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shortening the results of previous experiments by a third, and The following are the results of such experiments as those just lengthening them by an eighth, and here was the be- referred to. Arithmeticians may notice that the proportion of ginning of sorrows. Tho attempt (beyond these three the vibrations is inversely as the length of the strings given above. steps) at the division of the “Canon”-in other words, at the But we here print the fractions with a common denominator to division of a string into the lengths which produce the sounds make the relations more obvious. that make music in a single key-was a failure." The experiments of modern philosophers have been rewarded

THE NOTES OF THE SCALE. with the discovery that a musical string divided in the proportions given underneath will produce the notes of the scale as

The proportion of vibrations

27

40 45 49 there described. Let it be noticed that the figure 1 stands for given by each note. the whole length of the string, whether a foot, a yard, or any other measure, and whatever sound (in pitch) it gives—that While the key note gives the

2
21
24 2+

24 round being taken for the key note-Don. It may also be

following number. mentioned that the same numbers denote the comparative

If our arithmetical friend will now work a few sums in prolengths of organ pipes capable of sounding the corresponding portion, he will be able to show the value of the intervals benotes.

tween the several notes of this scale. Thus the vibrations of

Doh differ from those of Ray, in being three less, and (three Name of Notes. рон

ME
LaH Te Don'

being one-ninth of twenty-seven) Don has therefore only eight

ninths of RAY's vibrations. The same proportion will be found Length of String.

between Fan Son, and LAH TE. These intervals are called the "great tones.” The proportion of Ray Me, and of Soh Lah is

ninc-tenths. These are the “small tones.” The proportion of Perhaps these proportions will be better understood by the ME FAH, and of TE Doh, is fifteen-sixteenths. These are called annexed diagram. A single string thus stretched and used semitones, or, more properly, Tonules. If you calculate from the for these experiments is called a monochord. If the student length of the string given above you will find still the same prois of a mechanical turn, let him make one and verify the portions existing.

measurements here given. Let him suspend a board Let our arithmetical friend reduce these "ratios," or pro-
of four or five feet in length against a wall. To the portions, of the three intervals in the scale to fractions having a
upper part of this board fasten the end of a piano- common denominator. They will then stand thus :--
forte-wire or other musical string which is of the
same thickness throughout. Let the wire pass down THE GREAT

THE SMALL

THE the face of the board, over a firm wooden bridge, TONE

TONE

1440
TONULE

1440
an inch or so high, and close to the top, and over a
movable bridge at the bottom; and let it be kept Now this evidently means that the lower note of the great
stretched by a heavy weight. Set your movable tone” has 1,280 vibrations, while the higher note has 1,440, and
bridge (which the weight will keep in its place) at (as the lengths of string are in inverse proportion to the vibra-
the bottom, marking the spot, and take the sound of tions) that it takes 1,440 degrees of the string, while the higher
the whole string, by the help of a fiddle bow, for takes only 1,280 such degrees. Therefore the proportional
your Don, or key-note. Then (having properly difference between them, whichsoever way you look at it, is one
measured and marked the board) move the bridge hundred and sixty degrees. In the same way you will find that
to the other divisions, sounding each note as before the difference between tho two notes of this “small tone” is one
It may be well to mention that Colonel Thompson hundred and forty-four degrees, and that the interval of the
maintains, and with good show of reason, what he “ tonule" is ninety degrees. The degrees in each case are of
calls the “duplicity" of Ray and TE. They are similar valuo, all measured on the same scale (common de-

sometimes sounded by good singers and violin- nominator) of 1,440 degrees. We may therefore treat them as Dow players a very small degree lower than their usual belonging to one scale, and adding three "great tones,” two

position given above. These experiments will fix “small tonos," and two “tonules" together, we shall obtain a in your mind a clear notion of the scale.

perfectly measured scale of 948 degrees. As all these numbers, It will be well for you to understand the con- however, will divide by 2, retaining, of course, the same pronection between these musical notes and the vibra. portion to one another, it is better to regard the scale as com

tions of the sonorous body which produces them- | posed of 474 degrees, containing three “great tones” of 80 Son whether that body be the string of a violin, the air degrees, two “small tones” of 72 degrees, and two "tonules"

in an organ pipe, a small plate of glass or metal, or of 45 degrees, and this is the smallest perfect measurement of

the “chordæ vocales"—the vocal chords-of that the scale in plain figures. But if the pupil will go one step Tak wonderful little box instrument, called the " larynx," further, and divide each of these intervals by nine, he will see

which you can feel in your own throat. Sounds how we obtain the proximate scale of fifty-three degrees. The ME produced by irregular vibrations are not musical. tonule will be exactly 5 degrees, the small tone exactly 8

They form the “roar, rattle, hiss, buzz, crash,” or degrees, and the great tone only one-ninth of a degree less than some other noise. But sounds produced by equal 9 degrees. Adding these together, as before, you will have the and regular vibrations are musical. " That musical "Index scale," as Colonel Thompson calls it, “ of fifty-three,” notes are produced by a rapid succession of aërial and you will see that it is three-ninths or one-third of a degree impulses at equal intervals, is very clearly illus- too large. We strongly advise tho pupil to construct a "mono

trated by an instrument called the syren, the in- chord,” and try for himself whether this is not in truth an Dou vention of Cagniard de la Tour. A blast of air is accurate description of that scale of related notes which God has

forced through a narrow aperture in a pipe; and a made most suitable to human ears and souls. All the books of

flat circular disk, perforated near its circumference science are agreed that it is; and experience bears the same STUIEG OF with a number of small holes equidistant, and in a testimony. It is the more important that you should under, A XONO

circle concentric with the disk, is so applied to the stand these points, because the true scale is dreadfully abused CHORD.

pipe, that the blast is interrupted by it, excepting by the common keyed-instruments. Many of these are tuned by when one of the holes in the disk is opposite to that of the pipe; what is called "cqual temperament;" that is, the scale is and when the former is made to revolve rapidly, the resulting divided into twelve equal semi-tones, and it follows that the azrial impulses cause a series of isochronous vibrations that pro- tones are all 79 degrees (of the perfect scale of 474), while they duce a musical note, and the corresponding number of its ought to be sometimes 80 and sometimes 72 degrees! and the vibrations can very easily be computed, from knowing the tonules (semitones) are both 394 instead of 45!! They might as number of holes and of revolutions of the plate. The results well cut down the fingers of a statue to “equal temperament!" obtained by this instrument agree exactly with those found by Human ingenuity will surely deliver us soon from this monother methods." The more rapid the vibrations of the sonorous strous distortion. You will urderstand now why it is so of body, the more " acute” (shriller, or higher) the note produced. | pleasanter to sing " without the piano."

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To! exercises, are to be sung twice as 9. Tee : Si potes; and the open notes without a -te xua this exercise, are to be twice as long see +32 s se Tuis relative length does not, however, Los e re e sede An open note in one tune may Dressi note in spother, and a black note in

ESTE ** open pote in another. Let it, how. 2 ss be mach better for the learner not

22.c u present to the old " notation” (way of aar. Ze tis placed between brackets. He * Swith the potation of music, when he

de pauce attention to music itself. Sing RESESa sad never leave an exercise until

* S = scars as memory, pointing on the

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boseall di l rect. thy | paths Rechst every mistake or uncertainty striking the 27en beginning again with great patience. When you

the cast from the modulator by memory, then learn e seral of the syllables, the words “ One, two, three,

but sam tre four, five, six," still pointing to the right

on the medalster. It may be well for you now to learn she seved me of potes (to be sung by another voice along with

Els more linel as you learnt the first, and not, for the present,

Na stop the mind But if you wish to use the words, then first Sina sher man wear the the words “Trust in the Lord with " on the single

To do this with distinct utterance, you should divide

re

the note in your mind) into two equal beats or “pulses” of notes. Take care not to sing the syllables "standing" quickly time (you can mark them by beating on the table with your and sharply. Let them take as much time as tho syllables hand); and then the words “ Trust in tho” will go to tho first "under" in the same word. The socond verse of words, printed beat, and “ Lord with” to the second. The large dot above the underneath, is divided on the same plan as the first. The line shows this division. The words "all thine heart” fall double bar, you will observe, separates the words of the " easily to their right notes. To the note Son you will sing the citing note" from those of the “cadence" (as it is called) of tho words " and lean not unto thine.” “And” is scarcely heard. chant.

On the upper 'staff” you miss the square note Dividing Son, like the other “reciting note” ME, into two for Don, because the tune begins on ME, and Don does not beats (and reciting notes of a chant like this may be divided occur in the “air.” The place of Don, however, is in the first into as many beats as you please), you will have the words space, reckoning from the bottom of the staff. On the lower " lean not unto” to the first beat, and “thino" alone filling the staff it was necessary to make an additional line to carry Son. second. The word "own" you perceive is "slurred” on to two This is called a “ ledger line.”

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COPY-SLIP, No. 19.-COMBINATION OF THE LETTERS t, u, n. LESSONS IN PENMANSHIP.-VI.

In preparing paper for copying all our clementary copy-slips

in large text, the learner must not omit to insert the diagonal Is our last lesson we showed our learners how to make the lines as they appear in Copy-slips Nos. 1 to 6 inclusive, as long letters m and n by combinations of the top-turn and the top as he finds them absolutely necessary for the regulation of the and-bottom-turn. In the present lesson we set before them five slope of his letters, and to enable him to preserve a proper Copy-slips for practice, comprising various combinations of the distance between them. To save trouble in ruling sheet after letters m and n with the letters i, u, t, and 1, which they sheet of paper with horizontal and diagonal lines at the proper learned to form from the simple bottom-turn. Doubtless many distances from each other, and to save expense as well, the of those who have been endeavouring to teach themselves the learner might rule with a sharp-pointed steel instrument, such art of Penmanship by the aid of our lessons, are now beginning as a bradawl, one side of a cheap slate with sets of lines similar to see that, after all, it is not such a difficult matter to learn to those in our copy-slips, taking care, however, to leave a space to write, since by learning to form only three strokes of a very of one inch and a quarter between each set, to enable him to add simple kind, they have found that they have acquired the power the extra horizontal lines that will be required when he begins of writing six out of the twenty-six letters that form the alphabet. to make looped letters, and letters such as p and q, that'extend They will soon see that this is by no means the utmost limit of below the lower of the two horizontal lines that contain what we their progress, when in the course of future lessons they dis- have called the body of the letter. A slate thus prepared will be cover how many letters there are into whose composition these found useful for acquiring facility in forming the various letters, three elementary strokes also enter.

i but the learner must by no means omit to write on paper as well.

nor.

LIENS IS GERMAN.–V.

D. Gut-er, to or for good; roth-er, to or for red;
2. Out-e, good;

roth-e, red.
396219 -0,21 LT16J OP ADJECTIVES DENOTING
MATERIAL.

When preceded by either of the articles, or by any one of the

adjective pronouns (see lists Sect. IX. and X.), the adjective 2.LLI. ---** bumang the material of which a thing is made terminates in the nominative and accusative as in the old an internet wife to nouns the letters 11, en, or ern. Ex., declension, but in the genitive and dative in the letters en. our intern); Gult, golten (gold, golden); Blei

, Thus :116I 10, Il the root vowel bo a, o, or u, it is s., mags to its corresponding Umlaut, as : (Wlas,

N. tie gut-e, the good ;

meine alt-e, my old; por Linese sa glans); Hols, hölzern (wood, wooden). (See 6. der gut-en, of the good ; meiner alt-en, of my old ; Brosu). 2 d.)

D. der gut-en, to or for the good; meiner alt-en, to my old; VOCABULARY.

A. rie gut-e, the good;

meine alt-e, my old. By the way tanker. Koch, m. cook. Reif, ripe.

I. The personal pronoun Sie (you) is always written with a
Kupfern, ooppor.
Silbern, silver.

capital initial, while fie (she or her) is only thus written at the of " mil, Marmorni, marble. Tintenfaß,n.inkstand. beginning of a sentence. Hence in writing, no ambiguity can Menn, my. Tisch, m, table.

arise. Ex., Ich sehe Sie, I see you ; ich sehe sie, I see her. When Bu barrel, cauk, Dorfer, m. mortar. Tischler, m. joiner.

Sie is used in the nominative, the form of the verb determines 4. bagent Obst, n, fruit.

Better, m. cousin.

the person. Ex., Sie sehen ihn, you see him; Sie sicht ihn, she "yk, winden, Dollmesser, 11. fruit. Weber-new, neither sees him. Whether, however, Sie (when in the accusative) stands Swifem kell, boilor. knifo.

for you or her, can only be determined by the context. The RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

orthography of the possessive pronouns 3hr (your) and ihr (her) **** Alberne toffel in schön, und Your silver spoon is beautiful, Thus, Ihr Buch lit groß, may signify, your book is large, or her

is also identical, and, in speaking, is liable to equal ambiguity. main ofernee Meffer ist schwer. and my iron knife is heavy. uter lteinerne 31164) ist schwer. This stone table is heary.

book is large ; and, Ich habe ihr Buch, may mean, I have their 14 sebe tre seintes ist ein goltner The life of the child is a golden accusative, and of ihr in all the cases, must of course, when

book, or I have her book. The significations of sic in the Traum

dream.

spoken, be determined by the connection. (See Declension, It midyt ein elfernes Schiff dauerhaft? Is not an iron ship durable :

Sect. XVIII.)
EXERCISE 12.

VOCABULARY. 1. Haben Sie mein reifed Doft! 2. Nein, ich habe Ihr silbernes Obit. meffer, und Ihr alter Freund, der febrer, bat sal reife Obit. 3. Saben America, n. America. ; Freunt in,f.friend, §10. D'pernglas, n. oporaei meinen filbernen Bleistift? 4. Nein, der gute Rebrer bat iba. 5. Bibliothek", f. library. Gläsern, glass. glass. Bat ter alte Kuch meinen hölzernen Tisch? 6. Mein, ter Tischler bat ibn, Brille, f. spectacles. ! (Holten, golden. Scheere, f. scissors. aber ter sod bat einen marmornen Tijd 7. Hat er auch ein bölzernek Dame, f. lady. Ibr, her (see above). Schwester, f. sister. Want Y 8. 3a, und dieser fleißtze Schüler Mat ein stenet, Heiernes Tinten Feter, f. pen. Sein, no, not any.

Scite, f. silk. 9. Dat er auch einen silberner Brother? 10. 31, und er hat wud vein, fine.

Kette, f. chain. Tarte, j. aunt. einen Pupfernen Koffel and cinen werken Mitter 11. Haben Sie das roue drankreich. n. France. Pampe, f. lamp. Uhr, f. watch, clock. Weffer meiner jungen Freuntes? 12. Nera, a tak cin neues Messer von Fräulein

.. miss, Leinwand, f. linen. Uhrʻtasche. f. watchtem zuten Kaufmann 13. fut turi resize Stület tas gute Buty young lady. Mutter, f. mother. pocket. Doe alten Freunde, der den alleras Putit en guten Betters? 14. Get fut brider en gatet e emer Ebern slott hat nur

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES, einen Mal germen Pleitet la : e Perrier Section IX. 2) Selsel Der Bruder sat tað Vuch ter The brother has the book of het lata! 16. Det ermee kat met viena Send

Strefter

the sister. EXER 18

Der Bater giebt der Tapter cua The father gives the daughter

Bude 1. Has she t my ripe frat: ? Thc i cook has my Der Gut meiner Mutter ut ithin.

a book.

The hat of my mother is beausilver tilberneti pancil & Fas be sulso a new neurs knife

tiful. 4 The good merchant Sarimani has an anen, old marble word tic uk Ibret fräulein Where is your cousin's watch ? tablo 5. He has neatba a golden Drenches fruit-knife nor a

Guine? silver utenen oma & Summer Sa Somma is a ane golden Sie uit in tet Gant ibrer Mutter. It is in her mother's hand. tamne Zen The diligent joiner has the iron cocinen kettle of the one

EXERCISE 14. SECTION ETTE FEMININE GENDER OF ARTICLES, 1. Ji tie funge Streitet troict jungen Tame in Tcuticlaxi? 2. Nein, FUCKS ADJECTIVES, Etc.

fic ui in granfeat, aber ihr Bruter ut in America. 3. D. ist meine The series a site Sentine singular are declined thus :- neue, goldene Fetet? 4. Ibre junge Freundin fräulein S, bat file (Sect.

cinc a;

XVIII. 3.) 5. Hat Ihre Mutter tie istočne Scibe Ihrer Tante? 6. Ja,

(mcine). canet of a; (mcinct)

und and tie itiae, feine Leinwand. 7. Wo ist Ihre geftone Brille? 8. de to rise sibe: einer, to or for a; (meiner)

34 babe fane gelteme Brille 9. Qaben Si cinc filberne, oter eine (mcinc)

geltene Uhr ? 10.10 babe cine fülhetne utr. 11. Ju fie cine gute libr?

12. Ba alr is itt mitt ictr ictim 13. Bei tre Itt? 14. Sie ist The papil having now had in dne course all the forms of the in meiner Uhitaide 15. fet Ihre Sucht eine geltene liht? 16. 3a, article in the singular, may note, that like dieser (which differs unt fie hat auch cine ictime, geltene katı. 17. He ist meine neue from the definite article only in having es instead of as in the Scherze ! 18. 3d babe re, abs re e mattis ideri 19. Be it nom, and ac, neuter, Soot. VII.), are declined all the words in Ihre Schwester? 2:1. Sx ist bei der (Sect. XTIL. 3.) Mutter in ter Rino , Sect. IX., and that like ein, are infected all those in the , Bibliothef. 21. Be a mainc gläicrae Samne? 22. d habe sie. Husein, mein, fein, eto, Seot X.

23. Ber hat mein neues Oranglas? 24. It habe es um Ihre neue winine nouns are in the singular indeclinablo; as nom. tic Brille exity (the wilk) gen, der Seite ; dat der Seite ; ace. die Sate. The uljotive in the minine singular has two forms. When

EXERCISE 15. i stanie slow or una teeted by a preceding word ($ 29), the ! 1. The mother of this lady is in France. 2 Has the beautiful sombative and neesative end in the genitive and dative in er daughter of the good der guten aut a golden [edtene watch? Io la then wait to be of

3. My diligent brother has neither s golden wateh nor a THE OLD DRONNSION.

good gutes opera-glass. 4. My good sister has no trimefine

linen, bat abet she has a Der neue glass lomp 5. My cousin poli votre

1 with met the tet golden spectacles is with the sy (trisen! wo. of medis

beantăfal brother in the hbrary,

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7

2184

product of all the divisors except the last two, and so on. Add LESSONS IN ARITHMETIC.-VI.

all these results and the first remainder together; the sum will ABRIDGED METHODS OF MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION. be the whole remainder.

EXAMPLE.—To divide 17285 by 84. 1. The methods of multiplication and division explained in the

84 = 7 * 4 X 3 previous lessons are those ordinarily employed; and the learner

7) 17285 must make himself perfectly familiar with them before proceeding farther.

4) 2469—2 These processes, however, in part ular cases, can often be materially facilitated by various artifices. Some of these shorter

3) 617-1 methods we subjoin, not only because they are useful in themselves, but because they are valuable as exercises, in explaining

2052 the fundamental principles of arithmetic.

And the whole remainder is 2 x 4 x 7 + 11 x 7 + 2, that is, 2. Any number which is formed by multiplying two or more

56 + 7 + 2, or 65. numbers or factors together is called a composite number. It It does not follow that this process is in all cases simpler has already been explained in a former lesson that the same than the method of Long Division ; sometimes, however, it is numbers multiplied together will give the same product, in

more convenient. whatever order the multiplication is effected.

EXERCISE 11.
Hence, to multiply any number by one which is composite --
i.e., which is composed of several factors—we

(1.) Work the following examples in division :
1. 16128 – 24.

4. 91080 • 72.
have only to multiply the number first by one

2. 17220 + 84.

5. 142857 4 112. factor, the result by another factor, and so on.

3. 25760 + 56.

6. 123456 + 168. Thus, to multiply 352 by 28, since 28=7 x 4,

(2.) How many acres of land, at 35 crowns an acre, can you we can perform the operation as indicated in the margin.

buy for 4650 crowns. 9855 = 23 x 352

(3.) A man divided 837 crowns equally among 27 persons, EXERCISE 10.

who belonged to three families, each family containing nine per

sons: how many crowns did each person receive ? (1.) Resolve the following sets of numbers into their factors :

(4.) A man bought a quantity of clover seed amounting to 1, 9, 10, 14, 22.

4, 8, 16, 18, 20, 21. 507 pints, which he wished to divide into parcels containing 64 2, 35, 54, 56, 03.

5, 27, 32, 36, 40, 48,

pints each: how many parcels can he make ? 3, 45, 72, 64, 81, 96.

6, 12, 28, 54, 72, 84, (2.) What will 24 horses cost at 74 crowns apiece.

5. Multiplying and dividing by powers of 10, and by numbers (3.) What will 45 hogsheads of tobacco cost, at 128 crowns ending in any number of ciphers. a hogshead ?

The products of two tens, three tens, four tens, etc., are called (4.) What will 54 acres of land cost, at 150 crowns per acre ? respectively the second, third, fourth, etc., powers of 10. They

(5.) At 118 shillings per week, how much will it cost a family are 100, 1000, 10000, etc. Thus, the second power is 1 followed to board 49 weeks?

by two ciphers, the third 1 followed by three ciphers, and so (6.) If a man travel at the rate of 72 miles a day, how far on; the number of the ciphers in each case being the same as will he travel in 64 days?

that of the power. (7.) At 163 crowns per ton, how much will 72 tons of lead It has been already explained that to multiply by 10, or any cost?

power of 10, we have only to annex to the multiplicand the (8.) What will 81 pieces of broadcloth cost, at 245 shillings number of ciphers corresponding to the power. Thus, 345 apiece ?

multiplied by 1000 is 345000. (9.) What will 84 carriages cost, at 384 crowns apiece ?

If any number of the right-hand figures in the multiplier be (10.) What will a railway 132 miles in length cost, at the ciphers-as, for instance, in 75000—then, as we have already rate of £1,960 a mile ?

Been in Lesson IV., Art. 5, we need only multiply the multiplicand (11.) If I can walk a mile in 16 minutes, how long will it take by 75, and annex to the product the same number of ciphers, in me to walk 374 miles ?

this case three.

EXERCISE 12 3. Similarly, it will be seen that to divide by any composite number, we have only to divide by one

(1.) Work the following examples in multiplication : factor, then divide the quotient by another

1. 153 186 X 10000.

11. 2370000 X 52. 1408 factor, and so on.

2. 3120 167 X 100000.

12. 48120000 X 48. Thus, to divide 9856 by 28, arrange the

3, 52690078 X 1000000.

13. 856300000 x 74. 4. 689063 157 X 10000000.

14. 1623000000 x 89. 332 Answer. process as indicated in the margin.

5. 4946030506 X 100000000.

15. 540000 x 700. In this case there is no remainder. But suppose it be re- 6. 87831206507 * 1000000000.

16. 1563800 X 20000. quired to divide 9873 by 28.

7. 67856005109 X 10000000000. 17. 31230000 x 120000.
8. 14376 X 25000.

18. 5310200 X 3400000.
Proceeding as beforo, we get a remainder 3 9. 350634 x 410000.

19. 82065000 X 8100000. after the division by 7, and a remainder 2 after 10, 4630425 x 6200000.

20. 210909000 x 5100000. 14103

the division by 4. The first remainder 3 means (2.) What will 10 boxes of lemons cost, at 63 shillings por

3 units; and the 2 which remains after box? 352-2

dividing 1410 by 4, means two sevens of the 1410 (3.) How many bushels of corn will 465 acres of land produce, serens which are contained in 9873. Hence the whole remainder at 100 bushels per acre ? will be 2 sevens + 3 units—i.e., 17.

(4.) Allowing 365 days for a year, how many days are there The process may be exhibited analytically thus:

in 1000 years ? 9873 = 1410 X 7 + 3

(5.) How much will 50 hogs weigh, at 375 pounds apiece ? = 352 X 4 X 7 + 2 * 7 + 3

(6.) If i barrel of flour weighs 192 pounds, how much will = 352 x 28 + 14 + 3

500 barrels weigh ? = 352 x 28 + 17 Therefore 9873 divided by 28 has a quotient 352, and remainder

LESSONS IN GEOMETRY.-III. 17. Hence, when there are two factors, to find the whole remainder, multiply the second remainder into the first divisor,

INSTRUMENTS USED IN PRACTICAL GEOMETRY. and add the first remainder.

In the operations of practical geometry, a case of mathematical 4. If there are more than two factors, similar considerations instruments must be considered as an essential requisite. will show that the following rule will give the whole remainder : These instruments vary in number and quality, according to -- Multiply the last remainder into the continued product of all their price. Some are made of wcod, bone, and ivory--as the divisors but the last, the last but one remainder into the rulers and scales ; cthers are made of brass and steel, German

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