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IN FRENCH.— VI.
RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.
Avez-vous des écoliers attentifs ? Have you attentive scholars ? ni FRENCH PRONUNCIATION (continuod).
Mes écoliers et mes écolières sont My scholars (male and female) are IN444 AND SOUND OF THE VOWELS.
très attentifs et très-studieux. very attentive and rery studious, Hii. Naime, E., ee; sound, like the letters ee in the ces demoiselles sont-elles studi. Are those young ladies studious ? to wont sed.
Are those rules general ?
Those principles are general. long, as ee in the English word see, and short, like i in the Avez-vous peur de ces chevaux Are you afraid of those restize Laglish word pin, or nearly like it. It becomes nasal in com
horses ? bination with the letters m and n, in which case the character Vos montres d'or sont excellentes. Your gold watches are excellent. of its own sound is completely changed, which is indeed truo of I.es miennes sont-elles meilleures Are mine better than yours ? all the vowels.
que les vôtres ? In these Lessons, the vowel 1, i, will be represented by the Les vôtres sont meilleures que les Yours are better than mine.
Agréable, agreeable. Mauvais, -e, bad. Souvent, often,
Travail, m., labour. Cire Seer
Pantoufles, f., slippers. Utile, useful.
Indulgent, -e, indulgent Personne, m., nobody. Velours, m., velvet. Il
Meel Thousand. Laine, f., vool; voollon. Rétif, -ve, restive. Vif, -ve, quick, lively. Ee-ris Iris.
Maroquin, m., morocco.
EXERCISE 21. 42. Î, i, CIRCUMFLEX.—Name, EE, ee; sound, like the letters
1. Les chevaux de notre ami sont-ils rétifs ? 2. Ses chevaux ce in the English word see; sound prolonged.
ne sont pas rétifs, mais ses mules sont très-rétives. 3. Les
chevaux et les mules de votre frère sont excellents. 4. Vos EXAMPLES
seurs sont-elles très-vives? 5. Mes frères et mes sœurs sont FRENCH. PRONUN.
ENGLISH, FRENCH. PRONUN. ENGLISH. très-vifs. 6. Sont-ils souvent oisifs ? 7. Non, Monsieur, mes Abime Ab-eem Abyss.
Epitre Ay-peetr Epistle. scurs ne sont jamais oisives. 8. Avez-vous peur de votre Assit Ass.ee Might assist. Finit Fe-nee Might finish. frère ? 9. Non, Monsieur, je n'ai peur de personne,
10. Ne Battit Bat-tee Might beat, Gito Zheet Lodging-place.
sommes-nous pas indulgents ? 11. Vous êtes indulgents, et Dime Deein Tenth.
Eel Island. Diner Dee-nay To dine.
vous avez raison. 12. Ai-je vos livres ? 13. Vous ne les avez Mit Mee Might place.
pas, vous avez ceux de mon frère aîné. 14. Ne les avez-vous SECTION XII.-AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES.-PLURAL OF pas ? 15. Je ne les ai pas. 16. Avez-vous une bonne paire de ADJECTIVES.
bas de laine ? 17. J'ai une belle paire de bas de soie. 18. 1. An adjectivo qualifying a plural noun, or two or more Avez-vous les bonnes maisons ou les mauvaises ? 19. Je n'ai singular nouns of the same gender, assumes the gender of the ni les bonnes ni les mauvaises, j'ai celles de ma cousine. 20. noun or nouns, and is put in the plural.
Le travail est-il agréable ? 21. Le travail est utile et agréable. Les arbres et les fruits sont beaux, The trees and fruits are fine.
22. Avez-vous mes beaux souliers de maroquin ? 23. Je n'ai Les fleurs et les plantes sont belles, The flowers and plants are fine. pas vos beaux souliers de maroquin, j'ai vos belles pantoufles Vos jardins sont très-beaux,
Your gardens are very fine. de velours. 2. An adjective qualifying two or more nouns of different
EXERCISE 22. genders is put in the plural masculine ($ 18]. Mon frère et ma seur sont contents, My brother and sister are pleased. brothers are quick, but my sisters are not quick. 3. Have you
1. Are your brothers and sisters very (bien) quick? 2. My Le canif et la plume sont bons, The penknife and pen are good. 3. The plural of the feminine of adjectives is invariably formed Have you not two good pairs of silk gloves ? 6. I have a good
not two restive horses? 4. No, but I have a restive mule. 5. by tho addition of an s.
pair of cotton gloves, and two pairs of silk gloves. 7. Are you Vous avez de jolies maisons,
You have pretty houses. Ces demoiselles sont attentives,
not afraid of your friends ? 8. No, Sir, I am never afraid of Those young ladies are attentive.
my friends. 9. I am afraid of nobody. 10. Are you right or 4. The plural of the masculine of adjectives is generally formed wrong? 11. I am right. 12. Have you my beautiful leather by the addition of an s.
slippers, or my old satin slippers ? 13. I have your old leather Cos écoliers sont attentifs, Thoso scholars are attontive. shoes and your velvet slippers. 14. Are those ladies pleased :
Ves bois sont magnifiques, Your woods are magnificent. 15. Those ladies are pleased, and they are right. 16. Has the 5. The terminations s and æ are not changed for the plural German lady your father's shoes or mine ? 17. She has neither masculine.
his nor yours, she has my sister's. 18. Has your elder brother Nos fruits sont mauvais, Our fruits are bad.
good houses or bad? 19. His houses are better than yours and Vos oiseaux sont hideux, Your birds are hideous.
than mine.* 20. Are his houses old ? 21. His houses are old, 6. To tho termination eau, x is added for the plural masculine. but they are good. 22. Have you them? 23. No, Sir, I have Vos champs sont très-beaux, Your fields are very fine.
them not, I have no houses. 24. Have you my brother's or my 7. The termination al is genorally changud into aux for the sister's ? 25. Your sister has hers and my mother's. 26. Are plural masculino ($ 17 (3)].
your scholars attentive? 27. My scholars are very attentive Les homm us sout égaux, Men are equal.
and very studious. 28. Are those German ladies studious ? 8. For mɔre explicit rales, and for exceptions, see § 17, often wrong?
29. They are very studious and very attentive. 30. Are you Part II. 9. PRESENT OF THE INDICATIVE OF ETRE, TO BE.
SECTION XIII.-PLACE OF THE ADJECTIVES.-RELATIVE
Thou art rot. N'es-tu pas ? Art thou not ? frequently than it precedes it [S 85 (1)].
N'est-il pas? Is he not?
Vous avez des amis fidèles, You have faithful friends.
Ma scur a des livres instructifs, My sister has instructiro boobs.
'êtes-vous pas ? Aro you not? Quo meaning which, and que conjunction, are never understood in Etlong
e sont-ils pas? m., Aro they not? French, they must be rereated before every noun, pronoun, and verb le sont-elles pas Pf., Are thoy not? I ($ 17, E. 1).
2. Those adjectives which generally precede the nouns have ami a-t-il des parents ? 17. Oui, Monsieur, il en a.
18. Ce been mentioned (Sect. VI. 5], and will be found ($ 85 (11)]. Monsieur a-t-il une bonne plume d'acier ou une belle plume d'or? Nous avons de belles maisons, We have beautiful houses.
19. Il en a une d'acier et nous en avons une d'or. 20. Le Votre jolie petite fille est studieuse, Your pretty little girl is studious. général n'a-t-il pas de bons soldats? 21. Il en a de très braves. 3. The adjectives which are placed after nouns are :- -1st.
22. Les Américains n'ont-ils pas de bonne terre ? 23. Ils en
ont d'excellente. 24. Le marchand a-t-il des couteaux anglais All participles, present and past, used as adjectives.
ou français ? 25. Les couteaux du marchand ne sont ni anglais Nous avons une histoire intéres. We have an interesting history.
ni français, ils sont belges. saute, Vous avez des enfants polis, You have polite children.
EXERCISE 24. 4. 2nd. All such as express form, colour, taste ; such as relate 1. Has your brother Arabian horses ? 2. Yes, Sir, he has to bearing and touching ; such as denote the matter of which an 3. Has he handsome ones? 4. Yes, Sir, he has hand. object is composed ; as also such as refer to nationality, or to
5. Are the good Americans wrong? 6. No, Miss, any defects of the body (S 85 (4) (5) (6) (7)].
they are not wrong, they are right. 7. Have you a French Nos parents ont des chapeaux noirs, Our relations have black hats.
shawl ? 8. Yes, Sir, I have one, I have a handsome French Vous avez des pommes douces, You have sweet apples,
shawl. 9. Has your innkeeper your silver knife or mine ? 10. Voilà de la cire molle, There is soft wax.
He has neither yours nor mine, he has his sister's handsome Cette danie espagnole a un enfant That Spanish lady has a lame child. steel knife. 11. Has the Belgian a good guitar? 12. He has boiteux,
an excellent French guitar. 13. He has an excellent one. 14. 5. 3rd. Almost all adjectives ending in al, able, ible, ique, Has the gentleman amusing books ? 15. Yes, Sir, he has two. and if.
16. Has the general French or Arabian horses ? 17. He has Ces hommes libéraux sont aimés, Those liberal men are loved.
neither French nor Arabian horses, he has English horses. 18. Voila un esprit raisonnable, That is a reasonable mind,
Who has Arabian horses ? 19. The Arabian has some. 20. Foilà un esclave fugitif, That is a fugitive slave.
Has the Englishman any ? 21. The Englishman has some. 6. Some adjectives have a different meaning, according to 22. Has your friend's sister a good steel pen ? 23. My friend's their position before or after the noun (S 86].
sister has one, but my relations have none. 24. Are you not Un brave homme, a worthy man. Un homme brave, a brave man.
25. Yes, Madam, I am wrong. 26. Are those 7. En is used for the English words some or any, expressed or
knives English ? 27. No, Sir, they are Belgian. 28. Have understood, but not followed by a noun ; en has also the sense
you relations ? 29. I have two, and they are here (ici). 30. of it, of them, thereof, generally understood in English sentences,
Has the English butcher meat ? 31. Yes, Sir, he has much, particularly in answers to questions [39 (17), § 104; $ 110 (2) 32, Has he much money ? 33. He has but little. 34. Has the (3)].
Belgian general brave soldiers ? 35. Yes, Sir, he has good
I have some, I have (of them).
HISTORIC SKETCHES.—III. 8. An adjective used substantively, and having a partitive
SIR RICHARD GRENVILLE, WHEN HE CRIED NO SURRENDER!” signification (in a sentence containing the pronoun en), must be preceded by the preposition de in the same manner as if the noun DURING the time Queen Elizabeth was on the throne of Fere expressed (see Sect. VI. 4].
England (1558 to 1603), there was a public feeling of a kind Avez-vous de boule- plumes ? Have you good pens?
and intensity unequalled by any that has existed either before Non, mais j'en ai de mauvaises, No, but I have bad ones.
or since. It was a feeling in which political and religious RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.
hatred were closely combined, and which was fanned from a
spark to a flame by repeated provocations. There are those yet Arez-vous de beaux jardins ? Have you fine gardens ? Oui, j'en ai de beaux. (R. 7.)
living who can freshly remember the rancorous animosity which Yes, I havc fine ones. Votre frère n'a-t-il pas des souliers Has not your brother black shoes ?
existed in this country towards the French, when the great Doirs ?
French war was at its height. That animosity, bitter as it Il n'en a pas, mais ma sœur en a. He has none, but my sister has some. was, and tersely expressed in the summary of advice which Y'a-t-elle pas aussi une robe Has she not also a white dress ? Nelson is said to have given his midshipmen—“Fear God; blanche ?
honour the king; and hate a Frenchman as you do the devil” Oui, elle en a une. Yes, she has one.
-- was not, if we may judge from the circumstances attending Non, elle n'en a pas. No, she has none.
it, so bitter, or so uncompromising as the hatred Elizabeth's Qui en a une? Who has one ?
Englishmen had for the Spaniard and the Pope.
In that day, the kingdom of Spain, which now has sunk so Le boucher n'a-t-il pas de la viande Has not the butcher fresh meat ? fraiche ?
low, was only being weighed in the balance. She had been II en 4, il n'en a pas. He has some, he has none.
found wanting in many things which, as the event proved, Il en a beaucoup. He has much (of it).
were necessary to her life as a nation; but she had not been Il n'en a guère. He has but little (of it).
found wanting in strength. Her power was enormous, and the Il en a deux livres. He has tro pounds (of it).
ambition of her princes aimed at universal dominion. Spain, VOCABULARY.
the Netherlands, Naples, and Sicily were her European possesAmuzant, -e, amusing. Bijou, m., jewel. Laine, f., wool.
sions, and in Germany her influence was all-powerful. In the Américain, -e, American Blanc, -he, white. Mademoiselle, f., Miss. East Indies the sovereignty of the King of Spain was acknowAnglais, -e, English. Brave, brave, worthy. Monsieur, m., Sir, Mr., ledged in many a place, while the whole of the Western Anabe, Arabian,
hemisphere was under his sway. By succession, by marriage, Aubergiste, m., inn. Couteau, m., knife. Parent, m., relation, by purchase, or by conquest, the territory of the Spanish king teeper. Français, -e, French, Soldat, m., soldier,
was so great that it was well said the sun never set in his Beaucoup, much, many. Guère, little, but little. Terre, f., land.
dominions. The wealth of the mines of Mexico and Peru was Belge, Belgien, Guitare, f., guitar.
his; the most splendid troops that Europe could produce did EXERCISE 23.
his bidding; diplomatists the most subtle and the most accom1. Avez-vous une bonne guitare ? 2. Oui, Monsieur, j'ai une plished were his servants, and among his naval and military guitare excellente. 3. Avez-vous de bons habits ? 4. Oui commanders were men of names the most renowned and Madame, j'ai de bons habits noirs et de belles robes blanches. illustrious. No other power in Europe, whether allied or single5. Votre mère n'a-t-elle pas une chåle de soie ? 6. Oui, Made-handed, was willing to measure itself with Spain ; the odds moiselle, elle en a un de soie et un de laine. 7. L'aubergiste were so great, the issues so momentous, that lesser nations a-t-il de bons chevaux anglais ? 8. L'aubergiste a des chevaux preferred to put up almost with anything rather than bring anglais, français, et araber. 9. Il en a de superbes. 10. L'ami down upon their people the wrath of the cruel and haughty de votre frère a-t-il des bijoux d'or? 11. Oui, Monsieur, il en a. Spaniards. It was only when desperation made men blind to 12. A-t-il aussi des bijoux d'argent. 13. Il en a aussi. 14. En the consequences that resistance was offered to the dominant 3-4-1 beancoup? 15. Non, Monsieur, il n'en a guére. 16. Votre | ard domineering power-and then, as in the Netherlards, where the people were goaded into insurrection, the fight was long over. Protestants and freedom-loving Catholics learned in the and bloody, and the victory dearly won.
Low Countries, from the Duke of Alva, Requesens, and other The strength of Spain was tremendous, crushing ; but there Spanish rulers, how that the tender mercies of the cruel are was a canker in it, which, eating through, eventually proved cruel also. In the newly-discovered regions of America, which fatal to the life of the tall tree. The King of Spain, Philip II., the enterprise of Columbus had opened to Spain, the religious arbiter as he was of the fate of millions, mighty and feared as system of the Spaniards was so unlike the religion of Him he was, was the abject slave of another power. The priests of the whom “the common people heard gladly,” that Roman Church were his masters, the Pope of Rome was his lord,
“the poor Indian, whose untutord mind and the mind of the man was in perfect subjection to the rule
Sees God in clouds, or hears him in the wind," of his spiritual guides. So the interests, or supposed intorests filed in horror from it, preferring death to conversion. Champ.
BIR FRANCIS DRAKE. of the Roman Cathollo Church boonmo identified with those of | Inin, tho navigator, after whom the American lake of that the path wrown Wherever the Spaniard onmo, there oamo name is called, and who visited the West Indies in 1599-1602, the priest, www wo towethor vopronontod puro dospotism in thus wrote of the Spanish priests and the Indians :-“At the thio State Olach wystem which was onrried out through commencement of his conquests, he (the King of Spain) had the medium of the Inition, Countries in whloh the Roman ostablished the Inquisition among them, and made slaves of, Climali w
hly pooted Vlowed the approach of the or caused them to dio cruelly in such great numbers, that the Spaniel
toulons and diale, though they solo rocital would cause pity. This evil treatment was the
of injury of the hands Put in ronxon that tho poor Indians, for very apprehension, fled to To was not the faith of the the mountaing in desperation, and as many Spaniards as they
om of Christianity. OP Hocaught thoy eat them; and on that account the said Spaniards le pliion, the coming of the woro constrained to take away the Inquisition, and allow them www be arounded and proved personal liberty, granting them a more mild and tolerable rule
TIME OF ELIZABETH,
of life, to bring them to the knowledge of God and the belief of could be nothing but perpetual war between the nations, and a the holy Church ; for if they had continued still to chastise fresh declaration of an old fact would have beon useless as well them according to the rigour of the said Inquisition, they as tiresome. So whenever a Spanish treasure fleet was coming Fould have caused them all to die by fire."
home, or a Spanish squadron of merchantmen was known to be Such then were the causes of the deep hatred already spoken on the seas, the English royal vessels slipped ont of port, and of as existing among Englishmen during the reign of Elizabeth. smote the Philistines wherever they found them. The Spanish political power and the Spanish ecclesiastical One of the most courageous and indomitable of the English power, each lusted after dominion, and allowed no considera- rovers was Sir Richard Grenville, of Stowe, in Cornwall, a tions nor soruples to stand in their way. Each helped the other ; ! gentleman of ancient family and large fortune, an enthusiastic the priests taught the "right divine"
admirer of all that was generous and of the Spanish king “ to govern wrong,'
manly. He hated the Spaniards with and the Spanish king in return up
an exceeding bitter hatred, and again held, with brutal obstinacy, the priests'
and again left his pleasant home in Inquisition--an institution of wbich
Cornwall to roam the seas after the more will be said in another paper;
enemies of God and man, as he conbut of which it will be enough here to
sidered them to be. He had been emi. say that it was a spiritual tribunal,
nently successful, both in distant exirresponsible and acting in secret, which
peditions and in repelling the attack panished men and women with all pun
of the Armada on the English coast ishments, including death, for not act
itself; and his name was a terror to ing in strict accordance with the rules
many a Spanish sailor. It happened, of the Roman-Catholic Church.
in the year 1591, that a Government Englishmen, after the Reformation
expedition of the kind above-menespecially, hated both these powers.
tioned was about to sail under orders The one cramped their action and
of Lord Thomas Howard, to intercept their enterprise, forbidding them under
the Spanish treasure ships on their pain of being treated as pirates to trade
way from the West Indies. Sir Rich. to places where the Spaniards claimed
ard was appointed second in command, to have a monopoly, as in America ;
and hoisted his flag on board the the other oppressed their souls with
Revenge; the rest of the squadron inburdens too heavy to be borne, and
cluding eight fighting ships, with tenthen killed them for stumbling. Gene
ders and victuallers. The account of rous sympathy also for those who suf
the action in which the Revenge fought fered wrong at the oppressor's hands, and were unable to help single-handed for England is given here as best showing the themselves, glowed in the English breast; and that sympathy, in kind of spirit it was which animated Englishmen at the time an age of adventure and of chivalrous feeling, was not slow to when their enemies were the detested upholders of Absolutism espress itself in action. It had received a fillip, too, in a point in Church and State. which nearly concerned the best interests of the nation. An Lord Thomas Howard sailed with his ships in August, 1591. attempt had been made after the death of Edward VI., in 1553, and after cruising about for some time, put into the Western to introduce both the detested powers into England. Philip II. Islands, to recruit his men, ill with scurvy, and to wait there of Spain, was actually married to Queen Mary of England, and for the treasure ships. On the 31st of August, 1591, the lookthough the nation was, to a man, hostile to the introduction out men reported a fleet in sight, and great was the joy and of the Inquisition, and swore it would
greedy, perhaps, the expectation of not have it at any price, the energy
the English warriors. But a nearer and watchfulness of the best men were
viow disclosed, not tho Spanish trearequired to prevent the planting of
sure ships, but a fleet of fifty-three the Spanish political power. In 1558
ships of war, which had been equipElizabeth came to the throne, and not
ped and sent out for the very pur. only roused the wrath of disappoint
pose of pouncing on the pouncers. ment and jealousy by her prompt re
Half the English crews were on shore, jection of Spanish advances, but
ill, and the rest were busy watering directly and indirectly she challenged
and victualling the ships. Lord Thomas the Spaniards by the uncompromising
looked at his vessels and sickly crews, Protestantism of her policy.
and then at the enemy's ships, conHer subjects were imbued with the
cerning which the cry was still, “ They same spirit as the Queen. The Span
come.” Eight against fifty-three—the iards were looked upon as public ene
disproportion was too grcat. He demies, whom to destroy was to do God
termined not to try conclusions with service; and many was the private ad
them, and having recalled his crews by renture made by persons of good name
signal, stood out of the Bay of Flores, and reputation, to make war upon
and succeeded in getting away. them. In a time when the two govern
There was one ship, however, which ments were at peace, cruisers were
did not follow. Sir Richard Grenville Etted out in England notably in
felt it to be almost an immoral act to West-country ports-to prey upon the SPANISH THREE-DECKER,
retreat before a Spaniard, and though enemy's commerce on the Spanish
he was too good an officer wilfully to Main and in the West Indies. Such men as Sir John Haw- disobey the orders of his superior, he was not loth to tako kins, Sir Martin Frobisher, Sir Walter Raleigh, Sir Francis advantage of some unavoidable delay which occurred in getting Drake, Sir Humphrey Gilbert, and Sir Richard Grenville, sailed his men from the shore, to stay behind. The other English on their own account upon expeditions
which, directed against ships gained the offing, and thither, too, was sent the master any other power than Spain, would have been called piratical, of one of the victuallers, who, seeing Sir Richard's danger, or at least, buccaneering; and they won honour and no small offered to stay and share it with him. profit in the course of them. After the Spanish Armada, sent On came the Spanish fleet, on the weather bow of the in 1588 for the avowed purpose of conquering England and Revenge. Some of the officers remonstrated with the admiral, establishing despotism and priestcraft therein, had shown the and advised him to crowd all sail and try to outsail the enemy ; depth of the Spanish ill-will, the Government acted pretty much but Sir Richard declared " he would much rather die than as its subjects had done, and made war whenever it chose. leave such a mark of dishonour on himself, his country, and the There was no declaration of war. After the Armada there Queen."
TIME OF ELIZABETH,
Luig, Czars of. Spain, Kings of. Turkey, Sultans of.
Solyman II. 1520
Selim II. .
1506 .- Queca Eliza
Amurath III. 1574
Mahomet III. 1595 Ferior I.. 1581
Sweden, Kings of.
United Provinces Bars Godonof 1598
of the Netherlands, Satland, Kings of. Gustavus Vasa 1523 Stadtholders of Vary Queen of
1560 William the Si. Soots. 1512 John III.
1579 James VI. 1367. Sigismund
LESSONS IN MUSIC.-II. s tous, Ir is important that the learner should become thoroughly and et down, practically familiar with the structure of that musical scale of
but good all nations and of all time” which was partially described in the ole might, Sir last lesson. The following account, by General T. Perronet si's was obliged Thompson, who is no less distinguished for his philosophical why he received and learned disquisitions on the science of music than for the wou was killed other great services which, by pen and speech, he has rendered
vu board--were to his countrymen-the following account by him, of the first s Jup's masts had attempts of philosophy to measure this scale, will interest the
.tw bull was pierced student:inhelly short : but Sir
" The dispute upon this point (the application of science to did when after two music), is at least as old as the contest between Aristoxenus - it was proposed to and the Pythagoreans, which dates as early as 300 years before I to trust to God's the Christian era.
The opposition of Aristoxenus is so oud to blow up the was, in reality, nothing but a good car declaring itself against
it w board the Spaniard a faulty division. The musical mathematicians of antiquity J Bachard being too ill took as many as three successive steps into the truth, but their
next was a marvellous blunder. * cho ng man had every atten- “The histories of all nations refer to very early periods the un drosaud, and the Spanish discovery that certain successions or combinations of sounds Londlo admire him. Feeling tho have the effect upon the ear which is implied by music; and it
in that all might understand : may be assumed that in all countries a considerable degree of in nath joyful and quiet mind, for practical acquaintance has been acquired with the sounds before ballo soldior ought to do, fighting any person has thought of investigating the cause.
The story Liu, ond honour, leaving behind the of Pythagoras listening to blacksmiths' hammers, and disIls overy valiant soldier is in covering that the different sounds had some relation to the
Il cd, and the Revenge, the first weighits, has been sufficient to secure to that philosopher the lylle uto Mpunish hands, refused to renown of being the first who sought for the explanation of Il be annou shortly after the action, musical relations in the properties of matter. The account mine loon board, "ro that it may be said given by Nicomachus is, that Pythagoras 'heard some iron Il mame, and forced the Spaniards hammers striking on an anvil, and giving out sounds that made
most harmonious combinations with one another, all except one
pair,' which led him to inquire what were the peculiarities of the Bob AND REIGN OF ELIZABETH.
hammers which produced these different effects. Whether this The lihelaar of Henry VIII. by his second is an exact account or not, some observation of this kind
When we want the twenty-third Sovereign of appears to have speedily led to the discovery, that of strings of Do t'umquest, and the fifth and last of the same thickness and composition, and stretched by the same
weight, those gave the same musical sound (or were what is called Massacre of St. Bartholomero
in unison) which were of equal lengths ;—that if of two strings in (Prance). Aug. 23 1572 unison, as above, one was shortened by a half, it produced a Trial of Mary for treason at sound which, though very far from being in unison with the
Fotberingay Castle. 1536 sound of the other, might be heard contemporaneously with it, Execution of Mary. Feb. 8 1587 with a strong sensation of satisfaction and consciousness of Destruction of the “Invin.
agreement, and that the two sounds in fact bore that particular cible Armada"
1533 Cadiz burnt by the English
relation to each other by which two voices, of very different Tyrone's robellion in Ireland 1393 kinds, like those of a man and a child, can sing the same tune 1570 Died at Richmond. Mar. 21 1003
or air as really as if they sang in unison, being what musicians
have since distinguished by the title of octares ; —that if, instead illion TONI'IMPOLARY WITH ELIZABETH.
of a half, the string were shortened by a third part, there was Poland, Kinga of. America vero seized by produced a note which, heard either in combination with or Blylamund II. (af- Philip II. of Spain in succession to the first, created one of those marked effects which terwards King of 1580, and remained an. all who had attained to any degree of musical execution by the
Bralen 1548 nexed to that Country guidance of the ear had treasured up as one of the most efficient
weapons in the armoury of sweet sounds, being what modern
Romo, Popes of.
musicians name the fifth ;-and that if, instead of a third part, lephew Bathori 1575 Paul IV.
it was shortened by a fourth, there was produced another note wegwm from 1536
1555 very distinct from the last, but which, like it, was immediately Pius IV.
1539 plaud IL 1587
recognisable as one of the relations which experimental musicians Pius V.
had agreed in placing among their sources of delight, being the 1657 Sixtus V. .
same which in modern times is called the fourth.
“So far, Pythagoras and his followers appear to have run 138) Gregory XIV.
well. Instead, however, of pursuing the clue of which they Vagner do Innocent IV. 1591 already had hold, and examining the effects of shortening the Europe and Clement VIII. 1392 original string by a fifth part and by a sixth, they strayed into