35 is contained in 229 tens sixty times, with a number of times the parts into which 5356 has been divided contain remainder of 19 tens; then subtracting 60 times 35-j.C., 2100 the divisor 4 respectively. Their sum, therefore, is the required

--from 2298, we have 198 left. quotient: this is

Next we say : 35 is contained five times in 198, with a re1 thousand + 3 hundreds + 3 tens + 9 units, i.c. 1339.

mainder 23. 5. The above is the analysis of the following shorter process, the dividend, again, 60 times from what is left, and again, 5 times

Hence we sce that after taking away 35, first, 200 times from and will be seen fully to explain it :

Write down the dividend and divisor as in the margin; 4)5356 from what is left, we have 23 units over, a number which is less then say 4 in 5 is contained 1 time, with 1 over. Write

than 35.

1339 the quotient 1 under the 5, and placing the remaining

Hence we see that 35 is contained in 92981 before the next figure of the dividend 3, say, 4 in 13

200 + 60 + 54.c., 265 times-with a remainder 23.


229 210

198 175



I owe.



We might have written down the process thus :


35)9298 (200

1st per. Mondo, I remind 1st per. Mončor, I am reminded 7000

2nd Monës, thou remindest and Monēris, thou art reminded 3rd

Mondt, he reminds. 3rd 35) 2298 (60

» Monitur, he is reminded. Plural.

Plural. 1st per. Monimus, we remind 1st per. Moněmur, we are reminded 2nd

2nd 35) 198(5

Monētis, you remind , Monēmini, you are reminded 175

3rd Monent, they remind. 3rd » Monëntur, they are reminded


Deběo, 2

Morděo, 2 I bite. Terrěo, 2 I frighten. The quotient is therefore 200 + 60 + 5, or 265, and the Docěo, 2 I teach. Mověo, 2 I move. Timěo, 2 I fear.

Exercèo, 2 I exercise. remainder 23.

Parěo, 2 I obey. Et (conj.) and.

Tacěo, 2 I am silent. Si (conj.) if. 9. The above explanations will sufficiently elucidate the Florěo, 2 I flourish.

Gaudéo, 2 I rejoice. Teněo, 2 I hold. following

EXERCISE 5.–LATIN-ENGLISH. Rules for Division :

1. Debes. 2. Docet. 3. Exercétur. 4. Florémur. 5. Gaudémini. (1.) When the divisor contains only one figure, write the 6. Mordentur. 7. Movémus. 8. Movétis. 9. Movent. 10. Times, divisor on the left of the dividend, with a curved line between 11. Timet. 12. Terrétur. 13. Terrémini. 14. Debeo parére. 15. Si them. Beginning at the left hand, divide successively each paretis laudamini. 16. Si tacemus laudámur. 17. Docéris et edu.

18. Tacent et landántur. figure of the dividend by the divisor, and place each quotient caris.

19. Mórdeor et vulneror. 20. Si figure directly under the figure divided. If there be a remainder vulneras vituperáris. 21. Tenentur. after dividing any figure, prefix it to the next figure of the

EXERCISE 6.-ENGLISH-LATIN. dividend, and divide the number so formed as before. If there

1. Thou fearest and art frightened. 2. If I am silent I am blamed. occur any figure which does not contain the divisor, place a 3. He rejoices. 4. We rejoice. 5. They rejoice. 6. He tries to bite. cipher in the quotient, and prefix this figure to the next one of 7. We try to educate. 8. Thou obeyest and art praised. 9. We bite. the dividend, as if it were a remainder, and proceed in the same 10. If we bite we are blamed. 11. They exercise. 12. You are moved. manner to the last figure.

13. He dances. 14. They are delighted. 15. You are adorned. (2.) When the divisor contains more than one figure, beginning N.B.-In this exercise, and in those which follow, words and on the left of the dividend, find how many times the divisor is forms previously given are repeated for the sake of practice. contained in the first fewest figures of the dividend which will contain it, and place the quotient figure on the right hand of the

THIRD CONJUGATION. dividend, with a curred line between them; then multiply the

ACTIVE VOICE. divisor by this figure, and subtract the product from the figures


PERSON-ENDINGS. divided. To the right of the remainder bring down the next


Plural. figure of the dividend, and divide the number so formed as


Plural. - Imus, we

I -mur, we before. If this number be less than the divisor, annex a cipher

-is, thou -itis, ye

eris, thou

-imini, ye to the quotient, and bring down the next figure continuing this

he -unt, they. -Itur, he -untur, they. process until the number thus obtained be equal to or greater than the divisor. Proceed in this manner until all the figures

EXAMPLE.—Rěgěre, to rule or guide: stem, reg. of the dividend are exhausted.


Singular. 10. Tests of Correctness of Dirision :

1st per. Rego, I rule 1st per. Regor, I am ruled (1.) Multiply the divisor by the quotient, and add the re- and Regis, thou rulest' and Regëris, thou art ruled

3rd Regit, he rules. 3rd mainder to the product. This should, as already explained, give

Regitur, he is ruled. the dividend.



Ist (2.) Subtract the remainder, if any, from the dividend, and

per. Regimus, ne rule 1st per. Regimur, we are ruled 2nd

2nd divide the difference so obtained by the quotient. The result

Regitis, you rule

Regimini, you are ruled

3rd Regunt, they rule. 3rd Reguntur, they are ruled. should be equal to the divisor, if the working be correct.


Cedo, 3
I yield.

Lego, 3 I read. Seribo, 3 I rrite. (1.) Divide 47839 by 42; 75043 by 52; and 93840 by 63.

Defendo, 3 I defend. Occido, 3 I slay. Vinco, 3 I conquer.
Diligo, 3 I love.

Decido, 3 I fall. Bene (adv.) Well. (2.) Divide 325000 by 85; 421645 by 74; and 999999 by 47. Fallo,'3 I deceive. Pingo, 3 I paint. Male (adv.) nI. (3.) Divide 145260 by 1345; and 1912500 by 425.

Lædo, 3 I injure. Pungo, 3 I prick. Valde (adv.) Vuch. (4.) Divide 8893810 by 37846; and 9302688 by 14356. (5.) Divide 9749320 by 365 ; 65358547823 by 2789; and

EXERCISE 7.-LATIN-ENGLISH. 908070605040 by 654321.

1. Fallis. 2. Falktur. 3. Fallimur. 4. Pallo et vituperor. 5. (6.) Divide 10000000000000000 by 111; -100000000000 by Cedit. 6. Legis. 7. Seribit. & Bene legit. 9. Valde fallis. 10. Si 333 ; and 10000000000000000 by liill.

diligitur gaudet. 11. Pangimur. 12. Vincis. 13. Vincimur. 14. Vin

15. Decidit. cuntur.

16. Decidis. (7.) Divide the product of 12345 multiplied by 67890 by 97,

17. Si occidis vituperáris.

18. Bene modet. 19. Male educaris. 20. Morémur valde. 21. Sal. 213, 4351, 59, 847, and 6939.

támus et gaudémus. 22. Lolitar. 23. Lædimini. 24. Defenditis.
3. Defenduntur. 36. Diligor.


1. I obey. 2. If I obey I am loved. 3. He is loved much. 4. He PRELIMINARY INSTRUCTIONS IN THE VERBS OF THE FOUR writes well. 5. They paint ill & They dance well. 7. I rejoice if he CONJUGATIONS (continued).

reads mueb. & Thon paintest... They obey and are praised. 10.

If you rule well you are lored. 11. They defend 12. You are defended.

13. He is deceired 14 They are pricked.







Singular. Plural.

Singular. Plural.


ins, thou
--ains, re

ter, I

nur, we thou

int tha thes. stez, he cetur, they.

Prentur, thes, ELE-Moner, to remind : stem, mon

EXAMPLE. —Andire, to hear : stem, evd.

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