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But stuer oumpound metale, such as companies, drawing are furnished with an arc and tangent screw to fix the legs at shak jou. We will proceed to describe the most any required distance apart. to user war'de to sbow their application,

The Socket Compasses, represented in Fig. 7, are furnished with snis kulity or Stravsht-edge.--This instrument gene- movable points, or pieces, which can be inserted in the socket at

ja tuule beveled edge of the plane or diagonal scale, pleasure, according to the use which is to be made of them. It is ses SIMUL Gruntar o moale, of an ordinary foot rulo, or of a chiefly employed in describing, that is drawing circles, in ink, or in

praw flat rule made with a fine struight edge, for the
nube purpose of drawing straight lines from ono point
to sotter, or through any two points. It is some-
Limes made in the form of a right-angled triangle
(Fig. 1), with a similar edge, to serve the various pur-
power of drawing straight lines, porpendiculars, right-
angled triangles, and parallel straight lines. In the
muchanical arta, a straight line is most readily ob.
tained by fixing a well-chalkod string firmly at both
ends over the placo whoro it is wanted, on a board or

Fig. 8. Fig. 9.

Fig. 10. 4), ruiming it, when tongo (i.e., atrotohod), above the same, and thun letting it drop suddenly, when the white or chalky trace of

pencil, or in mere trace. The tracing. thw string will be marked on tho board or stone as a straight

point in Fig. 7 is furnished with a joint

and a screw, in order to keep it perpenFig. 6.

Fig. 7. The Parallel Ruler, - This vory useful instrument is con

dicular to the paper when the legs are mtructed in a varioty of forms. Thoso represented in Figs. stretched to a great length. The ink-point, represented in Fig. 8, 2, 3, and 4, aro tho most common, and the cheapest. The is furnished with a screw, to admit more or less ink at pleasure, defoot of the construction in Fig. 2 is, that in drawing a parallel with a joint for the same purpose as the tracer, and with a to a atraight line through a givon point, if the latter be at a joint in one of the leaves of the point to admit of its being conuidorablo distanoo from the formor, the ruler may, from its cleaned. The pencil or crayon-point, represented in Fig. 9, is

furnished with a joint for keeping the pencil or crayon per-
pendicular to the paper, and a socket or case for holding it.
The socket compasses are also furnished with a lengthening bar,
represented in Fig. 10, which is furnished with a socket exactly
the same as that of the leg, in order to admit of the
description, that is, the drawing of larger circles than

those which can be drawn only by the use of the
Fig. 3.

movable points and legs of the compasses.

The Bow Compasses, so called because in their
first construction they could be shut up into a hoop,
which served as a handle to them; or the Plug Com-
passes, represented in Fig. 11, and so called because
the stationary leg screws out and in like a plug, are
only used for describing circles of a very small size.

Such compasses are of the greatest utility to draughts-
Fig.

Fig. 11. men and engineers in drawing their plans. The

plug construction seems to present some advantages over the laterul motion, pass the point altogether, and render the old bows. problem magatory. This defect is obviated by the oonstruction in Mige 3 and provided they bo proporly mannged; but this

gement is the result of a little practice. The triangular ruler represented in Fig. 1 being made to slido last a fixed ruler or straight-edge, as represented in Fig. 5, is thyently employed for the purpose of drawing parallel straight des in many cases this apparatus will be found even more

Fig. 12. Party for this purpose than the parallel rulers represented Beam Compases are employed for describing circles of very aderen P s represents the same trianglo in two different large radius, and such as are far beyond the reach of a case of tas ne tiro sparate triangles

mathematical instruments. They consist of a long beam or bar, Ia onler to test the accuracy of a carrying two brass cursors, that is pieces on which it runs. One ruler, let it be applied to one eye, and of these is fixed at one end, and the other slides along viewed along its edge from one end to the beam, and is furnished with a screw to fix it at the other; the slightest departure from any required distance To the cursors may be screwed the straight line will then become points of any kind, whether steel tracers, pencils, or visible A good ruler, besides having crayons or ink points. This apparatas is represented * straight edge, must be perfectly flat in Fig. 12. To the fixed cursor there is sometimes anderen, flexible, and made of well applied an adjusting or micrometer screw, as seen in seasoned wood. Some are made of the figure, to enable a giren distance or radias to be irory, bone, and metal; these are less taken with the greatest nioety. able to be affected by changes in tem In a case of mathematical instruments are also conpertang or by the humidity of the tainel a Thacer and Maring Pen, for drawing straight

atmosphen Parallel straight lines are lines in trace or in ink. These two are usually wont csity own by artists and mechanics with an Fora T jained in one instrument, the tracing point being W of which the form is distinctly noted by the mama serenad into the drawing pen: this instrument

The Of compases there are several kinds. This is represented in Fig. is where the sisuk-point is Instrument, which wwwally consists of two equal legs jointed at winstructed eracts on the same principle as that of weswes employed for measuring the lengths of straight the seket osmas In choosing a drawing pen, it wiring and hug of distance and describing roles is better to select one which has an ink-point made of

whole in oralThe Indes or compasses with German slrerThe steel ink pants are apt to get post on are chioty sed for dividing restrither are not kept anfalls wiped and lines Fig. 13. Auto al parts or inte paris having any other drawn in mink with a steel peated drawing pen soon get

othon The best inde farmished with distral wing to the action of the ink on the metal while

in the wale at the Bank Others in the year

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men

ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY.-III.

outside. The rest of the slugs and snails, which creep on their THE EYE (concluded).

bellies, have eyes somewhat similar, and similarly situated; but

while the garden-snail has four horns, some water-snails have The eyes of the animals lower than fish, none of which have a only two, and the eyes are placed on the outside of these, halfbackbone, and which are called invertebrate animals, are closely way up, while the whip-like extremities act as feelers, as the related to their powers of moving from place to place. If an short horns of the garden-snail do. The lower orders of the animal can dart rapidly about, more especially if it can move mollusca, such as the oyster, etc., have eyes inferior even to swiftly for some time at a stretch, its eyes are usually very these, though they are sometimes numerous and curiously perfect; but if it can only crawl sluggishly, its eyes are of an placed; thus, the kind of oyster which occupies the fan-shell, and inferior structure.

is called a pecten, has a row of eyes running round the edge of If we omit those lowest of all animals, which Cuvier classed the two sides of the animal's cloak, which lines the two shells together as radiate, because their parts were disposed like the that enclose it. spokes of a wheel, the rest are divided into two great sub- The highest class of mollusca have greater power of motion kingdoms. The type of the one, called mollusca, is the snail; than any of the rest, and swim rapidly through the sea, both and of the other, named articulata, the honey-bee is the repro- backwards and forwards, seizing their prey with long, whip-like sentative.

arms: and these creatures have large and elaborate eyes, not unlike It is impossible to say which of these two sub-kingdoms is those of animals, but even more complex in some respects; for the highest, but they are very different. That of which the there is not only a thin retina to receive the light, backed, as the insect is the type is noted for the swiftness and agility of the retina always is, by a black membrane, but behind this choroid movements of the animals that form it; while the other is equally is another expanded retina, as though this had some other office remarkable for the

than to receive im. sluggishness of

II.

pressions. Perhaps the species which

somo process anaIncompose it. III.

logous to the dedeed, the word

velopment of the just used is de.

image in the dark rived from this

room of the phopeculiarity in the

tographer is ef. slag.

8

fected in this sin. These peculiari.

gularly situated ties are, however,

organ. The creabut general ones,

ture whose large applying to most,

eyes

have just but not all the

been species of each

tioned has been sub-kingdom ; for

introduced as each sub-kingdom

prominent chacontains several

racter in Victor thousands of dif.

Hugo's "Toilers ferent kinds of

IV.

of the Sea," and animals. Thus we

the description is find some insects

probably about as more inert than

faithful as the demost slugs, and

scription of brisome of the slug

gands and other class as active as

horrors described many insects.

by novelists usuIn accordance

ally are. with what has

I. VERTICAL SECTION OF THE EYE OF AN INSECT. II. THE LENSES AND CONES ENLARGED. III. Turning now to been written, the FRONT OF HEAD OF DRAGON-FLY, SHOWING THE POSITION OF THE COMPOUND Eyes. IV. FRONT the articulate subeye of the garden- OP HEAD OF WASP, SHOWING THREE SIMPLE AND Two COMPOUND EYES. V. SIDE or CATER- kingdom, we find mail is evidently PILLAR'S HEAD, WITH THREE EYES.

in it eyes of the an organ not at Rel. to Nos. in Figs. I., II.-1, surface lens ; 1', layer of paint (iris); 2, cone, vitreous humour; most remarkable all comparable to

3, special optic nerve; 4, common pigment; 5, common retina ; 6, secondary optic nerves ; description. They eyes we have de7, main nerve.

are best explained scribed as those of

by the diagram. the higher classes. This eye is situated at the end of the longer If we examine the head of a wasp or bee, we find on the top and upper pair of horns, and is only exposed when these are at of the head, looking towards the sky, three eyes set in a their longest. Even when so exposed its sense of sight is so triangle. These eyes are simple, and not unlike the eyes of obtuse that it seems only conscious of light and darkness, as our other creatures ; but besides these, on the side of the head, skin makes us conscious of heat and cold, and has no knowledge stretching almost from its crown to the jaws beneath, are two of images. The organ seems little better than a refined organ of compound eyes, which, under the microscope, are seen to touch, for garden-snails will withdraw their eyes far sooner if present innumerable six-sided spaces, which look like the ends blown upon, or the hand be placed between them and the light, of the cells of a honeycomb. On dissection, each of these six. than when threatened by the fingers. Nevertheless, the eye sided faces is found to be the outer surface of a double convex has a spherical lens, sclerotic, choroid, and retina, but all of lens, behind which is a layer of black paint, which is comparavery simple structure. The most remarkable circumstance con- tively thick at the edges of the lens, but thin towards the nected with this eye is that it can be retracted by drawing centre, where a hole is left through its middle. This hole is the it down through the tubular horn, as one might draw the end of pupil. Behind the pigment is a cone of transparent matter, the finger of a glove down through the rest of the finger; and whose point is directed inwards, and embracing this point is the this is done by a special muscle, which is a slip of the great end of a nerve thread. The threads from each eyelet run muscular band, with which the snail draws in, not only its horns, inwards to a sheet of nervous matter common to the whole eye, but its whole head, strongly though slowly.

and from this sheet other nerve cords, but much fewer in The eye is exposed by a successive contraction of the circular number than the first, run to the main thick optic nerve. The anscles which are round the horn, beginning at the base and space between the nerve cords is filled up with black paint, so ending at the top; this action has the same effect on the parts of that each can only receive impressions from its end. An insect, the tabe, and finally upon the eye, as driving a coin into the end therefore, one would think, receives thousands of distinct of an old-fashioned purse by the aid of a ring which slides on the pictures; but whether it so harmonises them in its common

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par une w ba sa MVP A only one, as we are though we have As I wish to make everything clear as we proceed, I will

enter here a little more into this matter. pole vyak txWe neem to be used for distant objects, A proposition is the enunciation or statement of a thought or

* ud over with rod wealing-wax dissolved in a fact. Thus, fire burns ; you are good; boys love play, are

t to blind them, the innect has no power of each a proposition. Of course the statement must be complete, na tayot but wors straight upward towards the sky. or there is no proposition. What you say must make sense in

*Pse kompaund ayos must bo usod, thorofore, for near itself, or there is no proposition, but only one word or more. biz Abd ne thing wrotih round the head and look overy way, Thus, if, instead of saying fire burns, you say merely fire, or burns,

muy burt mura thainut much trouble in turning the head as it you do not utter a proposition, for you do not make a statement. Nidor in an out the bello and tubos of flowors searching for If you affirm you are, I naturally ask, what? for you have left dummy and pollum.

the sentence unfinished. So if you declare that boys love, the Taberlers and crabs, belonging to nnother order of the jointed question arises, what? and only when you have added the www, havo Mimilar oyou, but thoy aro sot on a two-jointed word play, do you finish the sentence by making the sense held in and the foot aro muaro, and not six-sided.

complete. I'm kind of myo, however, is by no monns found in all animals Now, of the three propositions given above, the first is the of the mub kingdom, Tho wholo tribo of spiders has only shortest. It is indeed a specimen of the simplest proposition mmple wyce, but there are mually eight of them set in two there is, or can be. Less than two words, then, cannot in pow on the front part of tho head.

English form a proposition. But of what does this proposition It is singular to and also that ontorpillars, thongh they consist? It consists of the noun fire, and the verb burns. exhibit benenth the skin of the head indications of the com. Hence you learn that in every sentence there must be at least poumi oyo, whioli an butterflies they afterwards possess, have a noun or pronoun, and a verb. The noun, you see, is the totally different temporary ayos, nix on each side placed in a subject of the proposition, for it is the agent or the cause of half trolo junt above the jawa.

action. In grammar, we have also a designation for the verb; Home of the lower families of jointed animals have but one we say the verb burns is the predicate. By the predicate of a nyo, in the middle of their houds, and this of peouliar structure, proposition, we mean that which is asserted or declared of the intermodinte borwoon a simple and a compound ere. One of subject. What is here asserted ? this, namely, that fire burns ; Chond is lonco onllo pelops.

burns, then, is the predicate. Amonda lho animal of lower grade than those of the soft slug- In this case, the predicate is one word, a verb. Sometimes like and the jointed mub kingiom, little has been made out about the predicate consists of two words. It may even comprise tho orgull of vision, In many of them specks of colour with a , several words. In the instance given above, you are good, the nere running them are found; but as we cannot ask these predicate is, are good. Hence, the predicate consists of the verb animala what their sutions are, and their intelligenco is of solare, and the adjective good. The former predicate, burns, was a low an ander that we can infer but little from their movements, simple predicate ; this predicate is a compound predicate. Now, Wevan only continuare them to be crus

this compound predicate has two parts; first, the verb are, Thus, the partish has spoks at the ends of its nars, and the which is called the copula, or link; and the adjective good,

Por may have more the beautiful blue knobs which appear which is called the attribute, or that quality which is ascribed and houraide of the base of the arms of the common sets to the subjeet you. Thus explained, the sentence stands as ** An it has fails opened. The gnat feating jelly-fish, follows:M * 0 1* **** from * ship reminds one of an animated

Predicate. umila MAX * d the aim where the whalebone ANNA All these and then sund other structures

Copia

Attribute. Not to do made in for the heat; bat prohabir the impres.

You

geod. **** ***** As faint and all compani to the rired thi tv pred to the other higher animals as she to modify the case. It is as it staads an airmative sentence.

Yon will easily see how this sentence may receive additions dimmer, ***** drones to the infant where is not yet By adding to ex me make it a negative sentence. You

. minerardi manding her is scrade when war als) qualify the stribute and be prefiring an adverb, as, sexes Which is married

mani I rea wide a make it isregates, sru hare only

arnt the end and the su sad say, are you good ?

In the hand of the incas given above, there is a rather denet kind of estan dars is par.

Now, wag * Iste jas said boys is the subject, INNS IN LATIX.-IV.

me the ages are ed in the object The difference VIS AXIS ANDARDS

here is that instead of en stor bete te caddeste, you have imit te whare by Sarom the entien The propusten rad logins, stands thas:

re

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But here we have a compound sentence, a complex or double Latin they do undergo a change ; and that change is at the end proposition. As it stood before, it was a single sentence. A of the adjective, as it is at the end of the noun. A change for single sentence is the statement of one fact or one thought. another purpose takes place at the end of nouns and adjectives Two facts are mentioned in the last state of the sentence. Those in Latin. By such changes gender or sex is denoted.

In Engtwo facts are these, I mentioned some boys, and boys love play. lish, you know, we say, good bride, good bridegroom ; that is, And these two facts are so stated that the sense of the one is good is the same whether it qualify a feminine or a masculine not complete without the sense of the other, for you do not say noun. Not so in Latin. In Latin, good in the former instance merely I mentioned some boys, and boys love play; but the boys would be bona ; in the latter, bonus. So sponsus, bridegroom, chom I mentioned love play. You thus see that the one pro- becomes in the feminine, sponsa, bride. position is intimately connected with the other. Consequently, i compound sentence, such as I have now presented to you,

KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN LATIN.-III. is a sentence within a sentence. Of these two sentences, the one is the principal, the other the subordinate one. The

EXERCISE 5.-LATIN-ENGLISH. subordinate sentence is that which is introduced by the rela- 1. Thou owest (oughtest). 2. He teaches. 3. He is exercised.

7. We move. tive pronoun whom; the principal sentence is that into which 4. We flourish. 5. You rejoice. 6. They are bitten. the subordinate sentence is introduced; as you see in this 8. You move. 9. They move. 10. Thou fearest. 11. He fears. 12. He

is frightened. 13. You are frightened. 14. I owe (that is, I ought) diagram :-

to obey. 15. If you obey you are praised. 16. If we are silent we are Principal

Sentence.

praised. 17. Thou art taught and art educated. 18. They are silent The bad boys

always love much play. and are praised. 19. I am bitten and am wounded. 20. If thou Subordinate Sentence.

woundest thou art blamed. 21. They are held. whom I mentioned.

EXERCISE 6.-ENGLISH-LATIN. Revert now to the single sentence.

1. Times et terreris. 2. Si taceo vituperor. 3. Gaudet. 4. GauPredicate.

demus. 5. Gaudent. 6. Tentat mordere. Subject.

7. Tentamus educare. 8. Pares et laudaris. 9. Mordemus. 10. Si mordemus vituperamur. Copula.

Object.

11. Exercent. 12. Movemini. 13. Saltat. 14. Delectantur. 15. The dog bit

Ornamini. å man,

EXERCISE 7.-LATIN-ENGLISH. and turn the sentence, thus :

1. Thou deceivest. 2. He is deceived. 3. We are deceived. 4. I Subject.

Predicate.

deceive and am blamed. 5. He yields. 6. Thou readest. 7. He

writes. 8. He reads well. 9. Thou deceivest greatly. 10. If he is Copula.

Object.

loved he rejoices. 11. We are pricked. 12. Thou conquerest. 13. We The man

bit

a dog.

are conquered. 14. They are conquered. 15. He falls. 16. Thoa What I wish to set before you is, that dog and man remain the slavest. 17. If thou slayest thou art blamed. 18. He reminds same in form, they are unchanged in this respect, whether they moved. 21. We dance and rejoice. 22. He is injured. 23. You are

19. Thou art badly educated. 20. We are greatly form the subject or the object of a proposition. In Latin, it is injured. 24. You defend. 25. They are defended. 26. I am loved. not so. In Latin, the former sentence or statement is,

EXERCISE 8.-ENGLISH-LATIN. Subject.

Object. Canis momordit

hominem.

1. Pareo. 2. Si pareo diligor. 3. Valde diligitur. 4. Scribit bene,

5. Pingunt male. 6. Saltant bene. 7. Gaudeo si valde legit. 8. PinThe latter sentence is,

gis. 9. Parent et laudantur. 10. Si regitis bene diligimini, 11. De

fendunt. 12. Defendimini. 13. Fallitur. 14. Punguntur. Subject.

Object. Homo momordit

EXERCISE 9.-LATIN-ENGLISH. A change, you see, has taken place: the subject, canis, has be- 1. Thou guardest. 2. He is supported. 3. He comes. 4. Why

6. He is instructed. 7. Thou come the object, canem ; and the subject, homo, has become the sleepest thou? 5. He sleeps well. dhject, hominem. A similar change takes place in the Latin prickest. 8. He slays. 9. Thou deceivest greatly. 10. He is heard. adjectives ; as thus :

11. If thou sleepest much thou art punished. 12. He finds. 13. If

thou instructest well thou art praised. 14. He is bound. 15. Why Subject.

Object.

art thou silent P 16. He is silent and is punished. 17. They are Malus canis

momordit
bonum hominem found. 18. Thou art clothed. 19. They are well clothed.

20. If you A bad dog

a good nan. are clothed well you are delighted. 21. They are badly instructed.

22. If thou art conquered thou art bound. Invert the statement,

EXERCISE 10.-ENGLISH-LATIN. Subject.

Object.

1. Cur occidis. 2. Custoditur. 3. Custodiunt. 4. Si custodimini Bonus homo

malum canem. momordit

vincimini. 5. Vituperat et punit. 6. Audit et eruditur. 7. Bene A good man bit

educamini. 8. Valde dormis. 9. Legunt. 10. Si saltatis delectaHence you learn that the subject and the object are, in Latin, mini. 11. Fulcitur. 12. Cur puniuntur? 13. Audiuntur. 14. Male marked by different terminations in the nouns and the adjec- vestior. 15, Feriuntur et monentur. tives.

EXERCISE 11.-LATIN-ENGLISH. Diversities of termination are used in Latin to mark number

1. I yield. 2. Thou readest. 3. We move. in nouns and adjectives. In English we say good boy and good

4. Thou art exercised. boys, denoting the plural by adding s to a noun, but leaving the 8. Why dost thou read badly?

5. They bite. 6. They flourish and rejoice. 7. He tries to read.

9. He sleeps badly. 10. Thou adjective the same in the plural as it is in the singular. In art much loved. 11. You are conquered. 12. They write well. 13. Latin, however, both adjective and noun undergo a change in If you paint well you are praised. 14. We are defended. 15. We passing from the singular into the plurol, thus :

strike. 16. Why do you punish ? 17. We are clothed. 18. We Singular. but in the

Plural.

bind. 19. We are conquered. 20. We are bound. 21. You conquer. bonus puer

boni pueri

22. Thou art guarded. 23. He is adorned. 24. They are praised.

25. We are feared. 26. Thou fearest much. 27. You are bitten. good boy,

good boys,

28. We educate. 29. They dance badly. where, observe, us has become i, and 7 has become ri. You thus see that there are two ways of forming the plural in Latin ;

EXERCISE 12.-ENGLISH-LATIN. first, by changing the termination, as us is changed into i; or

1. Cedunt. 2. Si ceditis vincimini. 3. Si vincimini vincimini. 4. by adding to the termination, as r becomes ri, by the addition

Fulcior. 5. Dormiunt. 6. Cur puniunt ? 7. Cur puniuntur ? 8. of i. If, instead of operating on us, you operate on the stem

Male vestimini. 9. Vincis, 10. Vinceris. 11. Vincis. 12. Vincíris. bon, then the plural in both cases is formed by addition, and in

13. Pungunt. 14. Punguntur. 15. Cur moves ? both by the addition of i. Instead of i, sometimes es, and some

EXERCISE 13.-LATIN-ENGLISH. times us is added to form the plural. But that which I now

1. We are good. 2. He is good. 3. Thou art good. 4. I am not particularly wish you to mark is, that while in English adjectives good. 5. He is blind. 6. He is not blind. 7. They are very learned. undergo no change in standing before nouns in the plural, in the 8. You are safe. 9. You are not safe. 10. I am unlearned. 11. You

canem.

bit

a bad dog.

are unlearned. 12. He is not unlearned. 13. Thou art very learned. | their birthplace and their residence. “ The fiction of the Amar 14. Why art thou bad ? 15. I am not bad. 16. We are good. 17. He zons,” says M. Humboldt, " has travelled over all the zones; it is unlearned. 18. Why art thou unlearned ? 19. I am not unlearned. belongs to a complete circle, which proceeds from the reveries 20. We are safe. 21. Safe are we. 22, Thou art learned and safe.

and ideas in which the poetic or religious imagination of all EXERCISE 14.-ENGLISH-LATIN.

races of men, and of all periods, instinctively performs its evo

lutions." 1. Doctus sum. 2. Non sum doctus. 3. Doctus est. 4. Docti sunt.

The Arabians, by a series of brilliant conquests under the 5. Mali estis. 6. Non estis mali. 7. Bonus es. 8. Boni sunt. 9. Non sunt boni. 10. Cur boni non sunt? or, Cur non sunt boni?

successors of one of the greatest impostors the world ever saw, 11. Cæcus est. 12. Non est cæcus. 13. Cur est cæcus ? 14. Non es had reached a state of comparative ease and power, and had indoctus. 15. Cæcus es et non salvas, or, Cæcus et non salvus es. devoted themselves during the dark ages of Christianity to the 16. Cæci sunt. 17. Boni et salvi estis. 18. Valde indoctus est. study of the exact sciences, in as far as they had escaped the

ravages of one of their own princes, who destroyed the library

of Alexandria, which contained the treasures of the remotest LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY.-IV.

ages. Geography, in connection with astronomy, was one of

the most interesting subjects of their investigation. But their ARABIAN NOTIONS-EUROPEAN TRAVELS—DISCOVERY OF cosmological system was scarcely less absurd than that of the AMERICA.

ancients. They divided the world into seven climates, and each From the time of Ptolemy down to the tenth century of the climate into a certain number of regions. Although some of Christian era, no geographical work appeared, either to supply the Arabs had made long voyages, and one of their geographers the place of his, or to add to the knowledge which it conveyed. had actually explored Africa as far as the Niger, or Joliba, and The invasion of the Roman empire by the northern hordes, the the region in which is situated the famous Timbuctoo, still general anarchy which followed, and the seclusion into which their knowledge of this continent was very incomplete. They literature was driven, produced a retrogression of all the arts always made the Indian Ocean an inland sea; and although and sciences, and especially of geography. A proper judgment they were familiar with the use of the astrolabe (an instrument may be formed of the ignorance which prevailed in this science similar to a quadrant) and the mariner's compass, they were immediately anterior to the time of the crusades, by inspecting afraid to navigate the open seas, a fact which contributed to a map of the world published at that period. The sea, as in their continued ignorance. One of the most learned Arabian the age of Homer, is made to surround the world, which is geographers of the twelfth century, Edrisi by name, the same divided into three parts, Europe, Asia, and Africa. Asia is as who constructed for Roger, king of Sicily, the famous silver large as the other two parts; Africa is joined to Asia on the planisphere which weighed 800 marcs (about 400 lb.), had the south, and the Indian Ocean is made an inland sea. On the most singular ideas of the terrestrial globe. He fancied that all east, there is a small place indicating the position of the garden the people of the world lived in the northern regions; that the of Eden, by the words Hic est paradisus. Europe and Asia southern regions were desert on account of the sun's heat; that are separated from Africa by a very long canal, which some the latter were situated in its lower part; and that, consebelieved to be the Nile, others the Hellespont, and others again quently, all the waters were dried up, and that no living being the Indian Ocean. Africa is considered the country of fable could exist in those regions. He asserted that the ocean and mystery; its northern part only is seen, the rest is unap- entirely enveloped the globe like a circular zone, so that only proachable on account of the torrents of flame poured on it by one part appeared like an egg partly immersed in water in a the sun. After the discovery of the Canary Isles and Cape vessel. He placed Africa in the first climate, which commenced Bojador, geographers represented in one of these islands the at the western sea, called the Sea of Darkness ; and beyond this figures of colossal statues brandishing formidable clubs to warn all existence became impossible. He speaks of the two islands navigators that they must not go beyond this point.

called the Fortunate Islands (the Canaries), from which, as the A fantastic dream, filled with chimeras and ridiculous sights, first meridian, Ptolemy reckoned his longitudes. Such was the hovered over the world during the middle ages. The cosmo- state of geographical knowledge among the most learned of the logical theories then rife, were inferior to the happy notions Arabians. which prevailed in pagan antiquity. Light, however, had begun The call to arms against the infidels, in the various crusades to dawn. At the commencement of the eighth century, pious or holy wars which extended over the greater part of the monks had retired into Ireland and the Faroe Isles. In A.D. thirteenth century, drew the attention of Europe to the East. 795 Christian missionaries had visited Iceland, which was This was the epoch of the travels of Carpini, of Rubruquis, and considered as the ancient Thule of Pytheas. In A.D. 855 the of Ascelin in Tartary. These adventurers, after they had Norwegians landed on this island; proceeding farther west, travelled along the shores of the Caspian Sea to its northern they reached Greenland, and enlarged the boundary of geogra- extremity, reached Karakorum, the capital of the empire of phical knowledge. Certain writers have advanced the opinion Cathay (China), situate on the Orchou, a tributary of the that the problem of a communication between the Atlantic Selinga. The narratives of Ascelin and Carpini reveal the Ocean and the great ocean, now called the Pacific, was really existence of numerous tribes in a part of the world hitherto current among the maritime people of that period. It is never believed by geographers to be occupied by the ocean. “Eoüs," theless an historical fact that America had been discovered by says a modern historian, “ that fabulous sea of antiquity, the the Scandinavians at this remote period. Yet the discovery of bed of Aurora, disappeared for ever, and hordes of savages, es Greenland detracts nothing from the glory of Columbus. The well as nations of powerful and warlike people, emerged at once hardy adventurers of Norway were the first who penetrated into from its imaginary waters." the midst of the mountains of ice which bristle round the con. The celebrated travels of Marco Polo took place towards the fines of the polar countries. We are equally struck with end of the thirteenth century, from 1271 to 1297. They made wonder and admiration at their daring courage, in reading the known the centre and the eastern extremity of Asia, Japan, history of the eighth, ninth, and tenth centuries, when we find part of the islands of the Eastern Archipelago, and of the code that all the known seas were during this period covered with tinent of Africa, and the large island of Madagascar. Among the vessels of the Scandinavians. The conquests of these the descriptions of the illustrious Venetian, that of China was pirates in Enrope are well known. Their voyages in the icy the most curious and important; it was a complete disclosure regions are almost unknown to the general reader.

of that empire, which had been hitherto almost an enigma to The expeditions we have now referred to were turned to some Europe. After long and continued suspicions of exaggeration advantage by the geographers of the period, but all the light in his narrative, the assertions of Marco Polo have been, after they were calculated to give was not rendered available. The careful examination, acknowledged to be correct and agreeable learned writers of the tenth, eleventh, and twelfth centuries to fact. It is with justice, therefore, that this traveller has still believed the Frozen Ocean, the Baltic Sea, the White Sea, been styled the founder of the modern geography of Asia. A and the Caspian Sea to be united. They believed that all the very considerable time elapsed before any addition was made to northern regions formed only one island. Then the Amazons, the brilliant discoveries of the Venetian; but the testimony of those famous maiors, whose country antiquity had placed to other travellers was not long wanting to confirm his original the north

s, were now removed to the countries statements. Oderic, of Portenan, visited India and China from news ។

Yth of Europe. Scandinavia became 1320 to 1330 ; Schiltberger, of Munich, accompanied Tamerlane

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